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Tamil board, ssc, Chapter 8, Nationalism, Gandhian Phase, samacheer kalvi,

I. Choose the correct answer

Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

Who was arrested during the anti*Rowlatt protests in Amritsar?

(a) Motilal Nehru

(b) Saifuddin Kitchlew

(c) Mohamed Ali

(d) Raj Kumar Shukla

Answer:

(b) Saifuddin Kitchlew

Question 2.

In which session of the Indian National Congress was Non-Cooperation approved?

(a) Bombay

(b) Madras

(c) Lucknow

(d) Nagpur

Answer:

(d) Nagpur

Question 3.

Which among the following was declared as ‘Independence Day’?

(a) 26th January 1930

(b) 26th December 1929

(c) 16th June 1946

(d) 15th January 1947

Answer:

(a) 26th January 1930

Question 4.

When was the first Forest Act enacted?

(a) 1858

(b) 1911

(c) 1865

(d) 1936

Answer:

(c) 1865

Question 5.

On 8 January 1933 which day was observed

(a) Temple Entry Day

(b) Day of Deliverance

(c) Direct Action Day

(d) Independence Day

Answer:

(a) Temple Entry Day

Question 6.

Which Act introduced Provincial Autonomy?

(a) 1858 Act

(b) Indian Councils Act, 1909

(c) Government of India Act, 1919

(d) Government of India Act, 1935

Answer:

(d) Government of India Act, 1935

Question 7.

Who defeated Pattabhi Sitaramaya, Gandhi’s candidate, and became the President of the Congress in 1939?

(a) Rajendra Prasad

(b) Jawaharlal Nehru

(c) Subhas Chandra Bose

(d) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

Answer:

(c) Subhas Chandra Bose

Question 8.

Where was Gandhi when India attained independence on 15th August 1947?

(a) New Delhi

(b) Ahmedabad

(c) Wardha

(d) Noakhali

Answer:

(d) Noakhali

II. Fill in the blanks

Gandhi was thrown out of the first class compartment in ………………… station.

Gandhi regarded ………………… as his political guru.

Khilafat Movement was led by …………………

Government of India Act 1919 introduced ………………… in the provinces.

The Civil Disobedience Movement in North West Frontier Province was led by …………………

Ramsay Macdonald announced ………………… which provided separate electorates to the minorities and the depressed classes.

………………… established Congress Radio underground during the Quit India Movement.

………………… coined the term ‘Pakistan’.

Answers:

pietermaritzburg

Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Ali brothers

dyarchy

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

Communal award

Ushamehta

RahmatAli

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) The Communist Party of India was founded in Tashkent in 1920.

(ii) M. Singaravelar was tried in the Kanpur Conspiracy Case.

(iii) The Congress Socialist Party was formed by Jayaprakash Narayah, Acharya Narendra Dev and Mino Masani.

(iv) The Socialists did not participate in the Quit India Movement.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iv) is correct

(d) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Answer:

(d) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) Hindustan Republican Army was formed in Kanpur in 1924.

(ii) Ram Prasad Bismil was tried in the Kakori Conspiracy Case.

(iii) Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was formed by Surya Sen.

(iv) Chittagong Armoury Raid was carried out by B.K. Dutt.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iii) is correct

(d) (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 3.

Assertion: The Congress attended the First Round Table Conference. Reason: Gandhi-lrwin Pact enabled the Congress to attend the Second Round Table Conference.

(a) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

(b) A is correct but R is wrong.

(c) A is wrong but R is correct.

(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(c) A is wrong but R is correct.

Question 4.

Assertion: The Congress Ministries resigned in 1939.

Reason: The Colonial government of India entered the war without consulting the elected Congress ministries.

(a) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

(b) A is correct but R is wrong.

(c) Both A and R are wrong.

(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

IV. Match the following

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (i)

C. (ii)

D. (iii)

E. (iv)

V. Answer the following briefly

Question 1.

Describe the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

Answer:

On 13 April 1919, a public meeting was organised at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar in defiance of the Rowlatt Act. As it happened to be Baisaki Day, thousands of villagers had gathered there to enjoy the day together. General Reginald Dyer, on hearing the assemblage, surrounded the place with his troops and an armoured vehicle. He blocked the only entrance to the park and ordered his troops to fire without any warning. The firing continued for ten minutes in which about 370 were killed and more than thousand injured. However, an unofficial estimates put the death toll at more than thousand. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre is a big scar on the British Indian history.

Question 2.

Write a note on the Khilafat Movement.

Answer:

After the end of first World war in 1918 Caliph the Muslim head in Turkey was ill treated.

A movement was started his support Khilafat movement led by the Ali brothers, Maulana Mohamed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali.

It aimed to restore the prestige and power of the Caliphate.

Gandhiji saw Khilafat movement as an opportunity to unite Hindus and Muslims.

On 9th June 1920 the Khilafat committee in Allahabad adopted Gandhi’s non – violent, non – co-operation programme.

Question 3.

Why did Gandhi withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Answer:

The Non-cooperation Movement started in 1920. It soon became a nation-wide movement because it got support from the people across the country. But in February 1922, a violent incident occurred at Chauri Chaura, a village near Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh. In this incident a procession of nationalists provoked by the police turned violent. The police finding themselves outnumbered shut themselves inside the police station. The mob burnt the police station in which 22 policemen lost their lives. The incident hurt Gandhiji too much and he immediately withdrew the movement.

Question 4.

What was the conflict between the Swarajists and no-changers?

Answer:

The pro – changers (Swarajis) led by motilal Nehru and C.R. Das were the congressmen who wanted to contest the elections and enter the legislature.

They argued that the national interest could be promoted by working in the legislative councils under Dyarchy and the colonial Government could be wrecked within.

But on the other hand the followers of Gandhiji (no – changers) like Patel and C. Rajaji wanted to continue Non – Cooperation with the Government.

This was the conflict between the Swarajis and the no – changers.

Question 5.

Why was Simon Commission boycotted?

Answer:

On 8 November 1927, the British Government announced the appointment of the Indian Statutory Commission. It was composed of seven members headed by Sir John Simon which came to be known as the Simon Commission. When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, millions of Indians were infuriated with the idea of an all- British committee writing proposals for Indian constitutional reforms without any member or consultations with the people of India. The Commission was, therefore, boycotted everywhere. Holding black flag in their hands the protesters shouted, “Go back Simon”.

Question 6.

What is Poorna Swaraj?

Answer:

In the congress session held in Lahore in December 1929 with Jawaharlal Nehru as the president declared “Poorna Swaraj” (complete independence) as the goal.

To attain Poorna Swaraj it was decided to boycott the round Table conference and launch a Civil Disobedience Movement.

26th January 1930 was declared as Independence Day.

A pledge was taken all over the country to attain ‘Poorna Swaraj’ non – violently.

Question 7.

Write a note on Bhagat Singh.

Answer:

Bhagat Singh was an Indian socialist revolutionary whose two acts of dramatic violence against the British in India and the execution at the age of 23 made him a folk hero of the Indian Independence Movement. Bhagat Singh along with B. K. Dutt threw a smoke bomb inside the Central Legislative Assembly in 1929.

It was not intended to hurt anyone. They threw pamphlets and shouted ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ and ‘Long Live the Proletariat’. He along with Rajguru was arrested and sentenced to death. Bhagat Singh’s daring act fired the imagination of the youth across India and he became popular.

Question 8.

What are the terms of the Poona Pact?

Answer:

An agreement arrived between Gandhiji and Ambedkar came to be known as ‘Poona pact’. It’s main terms were.

Principle of joint electorate was accepted with reservation of seats for the depressed classes.

Number of seats allotted has increased from 71 to 148.

In the central legislature 18% of the seats were reserved for the depressed classes.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption

Question 1.

Gandhi and Mass nationalism.

(a) Which incident is considered a turning point in the life of Gandhi?

Answer:

On his journey from Durban to Pretoria, at the Pietermaritzburg railway station, he was physically thrown out of the first-class compartment in which he was travelling despite having a first class ticket. This incident is considered a turning point in the life of Gandhi.

(b) Name the works that influenced Gandhi?

Answer:

Tolstoy’s The Kingdom of God is Within You, Ruskin’s Unto This Last and Thoreau’s Civil Disobedience.

(c) How did Gandhi use satyagraha as a strategy in South Africa?

Answer:

Gandhi developed satyagraha (truth-force) as a strategy, in which campaigners went on peaceful marches and presented themselves for arrest in protest against unjust laws.

(d) What do you know about the Champaran Satyagraha?

Answer:

The Champaran Satyagraha of 1916 was the first satyagraha movement inspired by Gandhi. It was a farmer’s uprising that took place in Champaran district of Bihar, India during the British colonial period.

Question 2.

Constructive Programme of Gandhi

(a) What is constructive programme?

Answer:

After the chauri chaura incident, Gandhiji felt that the volunteers and the people had to be trained for a non – violent struggle, and take up in hand the youth of the country and make them the real soldiers of Swaraj. This is the constructive programme, Gandhiji wanted to implement. More over he focussed on promoting khadhi, Hindu – Muslim unity and the abolition of untouchability.

(b) What did Gandhi exhort the Congressmen to do?

Answer:

He exhorted the congressmen to go throughout their districts and spread the message of Khaddar, Hindu – Muslim unity and anti – untouchability.

(c) How did Gandhi try to bring about Hindu-Muslim unity?

Answer:

Gandhiji undertook a 21 days fast in between 1924 to appeal to the hearts of the Hindus and Muslims involved in communal politics.

(d) What is the contribution of Gandhi towards abolition of untouchability?

Answer:

Gandhiji made his life’s mission to wipe out untouchability. He sought to abolish the pernicious custom of untouchability not the caste system. He undertook an all India tour called the Harijan (Children of God) Tour.

He started the “Harijan Sevak Sangh’ to work for the removal of discrimination.

He worked to promote education, cleanliness and hygiene and giving up of liquour among the depressed class.

He also undertook two fasts in 1933 for this cause.

An important part of his campaign was the ‘Temple Entry Movement”.

He took the message of Nationalism to the grass roots by his work among the depressed classes and tribals.

Question 3.

Subash Chandra Bose and INA

(a) How did Subhas Chandra Bose reach Japan?

Answer:

First he went to Germany, from there he made his way to Japan on a submarine and took control of the Indian National Army.

(b) Who headed the women wing of Indian National Army?

Answer:

Lakshmi Sahgal headed the women wing of the Indian National Army.

(c) How did Subash Chandra Bose reorganize the INA?

Answer:

Bose reorganised the INA into three brigade: Gandhi Brigade, Nehru Brigade and a women’s brigade named after Rani Lakshmi Bai.

(d) Name the slogan provided by Subash Chandra Bose.

Answer:

He gave the slogan ‘Dilli Chalo’.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Examine the factors that led to the transformation of Gandhi into a mass leader.

Answer:

The factors that led to the transformation of Gandhiji into a mass leader are given below:

(i) Mahatma Gandhi arrived in India in 1915 from South Africa after fighting for the civil rights of the Indians therefor about twenty years. He brought with him a new impulse to Indian politics.

(ii) He introduced a new instrument Satyagraha, which he had perfected in South Africa, that could be practiced by men and women, young and old. As a person dedicated to the cause of the poorest of the poor, he instantly gained the goodwill of the masses.

(iii) Unlike the constitutionalists who appealed to the British sense of justice and the militants who confronted the repression of the colonial state violently, Gandhiji adopted non-violent methods to mobilize the masses and mount pressure on the British.

(iv His Champaran Satyagraha of 1916 earned immense success. This followed by his fruitful intervention in the Ahmedabad mill strike and the Kheda Satyagraha in 1918. These factors helped Gandhiji establish as a leader of mass struggle.

(v) The people from across the country began to support him whole-heartedly. They found in him all the qualities of a mass leader. So, they loved him and were ready to do what he said. They showed immense faith in him because they were sure Gandhiji would bring freedom for them.

Question 2.

Critically examine the Civil Disobedience Movement as the typical example of Gandhian movement,

Answer:

The congress session held in Lahore in December 1929 declared Pooma Swaraj-was declared as the goal,

Gandhi launched the civil Disobedience movement on 12th March 1930. Defying salt tax was a brilliant tactical’ decision taken by him.

It transformed civil disobedience movement into a mass movement drawing all sections of society including women to the streets.

To break the salt law he undertook a long March from Sabarmathi Ashram to Dandi covered nearly 24 miles in 24 days at the age 61.

He set out from Sabarmathi Ashram with 78 followers.

The procession became larger and larger when hundreds joined them along the March.

Gandhi reached Dandi on 5th April 1930.

He took a lump of salt breaking to salt law.

All over India many prominent leaders led the salt marches at different locations.

It was the biggest mass movement India had never witnessed.

Thus the Civil Disobedience Movement is a typical example of Gandhian Movement.

Question 3.

Discuss the reasons behind the partition of India.

Answer:

While the Indian National Congress was calling for Britain to quit India, in 1943, the Muslim League passed a resolution demanding the British to divide and quit. There were several reasons for the separate Muslim homeland in the sub-continent:

(i) As colonizers, the British had followed a divide-and-rule policy in India. In the census, they categorized people according to religion and viewed and treated them as separate from each other.

(ii) The British based their knowledge of the people of India on religious texts and the intrinsic differences they found in them, instead of examining how people of different religions coexisted.

(iii) As soon as the Muslim League was formed. Muslims were placed on a separate electorate.

Thus, the separateness of Muslims in India was built into the Indian electoral process,

(iv) There was also an ideological divide between the Muslims and the Hindus of India. While there were strong feelings of nationalism in India, by the late 19th century there were also communal conflicts and movements in the country that were based on religious identities rather than class or regional ones.

(v) Both Hindu Mahasabha and Muslim League claimed that the interests of the Hindus and Muslims were different and hostile to each other.

(vi) The British policy of divide and rule, through measures such as Partition of Bengal, Communal Award, had encouraged the vested interests out to exploit the religious differences.

VIII. Activity

Question 1.

Students can be asked to mark the important places of Gandhian Movement in a map and write a sentence or two about what happened there.

Map: Indian National Movement (1900 – 1947)

Champaran: A Satyagraha campaign conducted against the oppression of the peasants by the Indigo planters.

Kheda: Gandhi helped to conduct kheda Satyagraha (1918) No – tax provincial struggle by the peasants ended successfully.

Jallianwala Bagh: Massacre of thousands of people. Nation wide Satyagraha and Vigourously Gandhi enter in to the Indian National Movement.

Chauri – Chaura: A preocession was conducted as a part of non – cooperation movement. Gandhi advised the participants not to indulge in violence. Violence brokeout Gandhi immediately suspended the movement.

Calcutta: In a special session the Indian National Congress approved the Non – cooperation movement worked to control Hindu Muslim conflict after the announcement of partition of India, (communal violence)

Nagpur: Non – Cooperation movement was adopted in the congress session chaired by Salem C. Vijayaraghawachariar.

Delhi: Gandhi gave his support or khilafat movement by Ali brothers for the cause of Hindu – Muslim unity.

Allahabad: Khilafat committee adopted Gandhi’s non – violence and non – cooperation programme.

Madras: Gandhi visited more than 20 times. During his Harijan Tour in Madurai he discard his following robes and wear a simple Dhoti.

Poona: Gandhi underwent fasting unconditionally against the separate electorates for the depressed classes, (a campaign against untouchability).

Sabarmathi Ashram: Gandhi set out from Sabarmathi Ashram with 78 followers as a part of Civil Disobedience movement undertook Salt March to defy the levy of tax on salt.

Lahore: In the All India Congress Session authorised Gandhi to launch the civil disobedience movement.

Dandi: Gandhi break the salt law by picking up salt from the coast at Dandi. (Dandi March)

Wardha: Undertook as the Headquarters of Satyagraha. All India villages Industries Association formed Idea of Quit India originated.

Bombay: Quit India Resolution was passed to end the British rule in India.

Question 2.

Students can be divided into groups and asked to debate the views of Gandhi, Jinnah, B.R. Ambedkar, Revolutionaries and Communists.

Answer:

(A debate for 5 to 7 minutes)

Step1: Class will be divided in to different groups representing the views of

Gandhi

Jinnah

B.R.Ambedkar

Revolutionaries

Communists.

Step 2: From each group one person will be asked to prepare the debate.

Step 3: Debate can be between Gandhi and Jinnah, Gandhi and Ambedkar. Revolutionaries and communists.

Step 4: The students can selects the Character of each (Revolutionary, communist) of their own choice.

Step 5 : The final conclusion on the debate will be compiled and declared by the students as audience.

Step 6: Concluding part can be given by the teacher concerned.

Revolutionaries: Bhaghat singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev, Subhas Chandra Bose, R.K.Dutt.

Communist: Singaravelar, S.A.Dange, P.G. Joshi events for debate points can be taken from Jinnah.

Boycott of Simon commission Nehru’s report and Jinnah’s response.

Resignation of Congress Ministries

Negotiating Independence Simla conference.

Cabinet mission

Direct Action day call

Partition of India.

Gandhi:

Rowlatt Satyagraha

Khilafat movement

Chauri chaura no- tax campaign

Constructive programme

Civil Disobedience movement

Dandi march, left movement in 1930’s

Partition of India

Campaign against untouchability

Ambedkar:

Communal award and poona pact

Campaign against untouchability

Revolutionaries: Revolutionary Activities

Communists: Left movement in 1930’s.

Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on:

(a) 30th October 1896

(b) 26th January 1869

(c) 2nd October 1869

(d) 31st December 1869

Answer:

(c) 2nd October 1869

Question 2.

The language of the educated Indian was ……………

(a) French

(b) English

(c) Hindi

Answer:

(b) English

Question 3.

Gandhi’s experiences in London had not prepared him for:

(a) Injustice

(b) Satyagraha

(c) Services

(d) Racial discrimination

Answer:

(d) Racial discrimination

Question 4.

The Minto-Morley reforms introduced separate electorate for the …………..

(a) Hindus

(b) Muslims

(c) Sikhs

Answer:

(b) Muslims

Question 5.

After the outbreak of the ……………… Gandhi returned to India.

(a) First world war

(b) Russian revolution

(c) Anglo – Mysore war

(d) Second world war

Answer:

(a) First world war

Question 6.

Bengal was partitioned in ……………….

(a) 1917

(b) 1912

(c) 1905

Answer:

(c) 1905

Question 7.

The real power was not transferred to the Indians as promised by ……………… 1919.

(a) tinkathiya system

(b) Government of India Act

(c) Dyarchy system

(d) Indian council act

Answer:

(b) Government of India Act

Question 8.

Bengal was partitioned by …………..

(a) Lord Ripon

(b) Lord Litton

(c) Lord Curzon

Answer:

(c) Lord Curzon

Question 9

………………… incident made Gandhi to withdraw the no – tax campaign Non – co-operation movement at once.

(a) Bardoli

(b) Champaran

(c) Chauri – chaura

(d) Kheda

Answer:

(c) Chauri – chaura

Question 10.

Home Rule League in Chennai was started by …………..

(a) Tilak

(b) Annie Besant

(c) Nehru

Answer:

(b) Annie Besant

Question 11.

Swarajya party was formed by ………………… and motilal Nehru in 1923.

(a) Madan Mohan Malaviya

(b) C. R. Das

(c) Subhas Chandra Bose

(d) C. Rajaji

Answer:

(b) C. R. Das

Question 12.

Dyarchy was introduced by ………….

(a) Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act

(b) The Charter Act of 1833

(c) 1878 – The Indians Arms Act

Answer:

(a) Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act

Question 13.

The Indian Forest Act of ………………… claimed the original ownership of forests was with the state.

(a) 1878

(b) 1865

(c) 1927

(d) 1972

Answer:

(a) 1878

Question 14.

Gandhiji advocated a new technique in our freedom struggle …………….

(a) Satyagraha

(b) Long march

(c) Violence

Answer:

(a) Satyagraha

Question 15.

Gandhi called the proposals of ………………… as a post dated cheque on a crashing bank.

(a) Simon commission

(b) Cripps mission

(c) Cabinet mission

(d) Mount Batten plan

Answer:

(b) Cripps mission

II. Fill in the blanks

The interim Government was headed by :

……………….. was sent as viceroy of India with the specific task of transfer of power.

……………….. joined the interim Government with some hesitation.

The mount batten plan was given effect by the enactment of ……………….. by the British parliament.

……………….. declared 16th August 1946 as the Direct Action Day.

The worst affected district in Bengal was ……………….. by communal riots in 1946.

The Muslim League representative ……………….. was made as the Finance Minister in the Interim Government cabinet.

According to the mount batten plan boundary commission was set up under ………………..

Prime Minister of Britain ……………….. wanted to transfer power at the earliest.

The British surrender in South East Asia to the ……………….. was a big blow to imperial prestige.

The/British Government arrested the INA officers and put them on trial in the ………………..

……………….. formed the provisional Government of free India at Singapore.

Azad Hindu Faug was organized by ……………….. with Indian prisoners of war with the support of Japanese in Malaya and Burma.

The Slogan of Quit India Movement given by Gandhiji was ………………..

……………….. was the first individual to offer Satyagraha when Gandhi declared limited Satyagraha by individuals.

The party ……………….. was started by Subhash Chandra Bose after resigned from congress as president.

In the elections for the provinces in 1937 congress won in ……………….. provinces out of eleven.

Assam valley Muslim party was led by ……………….. with whom congress formed coalition Government.

By the Government of India Act of 1935 ……………….. was separated from India.

In the year ……………….. the ban on the communist party was lifted.

In 1934 ……………….. was formed by Jaya Prakash Narayan.

The sudden withdrawal of ……………….. by Gandhi took to violence.

The communist party established the party in 1928.

Gandhi started the to work for the removal of discrimination of Harijans.

The communists used their party as a platform to expose the ………………..

……………….. and ……………….. were the leaders of the depressed classes.

The British Prime Minister ……………….. proposed a federal Government with provincial autonomy.

……………….. was the forest area where the police forest and revenue officials harassed the Rampa tribals.

……………….. organised the Rampa tribals to fight for their rights.

A special ……………….. team was sent to quell the uprisings of Rampa Adivasis in 1922-24.

The soldiers of ……………….. regiment refused to fire on unarmed Satyagraha.

For defying the salt tax and breaking the salt law Gandhi was arrested at mid night and sent to ……………….. jail.

The ……………….. event united the different political parties in India.

As a part of constructive programme Gandhi focussed on promoting ……………….. and made it compulsory for congress man to wear khaddar.

The prochangers of congress used the ……………….. as a platform for propagation of ………………..

Answers:

Jawaharlal Nehru

Lord Mount batten

The Muslim League

Indian Independence Act

Jinnah

Noakhali

Liaqut Ali Khan

RadclifFe brown

Clement Atlee

Japanese

Redfort

Subhas Chandra Bose

General Mohan Singh

Do or Die in the attempt of free India

Vinobha Bhave

Forward Bloc

seven

Sir Muhammad Sadullah

Burma

1942

Congress Socialist Party

Non – cooperation movement

All India Worker’s and Peasants

Harijan Sevak Sangh

True colour British rule in India

B.R.Ambedkar and M.C Rajah

Ramsay Macdonald

Many am

Alluri Sitarama Raju

Malabar police

Gharwali

Yeravada

Simon boycott

khadi

Legislature, nationalist idea

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) Prochangers refused to take charge of transferred subjects.

(ii) They did not want to cooperate with the Government.

(iii) They were the staunch followers of Gandhi.

(iv) Some of the Swaraj party members began to accept Government jobs.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i),(ii), and (iv) are correct

(c) (i) and (iii) are correct

(d) (iii) is correct

Answer:

(b) (i),(ii), and (iv) are correct

Question 2.

(i) In February 1922 Gandhi announced a non – tax campaign in Bengal.

(ii) The nationalist procession at chauri -chaura was provoked by policemen.

(iii) The young leaders of congress thought that the non – cooperation movement was gaining momentum.

(iv) Gandhi continued to conduct the movement at chauri – chaura.

(a) (i) md (ii) are correct

(b) (iii) and (iv) are correct

(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 3.

(i) Public meeting was organised at Jailianwala bagh on Baisaki day.

(ii) The only entrance to the park was opened.

(iii) Martial law was imposed in Amritsar after the incident.

(iv) Leaders renounced their titles and honours.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(d) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

Question 4.

Assertion (A): India became independent on 15th August 1947.

Reason (R): The British parliament passed Indian Independence Act abolishing the sovereignity of British rule over India.

(a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

(b) A is correct but R is wrong.

(c) A is wrong R is correct.

(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 5.

Assertion (A): Cabinet mission suggested a Federal Government and the provinces were divided in to three major groups.

Reason (R): Transfer of power, to elect a constituent Assembly and an Interim Government with representation from ail communities.

(a) A is correct R is wrong.

(b) R is correct A is wrong.

(c) Both A and R are correct R is the correct explanation of A.

(d) Both A and R are correct R is not the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(c) Both A and R are correct R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 6.

Assertion (A): The British hegemonic control ceased even in the armed forces.

Reason (R): All the political leaders were released and the ban on congress was lifted.

(a) Both A and R is wrong

(b) A is correct R is not the correct explanation of A.

(c) Both A and R are correct R explains A.

(d) Both A and R are correct.

Answer:

(b) A is correct R is not the correct explanation of A.

IV. Match the following

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (v)

C. (iv)

D. (i)

E. (ii)

Question 2.

Match the colum I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iv)

C. (ii)

D. (i)

E. (iii)

IV. Answer the following briefly

Question 1.

What were the aims of Indian National Congress?

Answer:

Greater representation and expansion of legislative councils.

More facilities for the spread of education.

Freedom of press

Holding of India Civil Service Examination in India

Reduction of military expenditure

Taxation should be made lighter.

More Indians should be employed on higher posts.

Indian council at London should be abolished

Question 2.

What made Gandhi to fight for the rights of the Indians in south Africa?

Answer:

Gandhi was thrown out of the first class compartment physically on his journey from the Durban to Pretoria, at pietermaritzburg railway station in April 1893.

Gandhi faced racial discrimination and understood Indians were treated only as coolies.

He called a meeting of the Indians in Transvaal to form an association to seek redress of their grievances.

He petitioned to the authorities about the injustices in violation of their own laws.

Indians had to pay poll tax except in areas marked for them.

Without permit they could not allowed outdoor after 9 pm.

These unjust laws made him to fought for the rights of Indians in South Africa.

Question 3.

Mention the importance of Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress

Answer:

The moderates and the extremists joined together.

The Congress and the Muslim League signed a pact agreeing to co-operate with earn “her in order to achieve self government.

It was at this session Jawaharlal Nehru met Gandhiji for the first time.

Question 4.

What were the programmes included in non – cooperation?

Answer:

The non – cooperation included the following programme.

Surrender of all titles of honours and honorary offices.

Non – participation in Government functions.

Boycott of Government schools, colleges legislature, foreign goods.

Spreading the doctrine of Swadeshi.

Suspension of practice by lawyers and settlement of court disputes by private arbitration.

Refusal to accept any civil or military port.

Non – participation in Government parties and after official functions.

Question 5.

What were the aims of the Muslim League?

Answer:

Aims of Muslim league:

To protect the rights of the Muslims.

To remain loyal to the British Government

To make a demand for a separate electorate

Question 6.

What were the provisions of Gandhi – Irwin pact?

Answer:

Provisions of Gandhi – Irwin pact:

Gandhi – Irwin pact was signed on 5th March 1931. According to this.

The British agreed to the demand of all political prisoners not involved in violence.

Return of confiscated land and lenient treatment of Government employees who had resigned.

It also permitted the people of coastal villages to make salt for consumption and non – violent picking.

To suspend the Civil Disobedience movement and attend the second round-table conference.

Question 7.

What were the changes introduced by the Government of India Act of 1935?

Answer:

It introduced provincial autonomy.

It abolished dyarchy in the provinces.

It established federal government at the centre.

It provided for the establishment of a federal court to decide the conflicts between the provinces and the centre.

It provided for the establishment of a Federal Reserve Bank.

VI. Answer all the question given under each caption

Question 1.

Mount Batten Plan

(a) Who was sent as viceroy to India with what task?

Answer:

Mount batten was sent as viceroy to India with the specific task of transfer of power.

(b) When was Mount batten plan announced?

Answer:

Mount batten plan was announced on 3rd June 1947.

(c) On what basis it was planned to transfer power?

Answer:

It was planned to transfer power on the basis of dominion status to India and Pakistan.

(d) What was set up under Raddiffe Brown?

Answer:

Boundary commission was set up under Radcliffe Brown.

Question 2.

The Indian National Congress

(a) When was the Indian National Congress founded?

Answer:

The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885.

(b) On whose advice was it founded?

Answer:

It was founded on the advice of a retired British Civil Servant Allan Octavian Hume.

(c) Where was the first session of the congress held? Who was the chairperson?

Answer:

The first session of the congress was held at Bombay.

W. C. Bannerjee was the chairperson.

(d) Name some of the leaders who attended the first session of the congress.

Answer:

G. Subramaniam

Dadabai Naoroji

Surrendranath Banerjee

Madan Mohan

M.G. Ranad

Gopala Krishna Gokhale 

Question 3.

Cabinet Mission

(a) Who sent a Cabinet Mission to India?

Answer:

The British Prime Minister Clement Atlee – (labour party) sent a Cabinet Mission to India.

(b) Who were the members of the Cabinet Mission?

Answer:

Cabinet Mission comprised pethick lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V Alexander.

(c) What did the mission reject?

Answer:

The Cabinet mission rejected the demand for Pakistan.

(d) What was the suggested given for transfer of power?

Answer:

It suggested to elect a Constituent Assembly and an Interim Government to be set up with representation for all the communities.

Question 4.

Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy

(a) Who were the prominent leaders Arrested?

Answer:

Dr. Satyapal, and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew were arrested.

(b) Where did the people gather?

Answer:

The people gathered in Jallianwala Bagh at Amritsar in Punjab.

(c) Who was the British military commander of Amirtsar?

Answer:

General Dyer was the British military commander of Amirtsar.

(d) What did Rabindranath Tagore do?

Answer:

Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood.

Question 5.

Congress Ministries and Their Work (1937)

(a) What was the announcement made by the Government of India Act of 1935?

Answer:

The implementation of Government of India Act 1935 announced the elections in 1937.

(b) Who was benefited immensely? How?

Answer:

The congress was benefitted because of the Civil Disobedience movement.

(c) What was the response of congress?

Answer:

The congress called off its programme of boycott of legislature and contested election.

(d) Name some of the measures taken by the congress after forming ministry.

Answer:

Congress ministries responded to the needs of the people. Legislative measures were adopted for reducing the indebtedness of the peasantry and improving the working conditions of the industrial labour.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Write a paragraph on the Partition of Bengal.

Answer:

Bengal was partitioned by Curzon in 1905.

Bengal was partitioned into two parts as East Bengal and West Bengal.

Curzon made a statement that the partition was purely on administrative grounds.

But the people of India thought that it was to break the unity of the people and to divide the Muslims from the Hindus.

The partition angered both the moderates and the extremists.

They called it as an introduction of the policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ and agitated against it.

Due to violent criticism and agitation, the partition was revoked in 1911.

It paved the way for the birth of the Swadeshi movement, an economic boycott.

Question 2.

What were the movement led by Gandhi towards the struggle for freedom.

Answer:

Gandhi’s Principles was based on Truth and Non – violence.

He organised the movements adopting the technique of Satyagraha.

A true Satyagraha will have strong determination and won’t giveup his protest in Ahimsa way and ready to sacrifice his life.

Three important movements were led by Gandhiji.

Non – cooperation movement

Civil Disobedience movement

Quit India Movement

Non – Cooperation Movement:

Resolution was passed in the Calcutta session of Indian National Congress on September 1920.

No – tax campaign and boycott of foreign goods and institutions were effective.

At Bardoli in 1922 Gandhi announced no – tax campaign. He made nation – wide tour.

Thousands joined the movement left their Government jobs. Trade unions and workers actively participated.

Peasants enhanced Gandhi as a national leader.

A mass procession was conducted by the peasants at Chauri chaura a village near Gorakhpur (Uttarpradesh) provoked by the police turned in to violence, burnt police station killing 22 policemen.

Gandhi was upset and suspended non – cooperation movement and abstain himself from the activities of congress for two years.

Civil Disobedience Movement:

Pooma Swaraj was declared by Nehru at Lahore session of congress in 1930.

26th January 1930 was declared as Independence day and pledge was taken to attain Pooma Swaraj Non – violently through Civil Disobedience Movement.

The Indian National Congress authorised Gandhi to launch the movement.

A charter of demands presented to the viceroy Lord Irwin comply by 31 January 1930, One of the demand was Abolition of Salt tax.

The viceroy did not respond to the demands Gandhi launched the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement”.

The inclusion of abolition of salt tax was an tactful brilliant decision.

Tax on salt affected every section of the society.

With 78 of his followers Gandhi left Sabarmathi Ashram on 12th March 1930 to Dandi a coastal town to defy salt law.

Hundreds of people joined the procession .

At the age of 61 Gandhi covered a distance of 241 miles by foot to reach Dandi in 24 days.

Reached Dandi on 5th April 1930 at sunset.

Gandhi took handful of salt from the coast thus breaking the salt law.

This March was famously known as Dandi March. Gandhi was arrested.

Quit India Movement:

The all India congress committee met at Bombay on 8th April 1942 passed famous ‘Quit India Resolution’

Main reason regarding: transfer of power to Indians failure of cripps mission war* time shortages, price rise,

Gandhi gave a call “Do (or) Die”.

Gandhi said ‘‘We shalTeither .free India or die in the cause attempt: We shall not live to see the perpetuation of our slavery?’.

“Gandhi and other congress leaders were arrested”.


Tamil board, ssc, history, Chapter 7, Anti-Colonial Movements and the British of Nationalism, Samacheer kalvi, 

I. Choose the correct answer

Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

Which one of the following was launched by Haji Shariatullah in 1818 in East Bengal?

(a) Wahhabi Rebellion

(b) Farazi Movement

(c) Tribal uprising

(d) Kol Revolt

Answer:

(b) Farazi Movement

Question 2.

‘Who declared that “Land belongs to God” and collecting rent or tax on it was against divine law?

(a) Titu Mir

(b) Sidhu

(c) Dudu Mian

(d) Shariatullah

Answer:

(c) Dudu Mian

Question 3.

Who were driven out of their homeland during the process of creation of Zamins under Permanent Settlement?

(a) Santhals

(b) Titu Mir

(c) Munda

(d) Kol

Answer:

(a) Santhals

Question 4.

Find out the militant nationalist from the following.

(a) Dadabhai Naoroji

(b) Justice Govind Ranade

(c) Bipin Chandra Pal

(d) Romesh Chandra

Answer:

(c) Bipin Chandra Pal

Question 5.

When did the Partition of Bengal come into effect?

(a) 19 June 1905

(b) 18 July 1906

(c) 19 August 1907

(d) 16 October 1905

Answer:

(a) 19 June 1905

Question 6.

What was the context in which the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act was passed?

(a) Kol Revolt

(b) Indigo Revolt

(c) Munda Rebellion

(d) Deccan Riots

Answer:

(c) Munda Rebellion

Question 7.

Who set up the first Home Rule League in April 1916?

(a) Annie Basant

(b) Bipin Chandra Pal

(c) Lala Lajpat Rai

(d) Tilak

Answer:

(d) Tilak

Question 8.

Who drew the attention of the British to the suffering of Indigo cultivation through his play Nil darpanl

(a) Dina Bandhu Mitra

(b) Romesh Chandra Dutt

(c) Dadabhai Naoroji

(d) Birsa Munda

Answer:

(a) Dina Bandhu Mitra

II. Fill in the blanks

In 1757, Robert Clive was financially supported by ……………….. the moneylenders of Bengal.

……………….. was an anti-imperial and anti-landlord movement which originated in and around 1827.

The major tribal revolt which took place in Chotanagpur region was ………………..

The ……………….. Act, restricted the entry of non-tribal people into the tribal land.

Around 1854 activities of social banditry were led by ………………..

The British Commander of Kanpur killed by the rebels during the 1857 Rebellion was ………………..

Chota Nagpur Act was passed in the year ………………..

W.C. Bannerjee was elected the president of Indian National Congress in the year ………………..

Answers:

Jagat Seth

The Wahhabi rebellion

Kol revolt

Chota Nagpur Tenancy

Birsingh

Major General Hugh Wheeler

1908

1885

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) The Company received ₹ 22.5 million from Mir Jafar and invested it to propel the industrial revolution in Britain.

(ii) Kols organized an insurrection in 1831-1832, which was directed against government officers and moneylenders.

(iii) In 1855, two Santhal brothers, Sidhu and Kanu, ledtheSanthal Rebellion.

(iv) In 1879, an Act was passed to regulate the territories occupied by the Santhals.

(a) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(a) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) Dudu Mian laid emphasis on the egalitarian nature of Islam and declared that “Land belongs to God”.

(ii) According to the Doctrine of Lapse, new territories under the corrupt Indian rulers were to be annexed.

(iii) The British officials after the suppression of 1857 Revolt were given power to judge and take the lives of Indians without due process of law.

(iv) One of the causes of the failure of the Revolt of 1857 was many of the Indjan princes and zamindars remained loyal to the British.

(a) (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(c) (i), (iii) and are correct

(d) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Answer:

(c) (i), (iii) and are correct

Question 3.

(i) One of the most significant contributions of the early Indian Nationalists was the formulation of an economic critique of colonialism.

(ii) The early Congress leaders stated that religious exploitation in India was the primary reason for the growing poverty.

(iii) One of the goals of the moderate Congress leaders was to achieve Swaraj or self-rule.

(iv) The objective of the Partition of Bengal was to curtail the Bengali influence and weaken the nationalist movement.

(a) (i) and (iii) are correct

(b) (i), (iii), and (iv) are correct

(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(b) (i), (iii), and (iv) are correct

Question 4.

Assertion (A): Under colonial rule, for the first time in Indian history, government claimed a direct proprietary right over forests.

Reason (R): Planters used intimidation and violence to compel farmers to grow indigo.

(a) Both A and R are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are wrong

(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

(d) A is wrong and R is correct.

Answer:

(b) Both A and R are wrong

Question 5.

Assertion (A): The Revolt of 1857 was brutally suppressed by the British army.

Reason (R): The failure of the rebellion was due to the absence of Central authority.

(a) Both A and R are wrong

(b) A is wrong and R is correct

(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

(d) Both A and R are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of A

Answer:

(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

IV. Match the following

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (iv)

C. (i)

D. (v)

E. (ii)

V. Answer the following questions briefly

Question 1.

How are the peasant uprisings in British India classified?

Answer:

There were nearly a hundred peasant uprisings during British rule. They can be classified into the following categories –

Restorative rebellions

Religious movements

Social Banditry

Mass insurrection

Question 2.

Write about the Kanpur Massacre of 1857.

Answer:

The seige of Kanpur was an important episode in the 1857 Rebellion.

The rebel forces under Nana Sahib besieged the Company forces and civilians in Kanpur.

They were unprepared for the extended besiege.

It forced them to surrender to the rebel forces under Nana Sahib, in return for a safe passage to Allahabad.

The boats in which they were proceeding were burned and most of them were killed including Major General Hugh Wheeler the British Commander of Kanpur.

Question 3.

Name the territories annexed by the British under the Doctrine of Lapse.

Answer:

Satara, Sambalpur, parts of Punjab, Jhansi and Nagpur.

Question 4.

What do you mean by drain of wealth?

Answer:

India was economically subjugated and transformed into a supplier of raw materials. It became a market to dump English manufactures and for the investment of British Capital. So the colonial economy was a continuous transfer of resources from India to Britain without any favourable returns back to India. This is referred as “the drain of wealth”.

Question 5.

Explain the concept of constructive swadeshi?

Answer:

Under Constructive Swadeshi, the self-defeating modest approach of moderates was rejected and self-help was focused on through swadeshi industries, national schools, arbitration courts and constructive programmes in the village. It was totally non-political in nature.

Question 6.

Highlight the objectives of Home Rule Movement.

Answer:

Objectives of the Home Rule Movement:

To attain self Government within the British empire by constitutional means.

To obtain the status of dominion a political position.

To use non-violence constitutional methods to achieve their goals.

Question 7.

Summarise the essence of Lucknow Pact.

Answer:

In the Lucknow Pact that took place in 1916, the Congress Party and the Muslim League agreed that there should be self-government in India as soon as possible. In return of this gesture from the Muslim League, the congress leadership accepted the concept of separate electorate for Muslims. This created a new sense of enthusiasm among the people.

VI. Answer all the questions under each caption

Question 1.

Deccan riots

(a) When and where did the first recorded incident of rioting against the moneylenders in the Deccan appear?

Answer:

In May 1875 in Supa, a village near Poona the first recorded incident of rioting against the moneylenders in the Deccan appeared.

(b) What was the right given to moneylenders under a new law of the British?

Answer:

Under the new law of the British the moneylenders were given the right to attach the mortgaged land of the defaulters auction it off.

(c) What did it result in?

Answer:

It resulted in the transfer of land from the cultivators to the non-cultivating classes.

(d) Against whom was the violence directed in the Deccan riots.

Answer:

In the Deccan riots violence was directed against the Gujarat money lenders.

Question 2.

The Revolt of 1857

(a) Who assaulted his officer, an incident that led to the outbreak of 1857 Revolt?

Answer:

Mangal Pandey assaulted his officer.

(b) Who was proclaimed the Shahenshah-e-Hindustan in Delhi?

Answer:

The Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II was proclaimed the Shahenshah-e-Hindustan in Delhi.

(c) Who was the correspondent of London Times to report on the brutality of the 1857 revolt?

Answer:

The correspondent’s name was William Howard Russell.

(d) What did the Queen’s proclamation say on matters relating to religion?

Answer:

The Queen proclaimed to the Indian people that the British government would not interfere in traditional institutions and religious matters.

Question 3.

Indian National Congress

(a) What were the techniques adopted by the Congress to get its grievances redressed ?

Answer:

The congress to get its grievances redressed adopted the techniques by way of appeals petitions and delegations.

(b) What do you know of Lal-Bal-Pal triumvirate?

Answer:

Lala Lajpat Rai of Punjab, Bal Gangadara Tilak of Maharashtra and Bipin Chandra Pal of Bengal called as Lai – Bal – Pal.

Lai – Bal – Pal triumvirate were the prominent Congress leaders of militiant nationalists.

(c) Where was the first session of Indian National Congress held?

Answer:

The first session of Indian National Congress was held at Bombay.

(d) How did the British respond to the Swadeshi Movement?

Answer:

The British brutally crushed the Swadeshi Movement. Revolutionaries were hanged. Press was crushed and prominent leaders were arrested and imprisoned for long terms.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Discuss the causes and consequences of the Revolt of 1857?

Answer:

The Great Rebellion of 1857 is a unique example of resistance to the British authorities, in India. There were several reasons that triggered the Revolt:

(i) The annexation policy of British India created dissatisfaction among the native rulers. The British claimed themselves as paramount, exercising supreme authority. New territories were annexed on the grounds that the native rulers were corrupt, and inept.

(ii) The British annexed several territories such as Satara, Sambalpur, parts of Punjab, Jhansi and Nagpur through the Doctrine of Lapse. This also angered many Indian rulers.

(iii) Indian sepoys were upset with discrimination in salary’ and promotion. They were paid much less than their European counterparts. They felt humiliated and racially abused by their seniors.

Consequences:

(i) India was pronounced as one of the many crown colonies to be directly governed by the Parliament. This resulted in the transfer of power from the East India company to the British crown.

(ii) Queen Victoria proclaimed to the Indian people that the British government would not interfere in traditional institutions and religious matters. It was promised that Indians would be absorbed in government services.

(iii) There came significant changes in the Indian army. The number of Indians was reduced.

Indians were restrained from holding important ranks and position.

(iv) It was also decided that instead of recruiting soldiers from Rajputs, Brahmins and North Indian Muslims, more soldiers would be recruited from the Gorkhas, Sikhs and Pathans.

Question 2.

How did the people of Bengal respond to the Partition of Bengal (1905)?

Answer:

In 1899 Lord Curzon was appointed as the Viceroy of India.

Curzon resorted to repressive measures to undermine the idea of local Government, autonomy of higher educational Institutions and gag the press.

The idea of partition was planned to suppress the political activities against the British rule in Bengal by creating a Hindu-Muslim divide.

It was openly stated that the main notion of partition was to curtail Bengali mfluence and to weaken the nationalist movement.

Bengal was Partitioned into two units Bengali Hindus (West Bengal) and Muslims (East Bengal).

Partition of Bengal in 1905 led to widespread protests all across India, starting a new phase of the Indian National movement.

The partition instead of dividing, united the people of Bengal.

People marched on the streets of Calcutta in thousands singing Bande mataram.

The partition led to the Boycott of the British goods and Swadeshi movement.

Question 3.

Attempt a narrative account of how Tilak and Annie Besant by launching Home Rule Movement sustained the Indian freedom struggle after 1916?

Answer:

(i) The Indian National Movement was revived and also radicalised during the Home Rule , League Movement that lasted from 1915 to 1918. It was led by Lokamanya Tilak and Annie Besant.

(ii) The objective of the Home Rule Movement was to attain self-government within the British Empire.

(iii) Tilak set up the first Home Rule League in April 1916. In September 1916, after repeated demands of her followers, Annie Besant decided to start the Home Rule League without the support of the Congress. Both the Leagues worked independently.

(iv) The Home Rule Leagues were utilised to carry extensive propaganda through press, speeches, public meetings, lectures, discussions and touring in favour of self government.

(v) Both the leagues succeeded in enrolling young people in large numbers and extending the movement to the rural areas.

VIII. Activity

Question 1.

Identify the Acts passed in British India from 1858 to 1919, with a brief note on each.

Answer:

Government of India Act (1858):

It was passed to end the rule of the East India Company and transfer the power to the British Crown.

The British Governor General Post was designated as viceroy of India, who became the representative of the British Monarch.

Indian Council Act – 1892:

The British Parliament introduced various amendments to the composition and functions of legislative council, increased the number of additional members to be represented both in central and provinces.

The members were given the right to ask questions on budget.

This Act laid the foundation of parliamentary system in India.

It is a landmark in the constitutional development.

Indian Council Act of 1909:

Popularly known as Minto – Morley Reforms.

This Act directly introduced the elective principle to membership in the imperial and local legislative councils.

It increased the involvement of Indians limitedly in the British Governance.

Montagu – Chelmsford Reform (1919):

The British Parliament passed this Act to expand participation of Indians in the division of executive branch of each provincial Government in to authoritarian and popularly responsible section for the provinces of British India.

Embodied reforms recommended in the report of the secretary of state of India.

This Act promised gradual progress of India towards self – Government.

Dy Archy (1919):

This Act introduced dual Government for the provinces of British India. One is accountable and the other one non accountable.

It marked the 1st introduction of democratic principle into the executive branch of British administration.

It was the association of Indians with the legislation work.

Introduced Port – folio system.

Question 2.

Mark the important centres of 1857 Revolt on an outline map.

Answer:

Question 3.

Prepare an album with pictures of frontline leaders of all the anti-colonial struggles launched against the British.

Answer:

Pictures of Moderates

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 7 Anti-Colonial Movements and the British of Nationalism 3

Tribal Rebellion and other movement

Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

The Nawab of Bengal ……………….. was defeated by the East India company at the Battle of Plassey.

(a) Shuja-ud-daullah

(b) Siraj-ud-daullah

(c) Mirjafar

(d) Mir Kasim

Answer:

(b) Siraj-ud-daullah

Question 2.

Indian Historians describes the revolt of 1857 as ……………….

(a) Sepoy mutiny

(b) First war of Indian Independence

(c) Military revolt

Answer:

(b) First war of Indian Independence

Question 3.

The collective farming of the tribals of Ranchi was known as:

(a) Jhum

(b) Bethbegari

(c) Khunkatti

(d) Ryotwari

Answer:

(c) Khunkatti

Question 4.

The peasants had to pay heavy …………….

(a) land taxes

(b) tariffs

(c) service taxes

Answer:

(a) land taxes

Question 5.

The ……………….. had leased out to moneylenders the job of revenue collection.

(a) Raja of Chota Nagpur

(b) European officers

(c) Nawab of Bengal

(d) Birsaite Raj

Answer:

(a) Raja of Chota Nagpur

Question 6.

The sepoys broke into open revolt at …………..

(a) Meerut

(b) Kanpur

(c) Barrackpore

Answer:

(a) Meerut

Question 7.

On ……………….. a band of sepoys from Meerut marched to the Red Fort in Delhi.

(a) 1st May 1858

(b) 11th May 1852

(c) 11th May 1857

(d) 19th September 1916

Answer:

(c) 11th May 1857

Question 8.

After the  1857 revolt the Governor-General of India was designated as …………….

(a) Viceroy of India

(b) Ruler of India

(c) Minister of India

Answer:

(a) Viceroy of India

Question 9.

……………….. led the Revolt at Bareilly.

(a) Bahadur Shah – II

(b) Khan Bahadur

(c) Nana Sahib

(d) Kunwar Singh

Answer:

(b) Khan Bahadur

Question 10.

Rani Lakshmi Bai led the revolt at …………….

(a) Kanpur

(b) Central India

(c) Lucknow

Answer:

(b) Central India

Question 11.

The play “Nil Darpan” by ……………….. did much to draw attention in India and Europe to the plight of the indigo growers.

(a) Dina Bandhu mitra

(b) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

(c) Lockmanya Tilak

(d) Ranajit Guha

Answer:

(a) Dina Bandhu mitra

Question 12.

In 1858, the Royal Durbar was held at …………..

(a) Meerut

(b) Allahabad

(c) Delhi

Answer:

(b) Allahabad

Question 13.

The Madras Native Association was formed in the year:

(a) 1806

(b) 1852

(c) 1884

(d) 1852

Answer:

(b) 1852

Question 14.

Which one was not a trading company?

(a) The Portuguese

(b) The French

(c) The Japanese

Answer:

(c) The Japanese

Question 15.

……………….. lent his services to facilitate the formation of Indian National Congress.

(a) A.O.Hume

(b) W.C.Baneijee

(c) Mrs. Annie Besant

(d) V.O.Chidambarampillai

Answer:

(a) A.O.Hume

II. Fill in the blanks

The ………………….. helped to unite the Congress party after the Surat split.

The ………………….. movement enhanced to participation of masses in Nationalist Politics.

The British mainly responded to political activities of nationalists by repression and …………………..

The Indian National Movement was revived and ………………….. during the Home Rule movement.

………………….. launched the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in Tuticorin.

One of the common goals of the extremist leaders was to achieve …………………..

For ………………….. Swaraj was the attainment of complete autonomy and total freedom from foreign rule.

………………….. decided to started the Home Rule League without the support of the Congress.

The Home Rule Movement in India borrowed much of its principles from the …………………..

In the ………………….. session of Indian National Congress (1916) decided to admit the militant faction in to the party.

Pherozeshah Metha and Gokhale two main voices of opposition against militant faction had died in …………………..

Bengal was officially partitioned on ………………….. by Lord Curzon.

The official declaration of partition of Bengal was observed as a day of …………………..

In a divided Bengal Curzen made the Bengali speaking people to a …………………..

In the year 1899 ………………….. was appointed as the viceroy of India.

Early Indian Nationalists advocated …………………..

The formation of the ………………….. in 1885 was intended to establish an All India Organisation.

The early leaders felt that ………………….. was the main obstacle to the India’s Economic Development.

One of the key demand of the Indian National Congress was creation of ………………….. at provincial and central level.

………………….. played a significant role in propagating the ideas of Nationalism.

Under British rule peasants were forced to pay revenue directly to the …………………..

Vicious cycle of debt forced the peasants to abandon ………………….. in 1875.

The British planters forced the cultivators to grow ………………….. rather than food crops.

………………….. was appointed by the British Parliament to look into the Indian affairs after 1857 revolt.

In November 1858 the power to govern India was transferred from ………………….. to the British Crown.

The ………………….. was an important episode in the rebellion of 1857.

The Kingdom of Jhansi was annexed under …………………..

De throning of many Indian rulers affected the livelihood of ………………….. due to lose of patronage.

………………….. of the people against the British took the form of a people’s revolt.

Thousands of weavers were thrown out of employment due to the dumping of …………………..

By the beginning of June 1857 except ………………….. and ………………….. British Rule in North India had disappeared because of the mutineers.

The precursor to the revolt was the introduction of new ………………….. of the Enfiled Rifles.

The ………………….. claimed themselves as paramount power.

The ………………….. was the first major revolt of armed forces accompanied by civilian rebellion.

In the 1890’s ………………….. offered resistance against the alienation of tribal people from their land.

The ………………….. prompted the British to formulate a policy on Tribal land.

The Munda people were forcefully recruited as ………………….. to work on plantations.

The Munda rebellion movement received an impetus when ………………….. declared himself as the messenger of God.

The disillusionment with ………………….. aggravated the miseries of Munda people.

One of the prominent tribal rebellion in Ranchi was known as …………………..

After the battle of ………………….. the British adopted a policy of territorial expansion.

The British ………………….. was rapidly mechanized with the money received by the company from Mir Jafar.

India was led to the path of because of Britsh manufactured goods.

………………….. was forced to create a market for the products from Britain.

The plunder of India by the ………………….. continued for nearly 190 years.

There were nearly a hundred ………………….. during the British rule.

The leaders of ………………….. movements were looked upon by their people as heroes of their cause.

The ………………….. are usually leaderless and spontaneous uprising.

The subletting of land by the zamindars increased the ………………….. on the peasants.

Wahhabi Rebellion originated in 1827 in and around ………………….. of Bengal.

Answer:

Home Ruler Movement

Swadeshi

Reconciliation

Radicaliszed

V.O.Chidambaranar

Swaraj or Self Rule

Tilak

Mrs. Annie Besant

Irish Home Rule Movement

Lucknow session

1915

16th October 1905

Mourning

Linguistic minority

Lord Curzon

Industrialisation

Indian National Congress

Colonialism

Legislative councils

Print media

Government

agriculture

Indigo plant

Secretary of State

English East India Company

Seige of Kanpur

Doctrine of Lapse

Artisans and handicrafts persons

Collective anger

British manufacture

Punjab and Bengal

greased cartridges

British

Great Rebellion of 1857

Tribal chiefs

Munda rebellion

Indentured labourers

Birsa Munda

Christian missionaries

Ulugalan rebellion

Plassey

Textile industry

De. industrialisation

India

East India company

Peasant uprisings

Social banditry

Mass insurrection

Tax burden

Barasat

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) The urban elite of India was busy responding to the western ideas through socio – religious reform movements.

(ii) The traditional elite and peasantry wanted to restore pre – colonial order by revolts.

(iii) The practice of letting out and subletting of land complicated the industrial relations.

(iv) Changes introduced in the land tenures significantly altered the agrarian relations.

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 2.

(i) The commercialisation of forest led to the disintegration of the traditional tribal system.

(ii) The usury and forcible eviction of tribals from their land led to the resentment of kols.

(iii) The pushed out santhals were forced to rely on the moneylenders for their subsistence.

(iv) Santhals felt secured under the British.

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(c) (i), (ii)-and(iii) are correct

(d) (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(c) (i), (ii)-and(iii) are correct

Question 3.

(i) The British annexed more territories through two major policies.

(ii) Indian sepoys accepted the new dress code and overseas service.

(iii) Before loading into Enfiled Rifle the cartridges had to be bitten off.

(iv) The Indian Sepoys felt humiliated and racially abused by their seniors.

(a) (i) and (iii) are correct

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(d) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

Question 4.

Assertion (A): The mutiny was equally supported by an aggrieved rural society of North India.

Reason (R): Sepoys working in British army were infact peasants in uniform.

(a) Both A and R are wrong.

(b) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

(c) A is correct R is wrong.

(d) Both A and R are correct but R is the not the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(b) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 5.

Assertion (A): India extended its support to the British in world war I. Reason (R): Hoping for the attainment of self – Government after the war.

(a) A is correct R is wrong.

(b) Both A and R are wrong.

(c) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

IV. Match the following

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (v)

C. (iv)

D. (i)

E. (ii)

Question 2.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (ii)

B. (v)

C. (iv)

D. (i)

E. (ii)

Question 3.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (ii)

B. (v)

C. (i)

D. (iii)

E. (vi)

F. (vii)

V. Answer the following question briefly

Question 1.

What caused huge loss of revenue in Bengal?

Answer:

Aurangzeb’s farman had granted the company only the right to trade duty free. But the officials of the company, who were carrying on private trade on side also stopped paying duty. This caused a huge loss of revenue for Bengal.

Question 2.

Mention some of the issues of peasants that added to the sense of resentment against the British.

Answer:

The concept of private property rights in land.

Rigorous collection of land revenue.

Encroachment of tribal land by non-tribal people.

Interference of Christian Missionaries in the socio – religious life of the local people.

Were some of the issues of resentment against the British.

Question 3.

Why did the Battle of Plassey become famous?

Answer:

It was the first major victory the company won in India.

Question 4.

What were the reasons for Tribal upraising?

Answer:

Under colonial rule the Government claimed a direct proprietary right over forests.

The commercialisation of forests led to the disintegration of the traditional tribal system.

It encouraged the incursion of tribal areas by non-tribal people such as contractors, moneylenders traders, land grabbers.

This led to the wide spread loss of adivasi land and their displacement from their traditional habitats. So Tribal resistance arose.

Question 5.

What were the grievances of the company regarding the Nawabs of Bengal?

Answer:

The company declared that the unjust demands of the local officials were ruining the trade of the company. Trade could flourish only if the duties were removed. It was also convinced to expand trade, it had to enlarge its settlements, buy up villages and rebuild its forts.

Question 6.

Name the early leaders who criticized about colonial economy.

Answer:

Dadabhai Naoroji, Justice Ranade and Romesh Chandra Dutt strongly criticised about the colonial economy.

They clearly stated that the prosperity of the British lay in the economic and political subjugation of India.

They concluded that the colonialism was the main obstacle to the India’s economic development.

Question 7.

Which battle did Robert Clive fight in 1757 and against whom?

Answer:

In 1757, he fought the Battle of Plassey against Siraj-ud-daulah.

VI. Answer all the questions under each caption

Question 1.

Political causes for the Revolt of 1857.

(a) Who introduced subsidiary Alliance?

Answer:

Lord Wellesley introduced subsidiary Alliance.

(b) Name the policy introduced by Lord Balhousie.

Answer:

Lord Dalhousie introduced the policy of “Doctrine of Lapse”.

(c) What was the order issued by the British against the Mughal emperor?

Answer:

The British Government had ordered that the Mughal emperor had to give up their ancestral palace and Red fort.

(d) Why did Nana Saheb develop a grudge against the British.

Answer:

The British stopped the pension to Nana Saheb. So he developed a grudge against the British.

Question 2.

Great Rebellion of 1857

(a) What was the biggest challenge witnessed by the British in 1857?

Answer:

The Great Rebellion by the Sepoys and the civilians.

(b) What was witnessed by both sides during the revolt?

Answer:

Unprecedented violence

(c) What were the causes of the revolt?

Answer:

Annexation policy of the British in India.

Insensitivity of the British to Indian cultural sentiments.

(d) What was the people’s opinion on the new regulations of the British.

Answer:

There was always a suspicion among the people regarding British new regulations intention.

Question 3.

Wahhabi Rebellion in Barasat

(a) Who led the Wahhabi Rebellion? Write a few lines about him.

Answer:

Titu Mir, an Islamic preacher led this rebellion. He was deeply influenced by the Wahhabi teachings. He became an important figure among the predominantly Muslim peasantry oppressed under the zamindari system.

(b) How did this movement acquire an anti-Hindu complexion?

Answer:

The majority of zamindars were Hindus. Thus, the movement acquired an anti-Hindu complexion.

(c) what happened on 6 November 1831?

Answer:

On 6 November 1831, the first major attack was made in the town of Pumea. Titu Mir immediately declared freedom from British Rule.

(d) How did the British respond to this rebellion?

Answer:

The British sent a large number of Troops to Narkelberia. Titu Mir along with his soldiers were killed in the staiggle.

Question 4.

Peasant and Tribal Resistance

(a) What was the nature of the resistance against the British rule emerged in rural India?

Answer:

More aggressive response emerged in rural India.

(b) Who revolted against the British in rural areas?

Answer:

Traditional elite and peasants along with tribals revolted.

(c) What did they seek for?

Answer:

They sought for the restoration of the Pre-colonial order and not the removal of the British.

(d) What was the outlook of the tribals on British?

Answer:

The tribal people started looking at the British as invaders and encroachers.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Enumerate the cause for the failure of the Great Revolt of 1857.

Answer:

Administrative changes:

Disunity among the Indians was the first and the foremost cause.

A large number of rulers of the Indian states and the big zamindars did not join the movement,

The rulers of the Indian states, who did not support the movement, remained neutral.

The educated Indians did not support the movement.

The telegraph and postal communication proved very helpful to the British for proper military actions and sending their reinforcements at the earliest time.

The rebellious soldiers were short of modem weapons and other materials of war.

The rebellious soldiers had to fight with traditional weapons which were no match to modem weapons possessed by the British forces.

The revolt was not extended beyond North.

The Indian leaders like Nana Saheb, Tantia Tope, Rani Lakshmi Bai where no match to the British generals.

The revolt broke out prematurely and the preparations for the revolt remained incomplete.

The organization and the planning of the rebels was very poor.

The Indian leaders were brave and selfless but they lacked unity of command and discipline.

The revolutionaries had no common idea.

The Muslims wanted to revive Mughal rule and the Hindus wanted to receive the Peshwa Raj.

The British diplomacy of Divide and Rule prevented most of the Indian mlers to join together for a common cause.

Question 2.

What was the objective of the partition of Bengal (1905) and what was its result?

Answer:

The main objective of partition of Bengal was to divide the Hindu – Muslim unity and to influence and weaken the nationalist movement.

Bengal was partitioned into two administrative units.

Reduced the Bengali – speaking people to a linguistic minority in a divided Bengal.

Curzon assured Muslims that in the new province of East Bengal Muslim would enjoy a unity.

Result:

Curzon thought the partition would divide the Bengali people on religious line.

Instead the partition united the people of Bengal.

The growth of the vernacular newspapers played a vital role in building a sense of proud Bengali identity.

The day Bengal was officially partitioned (16th Oct 1905) was declared as a day of mourning.

Thousands of people took bath in Ganga and marched on the streets of Calcutta singing Bande Mataram.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 7 Anti-Colonial Movements and the British of Nationalism

Question 3.

Throw light on the Farazi Movement.

OR

Highlight the different phases of the Farazi Movement under Haji Shariatullah and his son Dudu Mia.

Answer:

Farazi Movement under Haji Shariatullah:

The Farazi Movement was launched by Haji Shariatullah in 1818, in the parts of eastern Bengal. The movement advocated the participants to keep themselves away from conflict with the zamindars and subsequently with the British, who favoured the zamindars to suppress the peasant uprising.

Farazi Movement under Dudu Mian:

After the death of Shariatullah in 1839, the movement was led by his son Dudu Mian. He called upon the peasant not to pay tax. The movement became popular on a simple doctrine that land and all wealth should be equally enjoyed by the common mass. Dudu Mian laid emphasis on the egalitarian nature of religion and declared that “Land belongs to God’’ and collecting rent or levying taxes on it was therefore against the divine law. The movement spread far and wide and was joined by a huge number of peasants. There were violent crashes throughout 1840s and 1850s with the zamidars and planters. The movement continued to resist even after the death of Dudu Mian in 1862.

Question 4.

What were the main objectives and key demands of Indian National Congress?

Answer:

The main objectives of Indian National Congress were to develop and consolidate the sentiments of national unity and loyalty to Britain.

Some of the key demands were:

Creation of legislative councils at provincial and central level.

Reducing military expenditure.

Holding civil services exams in India as well as in England.

Promotion of Indian industries and an end to unfair tariffs and an end to unfair tariffs and excise duties.

Extension of trial by jury.

Increasing the number of elected members in the legislative council.

Police reforms

Reduction of Home charges.

Reconsideration of forest laws.

Separating Judicial and executive functions.


Tamil board, ssc, history, Chapter 6, Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu, sanacheer kalvi,

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

Who was the first Palayakkarars to resist the East India Company’s policy of territorial aggrandisement?

(a) Marudhu brothers

(b) Puli Thevar

(c) Velunachiyar

(d) Veerapandya Kattabomman

Answer:

(b) Puli Thevar

Question 2.

Who had borrowed money from the East India Company to meet the expenses he had incurred during the Carnatic wars ?

(a) Velunachiyar

(b) Puli Thevar

(c) Nawab of Arcot

(d) Raja of Travancore

Answer:

(c) Nawab of Arcot

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Question 3.

Who had established close relationship with the three agents of Chanda Sahib?

(a) Velunachiyar

(b) Kattabomman

(c) Puli Thevar

(d) Oomai thurai

Answer:

(c) Puli Thevar

Question 4.

Where was Sivasubramanianar executed?

(a) Kayathar

(b) Nagalapuram

(c) Virupachi

(d) Panchalamkurichi

Answer:

(b) Nagalapuram

Question 5.

Who issued the Tiruchirappalli proclamation of Independence?

(a) Marudhu brothers

(b) Puli Thevar

(c) Veerapandya Kattabomman

(d) Gopala Nayak

Answer:

(a) Marudhu brothers

Question 6.

When did the Vellore Revolt breakout?

(a) 24 May 1805

(b) 10 July 1805

(c) 10 July 1806

(d) 10 September 1806

Answer:

(c) 10 July 1806

Question 7.

Who was the Commander-in-Chief responsible for the new military regulations in Vellore Fort?

(a) Col. Fancourt

(b) Major Armstrong

(c) Sir John Cradock

(d) Colonel Agnew

Answer:

(c) Sir John Cradock

Question 8.

Where were the sons of Tipu Sultan sent after the Vellore Revolt?

(a) Calcutta

(b) Mumbai

(c) Delhi

(d) Mysore

Answer:

(a) Calcutta


II. Fill in the blanks

The Palayakkarars system was put in place in Tamil Nadu by …………….

Except the Palayakkarars of ……………. all other western Palayakkarars supported Puli Thevar.

Velunachiyar and her daughter were under the protection of ……………. for eight years.

Bennerman deputed ……………. to convey his message, asking Kattabomman to surrender.

Kattabomman was hanged to death at …………….

The Rebellion of Marudhu Brothers was categorized in the British records as the …………….

……………. was declared the new Sultan by the rebels in Vellore Fort.

……………. suppressed the revolt in Vellore Fort.

Answers:

Viswanatha Nayaka of Madurai

Sivagiri

Gopala Nayakar

Ramalinganar

Kayathar

Second Palayakarar war

Fateh Hyder (the eldest son of Tipusultan)

Colonel. Gillespie


III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) The Palayakkarars system was in practice in the Kakatiya Kingdom.

(ii) Puli Thevar recaptured Nerkattumseval in 1764 after the death of Khan Sahib.

(iii) Yusuf Khan who was negotiating with the Palayakkarars, without informing the Company administration was charged with treachery and hanged in 1764.

(iv) Ondiveeran led one of the army units of Kattabomman.

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) UnderColonel Campbell, the English Army went along with Mahfuzkhan’s army.

(ii) After Muthu Vadugar’s death in Kalaiyar Kovil battle, Marudhu Brothers assisted Velunachiyar in restoring the throne to her.

(iii) Gopala Nayak spearheaded the famous Dindigul League.

(iv) In May 1799 Cornwallis ordered the advance of Company armies to Tirunelveli.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 3.

Assertion (A): Puli Thevar tried to get the support of Hyder Ali and the French.

Reason (R): Hyder Ali could not help Puli Thevar as he was already in a serious conflict with the Marathas.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

(b) Both (A) and (R) are wrong

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct

Answer:

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 4.

Assertion (A): Apart from the new military Regulations the most objectionable was the addition of a leather cockade in the turban.

Reason (R): The leather cockade was made of animal skin.

(a) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct

(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

(c) Both (A) and (R) are wrong

(d) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Answer:

(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)


IV. Match the following

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iii)

C. (ii)

D. (i)

E. (iv)


V. Answer the questions briefly

Question 1.

What were the duties of the Palayakkarars?

Answer:

The Palayakkarars carried on the following duties:

They collected revenue, administered the territory control, settled disputes and maintained law and order.

On many occasions the Palayakkarars helped the Nayak rulers to restore the kingdom to them.

Question 2.

Identify the Palayams based on the division of east and west.

Answer:

The two prominent blocs were Eastern and Western Palayams:

Eastern Palayams:

Western Palayams:

Uthumalai

Thallawankottai

Naduvakurichi

Singampatti

Seithur.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Question 3.

Why was Heron dismissed from service?

Answer:

Colonel Heron was urged to deal with Puli Thevar as he continued to defy the authority of the company. Puli Thevar wielded much influence over the western Palayakkarars. Heron had to abandon the plan for want of cannon and of supplies and pay to soldiers. He retired to Madurai. He was then recalled and dismissed from sendee.

Question 4.

What was the significance of the Battle of Kalakadu?

Answer:

With the support of the East India company Arcot Nawab Mohamed Ali wanted to bring Madurai and Tirunelveli regions which were under the command of Nawab Chandra Sahib’s agents.

These agents got the support of Tamil Palayakkarars and had close relationship with Puli Thevar.

An army was sent under the head of Mahfiizkhan to capture Tirunelveli.

Before he station his troops near Kalakadu 2000 soldiers from Travancore joined the forces of Puli Thevar.

In the Battle of Kalakadu Mahfiizkhan troops were routed.

The organized resistance of the Palayakkarars under Puli Thevar gave an opportunity to the English to interfere directly in the affairs of Tirunelveli.

Question 5.

What was the bone of contention between the Company and Kattabomman?

Answer:

The company appointed its collectors to collect taxes from all the palayams. The collectors humiliated the Palayakkarars and adopted force to collect the taxes. This was the bone of contention between the English and Kattabomman.

Question 6.

Highlight the essence of the Tiruchirappalli Proclamation of 1801.

Answer:

The proclamation of 1801 was an early call to the Indians to unite against the British.

Many Palayakkars rebelled together, especially Chinna Maruthu collected nearly 20,000 men to challenge British.

But the Rajas of Pudukkottai, Ettayapuram and Thanjavur supported British.

So, in May 1801, English attacked the rebels in Thanjavur and Trichy rebels failed.

Though the Palayakkarars fell to the English, their exploits and sacrifices inspired later generation.

The rebellion of Marudhu brothers is a land mark event in the history of Tamil Nadu.

It is also known as “South Indian Rebellion”.

Question 7.

Point out the importance of the Treaty of 1801.

Answer:

Under the terms of the Carnatic Treaty of 31 July 1801, the British assumed direct control over Tamilagam and the Palayakkarar system came to an end with the demolition of all forts and disbandment of their army.


VI. Answer the questions given under each caption

Question 1.

Velunachiyar

(a) Who was the military chief of Velunachiyar?

Answer:

The military chief of Velunachiyar was ‘Thandavarayanar’.

(b) What were the martial arts in which she was trained?

Answer:

Velunachiyar had training in martial arts like valari, stick fighting and to wield weapons.

(c) Whom did she marry?

Answer:

She married Muthu Vadugar the Raja of Sivagangai.

(d) What was the name of her daughter?

Answer:

Her daughter name was Vellachinachiyar.


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Question 2.

Dheeran Chinnamalai

(а) When was Dheeran Chinnamalai born?

Answer:

Dheeran Chinnamalai was born in 1756 in the Mandradiar royal family of Palayakottai.

(b) How did he earn the title “Chinnamalai”?

Answer:

Once when Tipu’s diwan Mohammed Ali was returning to Mysore with the tax money, Theerthagiri blocked his way and took back all the tax money. He let Mohammed Ali go by instructing him to tell his Sultan that ‘Chinnamalai; who is between Sivamalai and Chinnamalai, was the one who took away taxes. Thus, he gained the name ‘Dheeran Chennamalai’.

(c) Name the Diwan of Tipu Sultan.

Answer:

Mohammed Ali

(d) Why and where was he hanged to death?

Answer;

He was hanged at the top of the Sankagiri Fort on 31 July 1805 because he refused to accept the rule of the British.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Attempt an essay of the heroic fight Veerapandya Kattabomman conducted against the East India Company.

Answer:

Several events led to the conflicts between Veerapandiya Kattabomman and the East India Company.

Event 1:

Under the provisions of a treaty signed in 1781 with Mysore Sultan the East India Company gained the right to collect taxes from Panchalamkurichi where Veerapandiya Kattabommman was the ruler.

The company appointed its collectors to collect taxes from all the Palayams.

The collectors adopted force and humiliated the Palayakaras to collect the taxes. This was the bone of contention between the English and Kattabomman.

Event 2: Collector Jackson against the wish of the Madras Government wanted to send an army to collect the revenue dues from Kattabomman.

The arrogant English collector ordered Kattabomman to meet him in. Ramanathapuram. But Kattabomman’s attempts became futile as Jackson refused to meet him.

At last Kattabomman was made to stand for three hours before the haughty collector in Ramanathapuram.

Sensing danger Kattabomman with his brother’s help escaped from that place.

Kattabomman on his return to Panchalamkurichi represented to the Madras Council about his ill treatment by the collector Jackson.

Kattabomman appeared before the committee on 15th December 1798 and proved that he was not committed any offence.

He cleared almost all the revenue arrears.

Jackson was dismissed from his service.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Event 3: Inspired by the Marudhu brothers Tiruchirapaili proclamation Kattabomman was interested to join the confederacy.

Kattabomman and Marudhu brothers jointly decided on a confrontation with the English.

Kattabomman advanced towards Sivagiri who was a tributary to the company.

So the company considered Kattabomman’s expedition as a challenge to their authority.

Under the command of Bannerman on 1st September 1799 an ultimatum was served on Kattabomman to surrender.

The evasive reply of Kattabomman made Bannerman to attack the Fort of Panchalamkurichi.

Kattabomman escaped to Pudukottai.

The Britsh put a prize on his head.

Betrayed by the Rajas of Ettayapuram and Pudukottai Kattabomman was arrested.

During the trial before all the Palayakkarars he bravely admitted all the charges levelled against him.

He was hanged to death at Kayatharu near Tirunelveli on 16th October.

His courageousness and bravery was enacted as ballads by Indian folks.

Question 2.

Highlight the tragic fall of Sivagangai and its outcome.

Answer:

In May 1801, the English attacked the rebels in Thanjavur and Tiruchirappalli. The rebels went to Piranmalai and Kalayarkoil. But they were defeated by the forces of the English. In the end, the able commanders of the English company helped. Unfortunately, the rebellion failed and Sivagangai was annexed in 1801.

Outcomes

The Marudhu brothers were executed in the fort of Tirupathur near Ramanathapuram on 24 October 1801.

Oomaithurai and Sevathaiah were captured and beheaded at Panchalamkuruchi on 16 November 1801.

Seventy-three rebels were exiled to Penang in Malaya.

Though the Palayakkarars fell to the English, their exploits and sacrifices inspired later generations.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Question 3.

Account for the outbreak of Vellore Revolt in 1806.

Answer:

Causes for the outbreak of Vellore Revolt in 1806:

The Sepoys in the British Indian Army had a strong sense of resentment over low salary and poor prospects of promotion.

The English officers disrespect for the social and religious sentiments of the Indian sepoys also angered them.

Many sepoys families were in dire economic straits due to out break of famine in 1805 and the unsettled conditions caused by new land tenures.

The imprisonment of Tipu’s sons and the family members in Vellore Fort.

The immediate cause for the revolt was triggered by the new military regulations introduced by the Commander in Chief Sir John Cradock.

The Indian soldiers were not allowed to wear caste marks or ear rings when in uniform.

They were asked to shave their beard and trim the moustache to look smart.

The most resented cause was the leather cockade made of animal skin.

The sepoys were compelled to wear the turban and those who refused were severely punished.

In 10th July 1806 in the early hours guns were booming and the Indian sepoys of the regiments 1st and 23rd raised their standard of revolt.

VIII. Activity

Question 1.

Teacher can ask the students to prepare an album of patriotic leaders of early revolts against the British rule in Tamil Nadu. Using their imagination they can also draw pictures of different battles in which they attained martyrdom.

Answer:

Few names of the patriotic leaders of the’early revolt against the British mle in Tamil Nadu are listed below.

Subramaniya Bharathiyar

Kumaraswamy Mudaliar (popularly known as Tiruppur Kumaran)

Velunachiyar

Vanchinathan

Veerapandia Kattabomman

V.O. Chidambaram

Dheeran Chinnamalai

Subramaniya Siva

The Maruthu Pandiyar brothers (Periya Maruthu, Chinna Maruthu)

Puli Thevar

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Students can collect pictures of the above mentioned patriotic leaders and paste it in a notebook, prepare an album and submit to the teacher. Below the picture, student should also write the name of the patriotic leader below the picture.

If the student is very good in drawing skills, then instead of pasting pictures, they can also draw two or three of the patriotic leaders images and write their name below and prepare an album. Students can also use their creativity, imagine a battle field and can portrait that also.

Question 2.

Stage play visualising the conversation between Jackson and Kattabomman be attempted by students with the help of teachers.

Answer:

Stage play – Conversation between Jackson and Kattabomman.

Participants: Characters – Kattabomman, Subramanianar, Oomaithurai, Collector Jackson, Company officials soldiers.

Scence – 1 Kattabomman’s Court.

A company official reading the notice issued by collector Jackson. (Kattabomman’s soldier asking permission to let in the company official)

Sepoy : Maharaja, English East India Company’s servant brought a message for you. Shall I ask him to let in. I seek your permission.

Kattabomman : Allow him. (Servant entry)

Kattabomman: What message you have brought?

Servant : Maharaja (Reading the message)

I, “The collector of Ramnad” issuing order to Kattabomman to meet in person.

Kattabomman : yes you can go

Scene – 2

Kattabomman and his Minister and some soldiers going to meet Jackson after hearing he was camping at placard showing courtallam.

Collector has gone Srivilliputtur (Voice)

Placard showing Srivilliputur (You are asked to come to Ramanathapuram)

Scene – 3 (Ramanathapuram Fort)

Kattabomman waiting outside the gate to meet the Collector. After lhour he was asked to get inside the court of collector Jackson.

Jackson: Not noticing him wantedly I am

Kattabomman: I am kattabomman who is collector Jackson.

Jackson: Got angry Hay who are you nian calling me by name?

Kattabomman: I am Kattabomman wants to know who you are? Asking me the question.

(Further got irritated)

Jackson: I am collector Jackson. Are you the defiant Kattabomman.

Kattabomman: I want to know for what reason I was asked to come over here. As a coward ran and came to Ramanathapuram Mr. Jackson.

Jackson: Shut up man. You have the charge on you that you didn’t pay neither the tribute not the tax arrears.

(Irritated by his command)

Kattabomman: Whom do you expect to pay tribute or Taxes. Me? Why I should pay taxes. It’s our land the nature is giving water to the field. We the people till the land, sow the seeds plant the saplings watered the field, nurtured the plants, removed the weeds. What work you have done for asking the tax.

Jackson: Hay man Kattabomman you are talking too much, Your region belong to us.

Kattabomman: (Laughing) Is it so? Who gave you the right of possession?

Jackson: (Furiated yelling) Guards arrest him.

(Guards entry)

Kattabomman: Sensing the danger took out the sword (fighting and escaping from that place)

(screen)

Question 3.

A comparative study of Vellore Revolt and 1857 Revolt by students be tried enabling them to find out to what extent Vellore Revolt had all the forebodings of the latter.

Answer:

Common causes for the Revolt at Vellore and Revolt of 1857.

Vellore Revolt:

Most of the soldiers in the British army were well trained soldiers from various Palayams. Hindus and Muslims majority Indian Troops.

Resentment over low salary promotion prospects

New dress code, rules and regulations affected the religions sentiments.

Uprising was well planned and raised by the soldiers at Vellore Fort shot down many colonels

Immediate cause introduction of Agnew Turban- a leather hat made of animal skin.

Soldiers were forced to wear the Turban.

Spread to other areas Bellary, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Sankagiri, Walajabad, Nandy durg.

Fateh hyder Tipu’s son was declared as their leader.

Revolt of 1857:

Most of the soldiers were from Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims. Out numbered the English officers.

Same point of view low salary inferior out look of the English officers.

Conversion activities interference in the Indian culture affected their sentiments.

Revolt originated from Bengal regiment.

Introduction of Greased cartridges smeared with animal fat.

Indian soldiers were compelled to use the cartridges.

Spead to Kanpur, Delhi, Oudh, Jhansi, Lucknow, Bihar etc.

Emperor Bahadhur Shah II of Delhi was made to sit on the throne and declared as the emperor of India.

These points clearly shows that the Vellore Revolt had all the forebodings of the latter.

Important Questions And Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

Palayakkarars in Tamil refers to the:

(a) Holders of a little kingdom as a feudatory.

(b) Revenue collectors of the British

(c) Rebels of the Carnatic region

(d) Commanders of Nawab of Arcot

Answer:

(a) Holders of a little kingdom as a feudatory.

Question 2.

Palayakkarars police duties were known as ……………….

(a) Padikaval

(b) Village Kaval

(c) Irravu Kaval

Answer:

(a) Padikaval

Question 3.

The first female ruler of Sivagangai who resisted the colonial power of the British:

(a) Jhansi Rani Lakshmibai

(b) Rani Mangammal

(c) Velunachiyar

(d) Kuyili

Answer:

(c) Velunachiyar

Question 4.

Puli Thevar was defeated by …………… in 1767.

(a) Khan Sahib

(b) Captain Campbell

(c) Hyder Ali

Answer:

(b) Captain Campbell

Question 5.

The British commander who put down the Vellore revolt was:

(a) Bannerman

(b) William Bentinck

(c) Sir John cradock

(d) Colonel Gillespie

Answer:

(d) Colonel Gillespie

Question 6.

Who was Mahfuzkhan?

(a) Brother of the Nawab of Arcot

(b) Minister of the Nawab of Arcot

(c) Brother of Yusuf Khan

(d) Indian sepoy in the British army

Answer:

(a) Brother of the Nawab of Arcot

Question 7.

Veerapandiya Kattabomman was the Palayakkarar of :

(a) Sivagangai

(b) sivagiri

(c) Madurai

(d) Panchalamkurichi

Answer:

(d) Panchalamkurichi

Question 8.

Where did Kattabomman escape?

(a) Ettayapuram

(b) Coimbatore

(c) Pudukottai

(d) Tarapuram

Answer:

(c) Pudukottai

Question 9.

On his return to Panchalamkurichi ………………….. represented to the Madras council.

(a) Kattabomman

(b) Marudhu brothers

(c) Puli Thevar

(d) Dheeran chinnamalai

Answer:

(a) Kattabomman

Question 10.

Which city was annexed at the end of the Anglo-Mysore War in 1799?

(a) Ramanathapuram

(b) Coimbatore

(c) Panchalamkuruchi

(d) Pudukottai

Answer:

(b) Coimbatore

Question 11.

Jackson was dismissed from service and a new collector ………………….. was appointed.

(a) Syed

(b) Clarke

(c) William Brown

(d) S.R Lushington

Answer:

(d) S.R Lushington

Question 12.

Kattabomman cleared all the revenue arrears leaving only a balance of ………………….. pagodas.

(a) 1180

(b) 1080

(c) 1801

(d) 1108

Answer:

(b) 1080

Question 13.

Yadhul Nayak was the Palayakkarar of:

(a) Coimbatore

(b) Dindigul

(c) Anamalai

(d) Kamudhi

Answer:

(c) Anamalai

Question 14.

Oomathurai and Sevathaiah the two brothers of Kattabomman escaped from the Palayamkottai prison to:

(a) Kamudhi

(b) Sivagangai

(c) Kerala8

(d) Thiruchirappalli

Answer:

(a) Kamudhi

Question 15.

………………….. involved in setting the disputes in the Kongu region.

(a) Dheeran chinnamalai

(b) Velunachiyar

(c) Oomathurai

(d) Gopala Nayak

Answer:

(a) Dheeran chinnamalai

II. Fill in the blanks

The word ………………….. means a domain a military camp or a little kingdom.

The Palayakkararsystem was in practice during the rule of ………………….. of warangal in the Kakatiya kingdom.

The police duties of Palayakkarars were known as …………………..

The Palayakkarars of Sivagiri, Ettayapuram and Panchalamkurichi did not join the confederacy of …………………..

The unity of the Palayakkarars began to break with the …………………..

In 1772 under the command of ………………….. stormed the kalaiyar kovil palace.

The South Indian confederacy was organised by

The forces of Diwan of Mysore and Chinnamalai fought at

The failed because there was no immediate help from outside.

The was the predecessor of the great Revolt of 1857.

Under poligar system was given for valuable military services rendered by any individual.

The began to consolidate and extend its influence after the three carnatic wars in Tamil Nadu.

………………….. the Minister of viswanatha Nayaka helped him to introduce Palayakkarar system in Tamil Nadu.

The Palayakkarar system lasted for from ………………….. the Nayaks of Madurai.

Within their respective Palayams Palayakkarars function as ………………….. authorities.

Traditionally there were ………………….. Palayakkarars created by Nayak rulers.

Many Palayakkarars refused to pay taxes to the company as their lands handed down to them over …………………..

The company branded ………………….. as rebels.

Mahfuzkhan was the brother of …………………..

………………….. was sent with a contingent army under colonel Heron to capture Tirunelveli and Madurai.

Mahfuzkhan had the support of ………………….. and ………………….. from the carnatic to capture Tirunelveli.

Two thousand soldiers from ………………….. joined the forces of Puli Thevar at kalakad.

The Palayakkarars of Tirunelveli under Puli Thevar constantly rebelled against

Yusufkhan’s (Khan sahib) original name was ………………….. before his conversion to Islam.

The ………………….. from Tiruchirappalli arrived in September 1760 to assist Yusufkhan to attack Puli Thevar.

The battering of ………………….. by Yusufkhan took two months.

Expel of French power from Pondicherry made Travancore, ………………….., Uthumalai and ………………….. to support the English.

The ………………….. was charged with treachery and hanged in 1764 by the company.

Captain ………………….. defeated Puli Thevar in 1767.

Puli Thevar escaped and died in …………………..

Velunachiyar was under the protection of Gopala Nayak for ………………….. years.

At the age of 16 ………………….. was married to Muthuvadugar of Sivagangai.

Dalavay means …………………..

In behalf of Velunachiyar Dalavai ………………….. wrote a letter to Sultan Hyder AN seeking military assistance.

Hyder Ali ordered his commandant ………………….. in Dindigul Fort to provide required military assistance to Velunachiyar.

Kuyili faithful friend of Velunachiyar led a unit of women soldiers named after …………………..

………………….. was the shepherd girl who was killed by the company for not divulging information on kuyili the commander.

The company’s administrators ………………….. and ………………….. considered Kattabomman a man of peaceful disposition.

To meet out the expenses of Nawab and his family ………………….. of the revenue (taxes) collection was allowed.

The land revenue arrear from Kattabomman was ………………….. pagodas in 1798.

The did not give permission to collector Jackson to send an army to Panchalamkurichi to collect dues from Kattabomman.

Kattabomman’s Minister ………………….. accompanied him to Ramanathapuram to met collector Jackson.

In a clash at the gate of Ramanathapuram Fort English officer ………………….. was killed.

In may 1799 ………………….. issued orders from Madras for the advance of forces to Tirunelveli.

Bannerman moved his entire army to Panchalamkurichi on …………………..

………………….. gathered all the secrets of the Fort of Panchalamkurichi.

In a clash at ………………….. Sivasubramanianar was taken a prisoner.

Kattabomman escaped to …………………..

………………….. was executed at Nagalapuram on 13th September.

Kattabomman was hanged from a ………………….. in the old Fort of Kayathar.

Answers:

Palayam

Prataba Rudhra

Padikaval or Arasukaval

Puli Thevar

elimination of French power from Pondicherry

Lt. Col Bon Jour

Marudhu brothers of Sivagangai

Noyyal river bed

Vellore Revolt

Vellore Revolt

Palayam

English East India Company

Ariyanathar

two hundred years

independent sovereign

72

sixty generations

defiant Palayakkarars

Nawab of Arcot

Mahfuzkhan

cavalry and foot soldiers

Travancore

Nawab’s authority

Marudhunayagam

artillary

Nerkkatumseval Fort

Seithur, Surandai

Yusufkhan

Campbell

exile

eight

Velunachiyar

Military chief

Thandavarayanar

Syed

Udaiyal

Udaiyal

James London, Colin Jackson

one- sixth

3310

Madras Government

Sivasubramanianar

Lietenant Clarke

Lord Wellesley

5th September 1799

Ramalinganar

Kallarpatti

Pudukottai

Sivasubramanianar

Tamarind tree


III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) Velunachiyar organised an army and succeeded in securing an alliance with Hyder Ali.

(ii) Hyder Ali provided the required military assistance to Velunachiyar

(iii) A fierce battle was fought at Devadanampatti.

(iv) Velunachiyar escaped with her daughter and lived in Ramanathapuram.

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) (i) and (ii) are correct

Answer:

(d) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) Dheeran chinnamalai was trained by the French.

(ii) He launched Gwerilla attack and evaded capture by the British.

(iii) He was born at Coimbatore,

(iv) He refused to accept the rule of the British.

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i) and (iii) are correct

Answer:

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.

(i) Coimbatore was annexed at the end of the Anglo – Mysore was in 1799.

(ii) The status of Raja of Thanjavur had been reduced to that of a vassal.

(iii) English East India company acquired the revenue districts of salem and Dindigul from Tipu.

(iv) A treaty was forced on Marudhu brothers on the charge of disloyalty.

(a) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

(d) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 4.

Assertion (A): Kattabomman took an expedition to Sivagiri to influence to join Marudhu brothers.

Reason (R): Palayakkarars of Sivagiri was a tributory to the company of the British. They refuse to join.

(a) Both A and R are correct. R is the correct explanation of A.

(b) A is correct and R is Wrong

(c) A is wrong ans R is correct

(d) A is correct and R is not the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(a) Both A and R are correct. R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 5.

Assertion (A): Chinna Marudhu collected 20,000 men to challenge the English army and many Palayakkarars joined, but failed.

Reason (R): Divide and Rule Policy of the British split the forces of the Palayakkarars.

(a) A is correct R is wrong

(b) A is wrong and R is correct

(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

(d) A is correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 6.

Assertion (A): The Nawab of Arcot gave the power of collecting revenue to the English East India company from southern Palayakkarars.

Reason (R): The company branded the defiant Palayakkarars as rebels.

(a) A is correct R is wrong

(b) A is wrong R is correct

(c) Both A and R are correct R explains A.

(d) Both A and R are correct. R is not the correct explanation to A.

Answer:

(a) A is correct R is wrong

IV. Match the following

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column II.

2

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (v)

C. (iv)

D. (i)

E. (ii)

Question 2.

Match the Column I with Column II.

3

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (i)

C. (v)

D. (ii)

E. (iii)

V. Answer the questions briefly

Question 1.

Write a note on Carnatic treaty.

Answer:

The suppression of the Palayakkarar rebellions of 1799 and 1800-1801 resulted in the liquidation of all the local chieftains of Tamil Nadu. Under the terms of the Carnatic treaty of 31 July 1801. The British assumed direct control over Tamilagam and the Palayakarar system to an end with the demolition of all forts and disbandment of their army.

Question 2.

Why was the Revenue collection of the southern Palayakkarars was given to the company Rule?

Answer:

Nawab of Arcot had borrowed money from the East India Company to meet the expenses he had incurred during the camatic wars.

When the debts exceeded his capacity to pay, he gave the Revenue Collection Authority to the company rule.

Question 3.

Write a note on Hyder Ali.

Answer:

Hyder Ali was the ruler of Mysore. He was a bitter enemy of England. He was born in 1772. Though he started his career as a soldier, he rose to the position of commander-in-chief. In 1766, when the Raja of Mysore died, Hyder Ali proclaimed himself as the ruler and became the Sultan of Mysore. Tipu Sultan was the son of Hyder Ali.

Question 4.

Name the three major ports of Puli Thevar. When did these forts come under the control of Yusuf Khan?

Answer:

The three major ports of Puli Thevar were Nerkattumseval, Vasudevanallur and Panayur. In 16th May 1761 they came under the control of Yusufkhan.

Question 5.

What does the word ‘Palayam’ mean? What does the Palayakkarar in Tamil refer to?

Answer:

The word ‘Palayam’ means a domain, military camp, or a little kingdom. The Palayakkarar in Tamil refers to the holder of a little Kingdom as a feudatory to a greater sovereign.

Question 6.

Write about the brave act of Kuyili the friend of Velunachiyar.

Answer:

Kiyili was a faithful friend of velunachiyar.

She led the unit of women soldiers.

Kuyili is said to have walked in to the British arsenal (1780) after setting herself on fire, destroying all the ammunition.

Question 7.

Why did the Nawab of Arcot borrow money from the East India company? What happened when his debts exceeded his capacity to pay?

Answer:

The Nawab of Arcot borrowed money from the East India company to meet the expenses he had incurred during the Carnatic wars. When his debts exceeded his capacity to pay, the power of collecting the land revenue dues from southern Palayakkarars was given to the East India company.

Question 8.

How the Rebellion of Marudhu brothers referred as and who participated in the rebellion?

Answer:

In the British records the rebellion of Marudhu brothers (1800) is referred as the “Second Palayakkarar war”.

Those who participated in the Rebellion were: Marudhu Pandiyar of Sivagangai, Gopala Nayak of a Dindigul, Kerala verma of Malabar and Krishnappa Nayak and Dhoondaj i of Mysore.

VI. Answer the questions given under each caption

Question 1.

Siege of Panchalamkuruchi

(a) Why did Lord Wellesley issue orders in May 1799?

Answer:

Lord Wellesley issued orders in May 1799 for the advance of forces from Tiruchirapalli, Thanjavur, and Madurai to Tirunelveli.

(b) Who commanded the troops?

Answer:

Major Bannerman commanded the troops.

(c) What commanded the troops?

Answer:

On 1st September 1799, an ultimatum was served on Kattabomman to surrender.

(d) Why did Bannerman depute Ramalinganar to Kattabomman’s fort?

Answer:

Bannerman deputed Ramalinganar to Kattabomman’s fort so that he could convey a message asking him (Kattabomman) to surrender.

Question 2.

Consequences of Vellore Revolt

(a) Where was Tipu’s sons imprisoned after the revolt?

Answer:

Tipu’s sons were sent to Calcutta after the revolt.

(b) What was the reward given to the people who suppressed the revolt?

Answer:

Col. Gillespie was given 7,000 pagodas. The officers and men engaged in the suppression were rewarded with prize money and promotion.

(c) Name the English Generals who were removed from their office?

Answer:

Col. Sir John Cradock, Adjutant General Agnew and Governor William Bentinck were removed from their office.

(d) What was withdrawn after the revolt?

Answer:

The military regulations were withdrawn after the revolt.

Question 3.

New Military Regulations

(a) What were the Indian soldiers asked to do according to new’ military regulation?

Answer:

According to the new military regulation the Indian soldiers were asked not to wear caste marks or ear rings when in uniform. They were to be cleanly shaven on the chin and maintain uniformity how their moustache looked.

(b) How did the new turban add fuel to fire?

Answer:

The new turban was the leather cockade made of animal skin.

(c) How did the sepoys react to the new turban?

Answer:

The sepoys refused to wear the new turban.

(d) What was the Company’s reaction?

Answer:

The company remained silent. It did not pay any notice to the sepoys grievances.

Question 4.

The Seige of Panchalamkurichi

(a) From which regions forces were sent to Tirunelveli?

Answer:

From the regions of Tiruchirappali, Thanjavur and Madurai sent to Tirunelveli.

(b) Which troops joined the British later?

Answer:

The Travancore troops joined the British later.

(c) What was served on Kattabomman and for what purpose?

Answer:

An ultimatum was served on Kattabomman to surrender.

(d) What was the response of Kattabomman?

Answer:

Kattabomman refused to surrender.

Question 5.

Proclamation of 1801

(a) Who issued the proclamation of 1801?

Answer:

Marudhu pandiyar issued the proclamation of Independence 1801.

(b) Why did they issue the proclamation?

Answer:

The proclamation was an early call to the Indians to unite.

(c) Where was the copies of proclamation pasted?

Answer:

The proclamation was pasted on the walls of Nawab’s palace in Tiruchirappalli Fort and on the walls of Srirangam temple.

(d) From where did the forces reinforced to fight with the revolters?

Answer:

British reinforcements were rushed from Bengal, Ceylon and Malaya.

Question 6.

Grievances of Indian Soldiers

(a) Who deliberate on the future course of action against the company Government?

Answer:

The dispossessed little kings and feudal chieftains.

(b) What was the culmination of the Palayakkarar wars?

Answer:

The Vellore Revolt of 1806

(c) What were the resentment of British Indian army?

Answer:

The British Indian army had a strong resentment over low salary and poor prospects of promotion.

(d) What bothered the Indian sepoys much?

Answer:

The new recruitment of the sepoys to the army.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Write a brief note on Vellore Mutiny.

Answer:

The British administration prohibited the Hindu soldiers from smearing religious marks on their foreheads.

They ordered the Muslims to shave their beard and trim their moustache.

This created a strong resentment among the soldiers.

Instigated by the sons of Tipu, the revolting soldiers gathered in the Vellore fort, under the pretext of a marriage function.

At midnight the soldiers surrounded the fort and killed most of the Europeans.

They unfurled the flag of Tipu over the fort.

Fateh Hyder, the second Son of Tipu was declared as the ruler.

But the revolt was crushed by the British.

Question 2.

How did Velunachiyar able to get back her territory (Sivagangai)?

Answer:

Velunachiyar during her period of hiding organised an army.

She succeeded in securing an alliance with not only Gopala Nayakar (Virupachi near Dindigul) but Hyder Ali as well.

She was affluent in Urdu. Velunachiyar explained in detail in urdu all the problems she had with East India Company.

She conveyed her strong determination to fight the English.

Impressed by her courage, Hyder Ali ordered his commandant Syed in Dindigal fort to provide the necessary military assistance.

Velunachiyar employed agents for gathering intelligence to find where the British had stored ammunition.

With military assistance from Gbpala Nayakar and Hyder Ali she recaptured Sivagangai.

She was crowned as queen with the help of Marudhu brothers.

She was the first female ruler to resist the British colonial power in India.

Question 3.

Write about the Dindigul League.

Answer:

The famous Dindigul league was headed by Gopala Nayak, the Palayakkarar of virupachi.

He formed the league with Lakshmi Nayak of Manaparai and poojai Nayak of Devadanapatti.

He drew the inspiration from Tipu Sultan, who sent a deputation to show his camaraderie.

He led the resistance against the British from Coimbatore and later joined Oomaidurai, Kattabomman’s brother.

He put up a fierce fight at Aanamalai hills.

The local peasants gave him full support.

But Gopala Nayak was overpowered by the British forces in 1801.

Question 4.

Give an account of Marudhu brothers Rebellion of 1800.

Answer:

Despite the suppression of Kattabomman’s revolt in 1799 rebellion broke out again in 1800.

In the British records it is referred to as the second Palayakkarar war.

In April 1800 the confederacy consisting of Marudhu Pandiyars of Sivagangai, GopalaNayak of Dindigul, Kerala verma of malabar and Krishnappa Nayak and Dhoondaji of Mysore met at Virupachi and decided to organise an uprising against the company.

The Uprising, which broke out in Coimbatore in June 1800, soon spread to Ramanathapuram and Madurai.

The company got wind of it and declared war on Krishnappa Nayak of Mysore, Kerala Verma of Malabar and others.

The Palayakars of Coimbatore, Sathyamangalam, and Tarapuram were caught and hanged.

In February 1801, the two brothers of Kattabomman, Oomathurai and Sevathaiah escaped from Palayamkottai prison and Chinna Marudhu took them to Siruvayal his capital.

The English demanded the Marudhu Pandiyars to hand over fugitives but they refused.

Col.Agnew and Col.Innes marched on Sivagangai.

In June 1801 Marudhu Pandyars issued a proclamation of independence the Tiruchirappalli proclamation.

The rebellion failed and Sivagangai was annexed in 1801.


Tamil board, ssc, history, Chapter 5, Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century, sanacheer kalvi,

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

In which year was Sati abolished?

(a) 1827

(b) 1829

(c) 1826

(d) 1921

Answer:

(b) 1829

Question 2.

What was the name of the Samaj founded by Dayanand Saraswati?

(a) Arya Samaj

(b) Brahmo Samaj

(c) Prarthana Samaj

(d) Adi Brahmo Samaj

Answer:

(a) Arya Samaj

Question 3.

Whose campaign and work led to the enactment of Widow Remarriage Reform Act of 1856?

(a) Iswarchandra Vidyasagar

(b) Raja Rammohan Roy

(c) Annie Besant

(d) Jyotiba Phule

Answer:

(a) Iswarchandra Vidyasagar

Question 4.

Whose voice was Rast Goftarl

(a) Parsi Movement

(b) Aligarh Movement

(c) Ramakrishna Mission

(d) Dravida Mahajana Sabha

Answer:

(a) Parsi Movement

Question 5.

Who was the founder of Namdhari Movement?

(a) Baba Dayal Das

(b) Baba Ramsingh

(c) Gurunanak

(d) Jyotiba Phule

Answer:

(b) Baba Ramsingh

Question 6.

Who was Swami Shradhananda?

(a) a disciple of Swami Vivekananda

(b) one who caused a split in the Brahmo Samaj of India

(c) one who caused a split in the Arya Samaj

(d) founder of Samathuva Samajam

Answer:

(c) one who caused a split in the Arya Samaj

Question 7.

Who was the founder of Widow Remarriage Association?

(a) M.G. Ranade

(b) Devendranath Tagore

(c) Jvotiba Phule

(d) Ayvankali

Answer:

(a) M.G. Ranade

Question 8.

Who was the author of the book Satyarthaprakash?

(a) Dayananda Saraswathi

(b) Vaikunda Swamy

(c) Annie Besant

(d) Swami Shradanatha

Answer:

(a) Dayananda Saraswathi

II. Fill in the blanks

 …………….. founded the Samarasa Vedha Sanmarga Sangam.

The founder of Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was ……………..

Satyashodak Samaj was launched by ……………..

Gulumgir was written by ……………..

Satyarthaprakash enumerates the positive principles of ……………..

Ramakrishna Mission was established by ……………..

…………….. was the forerunner of Akali Movement.

…………….. brought tremendous changes in the caste structure in Kerala.

Oru paisa Tamilan was started by ……………..

Answers:

Ramalinga Adigal

M.G.Ranade

Jyothika Phule

Jyothika Phule

Vivekanandha

Singh Sabha

Narayana Guru and Ayyankali

Jyothee Thassar

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

Choose the correct statement:

(i) Raja Rammohan Roy preached monotheism

(ii) He encouraged idolatry

(iii) He published tracts condemning social evils

(iv) Raja Rammohan Roy was supported by Governor General William

(a) (i) is correct

(b) (i) and (ii) are correct

(c) (i),(ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) (i),(iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(d) (i),(iii) and (iv) are correct

Question 2.

Choose the correct statement:

(i) Prarthana Samaj was founded by Dr. Atma Ram Pandurang

(ii) Prarthana Samaj encouraged interdining and inter-caste marriage

(iii) Jyotiba Phule worked for the upliftment of men.

(iv) Prarthana Samaj had it’s origin in the Punjab.

(a) (i) is correct

(b) (ii) is correct

(c) (i) and (ii) are correct

(d) (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(c) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 3.

Choose the correct statement:

(i) Ramakrishna Mission was actively involved in social causes such as education, health care, relief in time of calamities.

(ii) Ramakrishna emphasised the spiritual union with god through ecstatic practices.

(iii) Ramakrishna established the Ramakrishna Mission

(iv) Ramakrishna opposed the Partition of Bengal

(a) (i) is correct

(b) (i) and (ii) are correct

(c) (iii) is correct

(d) (iv) alone correct

Answer:

(b) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 4.

Assertion: Jyotiba Phule opened orphanages and homes for widows Reason: Jyotiba Phule opposed child marriage and supported widow remarriage

(a) Assertion is correct but reason is not apt to the assertion

(b) Assertion is correct and the reason is apt to the assertion

(c) Both are wrong

(d) Reason is correct but assertion is irrelevant

Answer:

(a) Assertion is correct but reason is not apt to the assertion

IV. Match the following

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (v)

C. (ii)

D. (i)

E. (iii)

V. Answer briefly

Question 1.

Mention the four articles of faith laid down by Maharishi Debendranath Tagore?

Answer:

Maharashi Debendranath Tagore laid down the following four articles of faith –

In the beginning, there was nothing. The one Supreme Being alone existed who created the Universe.

He alone is the Good of truth, Infinite Wisdom, Goodness and Power, eternal, omnipresent, the One without second.

Our salvation depends on belief in him and in his worship in this world and the next.

Belief consists in loving him and doing his will.

Question 2.

Discuss Mahadev Govind Ranade’s contribution to social reforms.

Answer:

Ranade was the founder of the Widow Marriage Association, the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha and the Deccan Educational Society.

Question 3.

Assess the role of Ayyankali in fighting for the cause of “untouchables.”

Answer:

Ayyankali brought social tremendous changes especially in caste structure. The discrimination he faced as a child turned him into a leader of an anti-caste movement and who later fought for basic rights including access to public spaces and entry to schools. Ayyankali challenged many caste conventions such as clothing style, he wore clothes associated with upper castes that were prohibited for lower castes.

Question 4.

Write a note on reforms of Ramalinga Adigal.

Answer:

Ramalinga Adigal showed his compassion and mercy on all living beings including plants, This he called as Jeevakarunya. He established in 1865, “Samarasa Suddha Sanmarga Sathya Sanga” which means Society for pure truth in Universal self-hood. He also established a free feeding house for everyone irrespective of caste at Vadalur.

Question 5.

What was the impact of Swami Vivekananda’s activist ideology?

Answer:

Vivekananda’s activist ideology related to the desire for political change among many western eductated young Bengalis. Many of the youths, who were involved in the militant nationalist struggle during the Swadeshi Movement, following the Partition of Bengal, were inspired by Vivekananda.

Question 6.

What are the differences between Reformist Movements and Revival Movements?

Answer:

Reformist movement means a movement to reform (or) bring positive changes in the Social or religious institution of a society.

Revival movement means to give a new life to the social or religious institution of a society which seems to be dying or being diluted.

Question 7.

List the social evils eradicated by Brahmo Samaj.

Answer:

The Brahmo Samaj raised voice against:

Caste system

Dowry

Ill-treatment of women

Polygamy

Infanticide

Question 8.

Highlight the work done by -Jyotiba Phule for the welfare of the poor and the marginalized.

Answer:

Jyotiba Phule opened orphanages and homes for widows. He opened the first school for untouchables in 1852 in Poona. He opposed child marriage and supported widow remarriage.

Question 9.

What was the impact of IyotheeThassar’s visit to SriLanka?

Answer:

Jyothee Thassar went to Sri Lanka in 1898 and converted into Buddhism. In the same year, he founded the Sakya Buddhist Society at Madras to construct the rational religious philosophy through Buddhist religion. He argued that the so-called untouchables were orginally Buddhists who were sligmatised by Brahminism. He stated that the revival of Buddhism could leberate the people from the evil of caste practice that afflicted the Hindu society.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption

Question 1.

Aligarh Movement

(i) What is the main aim of this Movement?

Answer:

The main aim of this movement, was to improve the community of Muslims by giving them education, especially is western education and take up government services.

(ii) Who is considered the soul-of this Movement?

Answer:

Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan is considered the soul of this movement

(iii) Why were English books translated into Urudu?

Answer:

English books were translated into Urdu. So that the interest of the Muslims would be best served if it is in Urdu and to concentrate on it.

(iv) Name the college which was later raised to the status of a University?

Answer:

The college was raised to the status of a University in 1920 was Aligarh Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental college.

Question 2.

Ramalinga Adigal

(i) What is Jeevakarunya?

Answer:

It is showing compassion and mercy on all living beings including plants.

(ii) What are the Songs of Grace?

Answer:

His voluminous songs that were compiled and published under the title Thiruvarupta are called Songs of Grace.

(iii) Point out the major contribution of Samarasa Vedha Sanmarga Sathya Sangam?

Answer:

‘Samarasa Vedha Sanmarga Sathya Sangam’ means ‘Society for Pure Truth in Universal self-hood.

(iv) Where did he establish his free feeding house?

Answer:

He established a free feeding houses for everyone irrespective of caste at Vadalur.

Question 3.

Deoband Movement

(i) Who were the organizers of this Movement?

Answer:

The organizers of Deoband movement was the orthodox Muslim Ulema.

(ii) What were the two main objectives of the Movement?

Answer:

(a) The twin objective of this movement were propagating the pure teaching of the Quran and the Hadith.

(b) Encouraging the spirit of Jihad against the foreign and the un- islamic elements.

(iii) Who founded the school at Deoband?

Answer:

The Ulema under the leadership of Muhammad QasimWanotavi and Rashid Ahamad Gangotri founded the school at Deoband in U.R

(iv) Against whom the fatwa was issued by Deoband Ulema?

Answer:

The Deoband Ulema issued a religious decree (Fatwa) against Syed Ahmed Khan’s organisation called the United Patriotic Association and The Muhammaden Anglo-Oriental Association.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Compare and contrast the contributions of Revivalist Movements with that of Reform Movements.

Answer:

The Indian reformists were quite hesitant to subject their old notions and habits to critical scrutiny. Instead they attempted to harmonise both Indian and Western cultures. However, their ideas and their actions helped to mitigate social evils such as sati, female infanticide, and child marriage, and all kinds of superstitious religious beliefs. Reformist movements like the Brahmo Samaj, the Prathana Samaj and the Aligarh Movement. These movements brought considerable reforms in the contemporary society.

Revivalist movements tended to revive former customs or practices and thus take the society back to the glorious past. The Deoband Movement was a revivalist movement, organised by the orthodox Muslim Ulimas other such movements included the Arya Samaj, the Ramakrishna Mission.

Question 2.

Discuss the circumstances that led to the Reform movements of 19th century.

Answer:

Introduction of English Education made the Indians think that the British aim is to produce English educated middle class clerks.

The People came under the influence of Western ideas and thoughts.

The Propaganda of Christianity in India which served Britains imperial interests.

Many Indian scholars such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Keshab Chandra Sen contributed to bring a change in the social institutions of the country.

The Reformists were deeply concerned with the existed social evils like sati, child marriage and Polygamy.

Following the organisational structure of Christian missionaries, Indian reformers wanted to establish reform movements.

All over India, there set to begin a social awakening on the eradication of terrible caste tyranny.

The reformers strived hard to bring back the glorious past of India.

Question 3.

Evaluate the contributions of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Swami Vivekananda to regenerate Indian society.

Answer:

Ramakrishna Paramhamsa and Vivekananda have played a big role in regenerating the Indian society.

Ramakrishna Paramhamsa: He was a simple priest of Dakshineshwar near Calcutta. He gained popularity in the latter half of the nineteenth century. He emphasised the spiritual union with god through ecstatic practices such as singing bhagan. He was an ardent worshipper of goddess Kali. In his view, all religions contain the universal elements which, if practised, would lead to salvation. He said, “Jiva in Siva” (all living beings are God). They need service not mercy service for man, must be regarded as God. He attracted educated youth who were dissatisfied with the rational orientation of religious reform organisations such as the Brahmo Samaj.

Swami Vivekananda: He was the prime follower of Ramakrishna Paramhamsa. He emphasised a cultural nationalism and made a call to Indian youth to regenerate Hindu society. His ideas bred a sense of self-confidence among Indians who felt inferior in relations to the materialistic achievements of the west. He suggested that the lower castes should be allowed to engage in the Hindu rituals from which they were traditionally excluded. His activist ideology rekindled the desire for political change among many western educated young Bengalis. Many of the youths who were involved in the militant nationalist struggle during the Swadeshi Movement were inspired by Vivekananda.

Question 4.

Write an essay on the role played by the 19th century reformers towards the cause of Women.

Solution:

The position of women in India during the 19th century was miserable. They were not treated equal to men and they were denied rights.

The Social reformers of the 19th century played a significant role in bringing an awakening to the people that women’s participation will strengthen the society.

The reformers strongly advocated education for women.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy with the help of the Governor General of British, William Bentinck abolished Sati in 1829.

He advocated the rights of widows to remarry and wanted polygamy to come to an end. He also raised voice against child marriage.

Reformer Vidyasagar led a movement by which ‘Widows Remarriage Reform Act’ of 1856 was intended

to improve the lot of child widows and save them perpetual widowhood.

Reformer Jyothiba Phule opened Orphanages and homes for widows.

Sikh Reform movement prohibited the dowry system and child marriage.

Reformer Iyothee Thessar considered education as an important tool for empowerment for women and a driving force behind the establishment of several schools for the Untouchables in Tamil Nadu.

VIII. Activity

Question 1.

Debate Social evils of 19th century with those of present day.

Answer:

The list below shows the social evil of 19th century and of the present day. The students should form themselves as separate groups one supporting the 19th century and the other supporting present day. The judgement of the debate can be.

There should be great reformers like that of the 19th century and eradicate the social evils of today. Education itself is a great reformer that should awaken the minds of the young children of today for not involving themselves in any of the social evil nor they see others doing it.

Social evils of 19th century: Child Marriage, superstitious beliefs, Sati, not allowing widows to remarry denying education for women, caste differences, untouchability, Brahman domination.

Social evils of present day: Female Infanticide Dowry system, sexual harassment of women, (or) women safety, Domestic violence (or) violence at home . Drug trafficing, pollution (Air, sound and water) Hygiene and sanitation. Disobeying rules,everywhere and anywhere.

Question 2.

Students can write an assignment on the present state of the reform organizations discussed in the lesson.

Answer:

Assignment on the present state of the reform organizations discussed in the lesson.

Brahmo Samaj founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy denounces image worship and the caste system. In the 19th century the society benefitted by this social reform. The movement lost force in the 20th century its fundamentals are still accepted by the society.

Ramakrishna Mission: The Mission carries out extensive educational and Philanthropic work in India. They work on the principle of selfless work done with dedication to God. As of 2016, the Mission have 182 centers all over the world (136 in India, 13 in USA, 13 in Bangladesh, 2 in Russia) .Besides these, there are private centers all over the world run by the followers of Sri Ramakrishna and Vivekananda. The Mission has received numerous awards throughout its lifetime.

Theosophical society: The Theosophical society at Adyar is a beautiful campus with influence since its founders first arrived here in 1882. The society helps the nation even today by running Olcott Memorial High school in Tamil Nadu. They extend their help by various activities at times of disasters especially Tsunami in 2004. Now in Adyar , open all days except Saturday, Sunday public hoildays.

Arya Samaj: Arya Samaj established a chain of DAV educational institutions for the education of both boys and girls. It represented a form of national awakening of the Indian people. It adopts the programme of mass education, elimination of sub-castes and equality of men and women.

Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

……………… was one of the earlier reformers influenced by the western ideas to initiate reforms.

(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

(b) Keshab Chandra Sen

(c) M.G.Ranade

(d) Atma Ram Pandurang.

Answer:

(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Question 2.

Lord William Bentinck passed an Act in 1829, to abolish “Sati” due to the efforts of

(a) Mrs. Annie Besant

(b) Lala Hansray

(c) Raja Rammohan Roy

Answer:

(c) Raja Rammohan Roy

Question 3.

Arya Samaj movement initiated its movement in ………………

(a) Assam

(b) Punjab

(c) Bihar

(d) Kerala

Answer:

(b) Punjab

Question 4.

The headquarters of the Rama Krishna Mission is at

(a) Kanchipuram

(b) Belur

(c) Melur

Answer:

(b) Belur

Question 5.

Prarthana Samaj was founded in ………………

(a) Bihar

(b) Bombay

(c) Bengal

(d) Madras

Answer:

(b) Bombay

Question 6.

Sir Syed Ahamed Khan started the

(a) Aligarh movement

(b) Muslim League

(c) Theosophical Society

Answer:

(a) Aligarh movement

Question 7.

……………… was the prime follower of Ramakrishna Paramahansa

(a) Vivekananda

(b) Atma Ram Pandurang

(c) M.G. Ranade

(d) Keshab Chandra Sen

Answer:

(a) Vivekananda

Question 8.

A great socialist reformer from Kerala is

(a) Sree Narayana Guru

(b) Guru Nanak

(c) Guru Sai

Answer:

(a) Sree Narayana Guru

Question 9.

Furdunji Naoroji founded the Rahnumai Mazdayasnan Sabha ………………

(a) 1849

(b) 1851

(c) 1850

(d) 1862

Answer:

(b) 1851

Question 10.

The Hindus who had been converted to other religions were reconverted by

(a) Swadeshi movement

(b) Suddhi movement

(c) National movement

Answer:

(b) Suddhi movement

Question 11.

Iyothee Thassar called the ……………… as Sathi Petham Atra Dravidar.

(a) Untouchables

(b) Parsis

(c) Akali

(d) Sikhs

Answer:

(a) Untouchables

Question 12.

……………… criticized the rule of British as the rule of White Devils.

(a) Ramalinga Adigal

(b) Vaikunda Swamigal

(c) Furdunji Naoroji

(d) Iyothee Thassar

Answer:

(b) Vaikunda Swamigal

Question 13.

……………… considered education as a powerful tool for empowerment and a driving force behind the establishment of several schools.

(a) M.G. Ranade

(b) Iyothee Thassar

(c) Vaikunda Swamigal

(d) Sree Narayan Guru

Answer:

(b) Iyothee Thassar

Question 14.

……………… raised funds and campaigned to educate the lower caste of Pulaya people.

(a) Ayyankali

(b) Sree Narayan Guru

(c) M.G. Ranade

(d) Ramalinga Adigal

Answer:

(a) Ayyankali

Question 15.

……………… was called respectfully by his followers as Ayya.

(a) Vaikunda Swamigal

(b) Sree Narayan Guru

(c) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

(d) Namdhari

Answer:

(a) Vaikunda Swamigal

Question 16.

……………… launched the Satyashodak Samaj to stir the non-Brahmin masses to self-respect and ambition.

(a) Ayyankali

(b) Jyotiba Phule.

(c) Narayana Guru

(d) Annie Besant

Answer:

(b) Jyotiba Phule.

Question 17.

……………… started a number of DAV Schools.

(a) Arya Samaj

(b) Brahmo Samaj

(c) Theosophical Society

(d) Prarthana Samaj

Answer:

(a) Arya Samaj

Question 18.

……………… worked mainly for the Ezhava community of Kerala.

(a) Ayyankali

(b) Sree Narayan Guru

(c) Jyotiba Phule

(d) M.G. Ranade

Answer:

(b) Sree Narayan Guru

Question 19.

Deoband movement was a ……………… movement.

(a) Reform

(b) Revival

(c) Anti-Reform

(d) Anti-Revival

Answer:

(b) Revival

Question 20.

Rast Goftar was the main voice of ……………… movement.

(a) Nirankari

(b) Namdhari

(c) Parsi

(d) Vaikundar

Answer:

(c) Parsi

Question 21

……………… condemned the religious custom of animal sacrifice.

(a) Iyothee Thassar

(b) Vaikundar

(c) Ramalinga

(d) Jyotiba Phule

Answer:

(b) Vaikundar

Question 22.

“I saw those people, poor and of unmatched honor, their hearts weary, and I grew weak” who said this”?

(a) Vallalar

(b) Vaikundar

(c) Iyothee Thassar

(d) Deoband

Answer:

(a) Vallalar

Question 23.

……………… and ……………… are the Socio-religious movement among the Sikhs.

(a) Nirankari

(b) Namdhari

(c) (a) and (b)

(d) (a), (b) and Akaii movement

Answer:

(c) (a) and (b)

Question 24.

……………… was the movement founded in USA and later shifted to India,

(a) Ramakrishna Mission

(b) Theosophical Society

(c) Brahmo Samaj

(d) Prarthana Samaj

Answer:

(b) Theosophical Society

Question 25.

……………… established the Khalsa college for the Sikhs in Amritsar.

(a) Namdhari

(b) Nirankari

(c) Singh Sabha

(d) Akaii

Answer:

(c) Singh Sabha

II. Fill in the blanks

English Education was introduced by British with the arm of producing …………….. in India.

In the 19th Century …………….. had its effect on the newly emerging middle class.

The Indian reformers attempted to harmonize both Indian and …………….. cultures.

The two categories of reform movements are: reform movements and …………….. movements.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy preached worship of …………….. God.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s ideas forced Bentinck to bring legislation abolishing ……………..

Sati was abolished in the year ……………..

The Governor General …………….. helped in abolishing Sati in India.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj in ……………..

Brahmo Samaj was taken over by …………….. after the death of Ram Mohan Roy.

Keshab Chandra Sen joined the Brahmo Samaj in ……………..

Widow Remarriage Reform Act was passed in the year ……………..

Gulamgiri was an important work written by ……………..

…………….. was the founder of the Widow Marriage Association.

…………….. was the founder of the Prarthana Samaj.

…………….. movement was similar to the Brahmo Samaj.

The age for marriage was fixed as …………….. years.

The age of marriage was raised to thirteen years in ……………..

The age of consent Act was passed in ……………..

Arya Samaj was initiated at ……………..

…………….. was the founder of Arya Samaj.

Strict monotheism was one of the main principle of ……………..

Swami Dayananda wrote the book ……………..

…………….. started a number of Dayananda Anglo-vedic Schools and Colleges.

 …………….. raised his voice as Go back to Vedas.

…………….. accused that the group running he DAV School is too Westernised.

…………….. worked as a priest in Kali temple but later became a great reformer.

“Jiva is Siva” means ……………..

The counter-conversion movement was called as ……………..

…………….. means songs of Ignorance.

The Theosophical Society was founded by …………….. and ……………..

The Theosophical movement was founded in the …………….. in 1875.

The Theosophical movement was in India at …………….. in Chennai in 1886.

Annie Besant spread Theosophical ideas with the help of the newspapers called …………….. and ……………..

…………….. opened a first School for untouchables in 1852 in Poona.

Jyothi Phule launched the Truth Seekers Society in ……………..

Sri Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam is an organisation to uplift the ……………..

…………….. translated many English books especially Science books into Urdu.

…………….. raised funds to educate the lower class pulaya people.

…………….. started the Aligarh movement.

The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College was founded in the year ……………..

The Aligarh Anglo-Oriental College was raised to the status of a University in ……………..

…………….. used journalism as tool to make inroads into the print public sphere.

Ramalinga Adigal was popularly known as ……………..

Mercy to all living beings including plants is called ……………..

…………….. opposed both Infant marriages and the use of astrology.

…………….. was the founder of the Nirankari movement.

Nirankar movement worship the God as ……………..

Nirankar means ……………..

The Namdhari movement was founded by ……………..

…………….. cult was also known as Ayya Vazhi.

…………….. founded Samathura Samajam.

…………….. was a siddha medicine practitioner who turned into a reformer.

…………….. started a weekly journal Oru Paisa Tamilian.

Answers:

Clerks

Christianity

Western

Revival

One

Sati

1829

Bentinck

1828

Debendranath Tagore

1857

1856

JyotibaPhule

Ranade

Dr. Atma Ram Pandurang

PrarthanaSamaj

Ten

1925

1860

Punjab

Swami Dayanand Saraswati

Arya Samaj

Satyartha Prakash

Arya Samaj

Swami Dayanda Saraswathi

Swami Shradhananda

Ramakrishna

All living beings are God

Suddi movement

Marutpa

Madame H.P Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott

USA

Adyar

New India and Commonweal

JyothiPhule

1870

Depressed classes

Sayyid Ahmed Khan

Sadhu Jana paripalanasangam

Sayyid Ahmed Khan

1875

1920

IyotheeThassar

Vallalar

Jeeva karanga

Parsi Reform movement

Baba Dayal das

Nirankar

Formless

Baba Ram Singh

Vaikunda Swamigal

VaikundaSwamigal

Iyothee Thassar

Iyothee Thassar

III. Choose the correct statements

Question 1.

(i) Raja Ram Mohan Roy argued that the ancient texts of the Hindus preached Monotheism.

(ii) Brahmo Samaj failed to attract the people from the lower sections of society.

(iii) Its impact on the culture of modern Bengal and its middle class was quite significant.

(iv) The poet Rabindranath Tagore carried on the work of Brahmo Samaj after Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (iv) are correct

(c) (i) (ii) (iii) are correct

(d) (ii) (iv) are wrong

Answer:

(c) (i) (ii) (iii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) The age of marriage of initially fixed for 25 years.

(ii) Later it was reduced to thirteen years in 1925.

(iii) It was raised to eighteen in 1891.

(iv) Now, the law remained as twenty as in 1860 Act.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (iv) are correct

(c) (i) (ii) (iii) are correct

(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) are wrong

Answer:

(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) are wrong

Question 3.

(i) Arya Samaj attempted to check the incidence of religious conversion in British India.

(ii) Ramakrishna emphasised the spiritual union with God through the practice of singing bhajans.

(iii) Theosophical Society stimulated the study of the Christianity among people.

(iv) Savitribai Phule devoted her life for the upliftment of the depressed classes.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (ii) (iv) are correct

(c) (iii) (iv) are correct

(d) (i) (ii) (iii) are correct

Answer:

(b) (i) (ii) (iv) are correct

Question 4.

(i) Narendra Nath Datta was known as Swami Vivekananda.

(ii) He became famous for his address on Hinduism at the Indian Congress of Hindus in Chicago in 1893.

(iii) Narayana Guru inspired Kerala Society especially among the Ezhavas.

(iv) inspired by Sree Narayana Guru, Ayyankali founded the Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangam.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (ii) (iv) are correct

(c) (i) (iii) (iv) are correct

(d) (ii) (iii) (iv) are correct.

Answer:

(c) (i) (iii) (iv) are correct

Question 5.

(i) Annie Besant spread Theosophical ideas through her newspapers called New India and Commonweal.

(ii) Jyotiba Phule is chiefly known as the earliest leader of the non-Brahmin movement.

(iii) His work Gulamgiri is an important text that summarized many of his radical ideas.

(iv) Thinkers and writers such as Kumaran Asan and Dr. Palpu were influenced by Narayana Guru ideas.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (ii) (iv) are correct

(c) (ii) (ii) (iii) are correct

(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) are wrong.

Answer:

(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) are wrong.

Question 6.

(i) Deoband School did not prepare its students for the government jobs but for the preaching of Islamic faith.

(ii) In South Travancore, there were restrictions on lower caste people as to what to wear and not to wear.

(iii) lyothee Thassar established a movement called as Oru, Paisa Tamilian.

(iv) John Rathinam ideas were collected into a text called Akila Thirattu.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (ii) (iv) are correct

(c) (ii) (iv) are correct

(d) (i) (iii) (iv) are wrong.

Answer:

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

IV. Assertion and Reason

Question 1.

Assertion (A): Keshab Chandra Sen was greatly influenced by Christianity. Reason (R): He was believing in its spirit, but not in the person of its founder.

(a) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A.

(b) R is correct but A is not relevant to R.

(c) A and R is wrong.

(d) R is wrong but A is correct.

Answer:

(a) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 2.

Assertion (A): The Reform movement Arya Samaj was started in Punjab. Reason (R): Swami Dayananda Saraswathi settled in Punjab to preach his ideas

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation.

(b) R is correct but A is not relevant to A.

(c) A and R is wrong.

(d) R is wrong but A is correct.

Answer:

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation.

Question 3.

Assertion (A): The primary achievement of the Ramakrishna was his ability to attract educated youths..

Reason (R): The Samaj started a number of Dayananda Anglo vedic Schools and colleges.

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation.

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant explanation to A.

(c) A and R is wrong.

(d) R is wrong but A is correct.

Answer:

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant explanation to A.

Question 4.

Assertion (A): Narayana Guru established a grand temple at Arivupuram and dedicated it to all.

Reason (R): In his days, the people of the depressed classes has no access to temples.

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant to A.

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant to A.

(c) A and R is wrong.

(d) A is wrong R is correct.

Answer:

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant to A.

Question 5.

Assertion (A): The School at Deoband encouraged English education. Reason (R): The instruction imparted in the School was the Original Islamic religion.

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation to A.

(b) A is wrong and R is correct.

(c) A is correct and R is not relevant explanation to A.

(d) R is correct but A is wrong.

Answer:

(d) R is correct but A is wrong.

Question 6.

Assertion (A): Ramaiinga Adigal established a free feeding house for everyone irrespective of caste at Vadalur in 1867.

Reason (R): There was a terrible famine in South India in 1866.

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation of A.

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant explanation to A

(c) A is wrong R is correct.

(d) R is correct and R is wrong.

Answer:

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant explanation to A

Question 7.

Assertion (A): Pandithar lyothee Thassar went to Srilanka in 1898 and converted to Buddhism.

Reason (R): He was disappointed with the Hindi dharma, which served as a base for propogating caste in Hindu Society.

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation of A.

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant to A

(c) A is wrong R is correct.

(d) R is correct and A is wrong.

Answer:

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation of A.

V. Match the following

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (vii)

B. (vi)

C. (iv)

D. (iii)

E. (ii)

Question 2.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (vi)

B. (iii)

C. (v)

D. (i)

E. (ii)

VI. Answer briefly

Question 1.

Write a note on Prarthana Samaj.

Answer:

Prarthana Samaj was founded in Bombay in 1867 by Dr. Atmaram Pandurang.

It advocated inter-dining, inter-caste marriage, widow re-marriage, improvement of women and downtrodden classes, abolition of Purdha System and Child marriage.

The Samaj is founded night schools, asylum and Orphanages and other such institutions for the downtrodden people.

Question 2.

Write a note on Brahmo Samaj.

Answer:

It was a reform movement formed in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy at Calcutta. The Samaj mainly focused on the customs of Sati, Child marriage and Polygamy and wanted to remove them legally. The Samaj was successful by abolishing Sati in 1829, with the help of the Governor General Bentinck. It appealed widow remarriage and followed monotheism.

Question 3.

Mention the main principles of the Theosophical Society.

Answer:

To develop the feeding of fraternity.

To study ancient religions, philosophy and science.

To find out the laws of nature and the development of divine power in India.

Question 4.

Write a short note on Ramakrishna Mission.

Answer:

Swami Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna mission. The mission did not restrict itself to religious activities but was actively involved in social causes such as education, health care and relief in times of calamities. Service to humanity is the practical Vedanta of this mission.

Question 5.

Point out the impacts of Social and Religious reform movements in the 19th Century.

Answer:

These movements greatly helped to abolish some of the evils like sati, child marriage and inter and untouchability.

It promoted education, encouraged widow re-marriage, inter-caste marriages and inter-dining.

It instilled social awakening and spirit of nationalism in the middle of Indians.

It made the people to be proud of their culture and glory.

It helped the Indians to face problems with scientific approach and outlook.

Question 6.

List out the Social Reformers of Tamil Nadu.

Answer:

(i) The Social Reformers of Tamil Nadu are Ramalinga Swamigal – emphasising feeding of poor.

(ii) Vaikunda Swamigal – emphasising unity of people of all castes.

(iii) Iyothee Thassar – emphasising Caste less society.

Question 7.

Who is known as Martin-Luthur of Hinduism? Why?

Answer:

Swamy Dayananda Saraswathi is known as the Martin Luther of Hinduism.

He started Suddhi Movement to reconvert the Hindus who had been converted to other religions earlier.

By his efforts, a large number of people were taken back within the fold of Hinduism.

Question 8.

As a student of today, what do you think the social evils present in today’s world and need reform?

Answer:

The Social evils present in today’s world and need reforms are Girl child harassment, female infanticide, Non-observance of societal rules, Adulteration, and above all poverty and pollution.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century

VII. Answer all the questions given under each caption

Question 1.

Brahmo Samaj

(a) Who founded Brahmo Samaj?

Answer:

Raja Rammohan Roy

(b) What Were the languages learnt by Raja Rammohan Roy?

Answer:

Arabic, Sanskrit, Persian, English, French, Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages.

(c) Name the books written by Raja Rammohan Roy.

Answer:

Precepts of Jesus Christ and Guide to Peace and Happiness were written by Raja Rammohan Roy.

(d) What did Brahmo Samaj believe?

Answer:

It believed in a “Universal religion” based on the principle of one Supreme God.

Question 2.

Arya Samaj

(a) When, where and who founded the Arya Samaj.

Answer:

The Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswathi in 1875, in Punjab.

(b) What was the main idea focused by the Samaj.

Answer:

‘Go Back to Vedas’.

(c) What did the Samaj do in the field of education?

Answer:

The Samaj started a number of Dayananda Anglo-vedic schools and colleges to spread education.

(d) What was the name of the school started after dayananda starting OAV schools are westernised?

Answer:

By 1900, Swami Shraddhanada established his own network of schools called Gurukulas emphasising the study of vedas.

Question 3.

The Theosophical Society

(a) Who was the founder of the Theosophical Society?

Answer:

It was founded by Madame Blavatsky and Henry S. Olcott.

(b) Why was it founded?

Answer:

It was founded to preach about God and Wisdom.

(c) Who was the president of this society in 1893?

Answer:

Mrs. Annie Besant.

(d) Where is the headquarters of this society located?

Answer:

The headquarters of this society is at Adyar in Chennai.

Question 4.

Parsi and Sikh Reform Movements

(a) Who founded the Parsis’ Reform Society?

Answer:

Furdunji Naoroji founded the Parsis’ Reform Society in 1851.

(b) What are the names of the two Sikh Reform Movements?

Answer:

Nirankaris and Namdharis are the names of the two Sikh Reform Movements.

(c) Name the leader from Parsi community who played a big role in early congress?

Answer:

Pherozeshah Mehta and Dinshaw Wacha played a big role in early congress from Parsi community.

(d) Who were the founders of the Sikh Reform movements? What was the objective?

Answer:

Baba Dayal Das was the founder of the Nirankari movement and Baba Ram Singh was the founder of the Namdhari movement Its main objective was to restore the purity of Sikhism and the authority of Guru Nanak.

VIII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Elaborate the Early Reform Movements in Bengal.

Answer:

Brahmo Samaj: This was one of the earlier reform movement founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Deeply concerned with the customs of Sati, child marriage and polygamy, raised his voice through the Samaj and abolished sati by legislation in 1829. The Samaj strongly advocated education for women, widow remarriage and western education. It Condemned Idol worship and meaningless rituals and ceremonies.

Adi Brahmo Samaj: In 1886, a Split occurred in Brahmo Samaj and Keshab Chandra Sen left the Samaj and founded a new organisation called Debendranath’s organisation also called as Adi-Brahmo Samaj, This Samaj also followed the ideas of Brahmo Samaj.

Prarthana Samaj: A movement similar to Brahmo Samaj founded in Bombay was called Prathana Samaj. It was founded by R.C Bhandarkar and Mahadev Govinda Ranade. Inter caste dining, Inter-caste marriage, Widow remarriage, improvement of women and depressed classes were their main activities.

Arya Samaj: The Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswathi. This is a revival movement stating ‘ Go back to Vedas’, The Samaj concentrated on social reforms and education . DAV schools of today were originally started by Arya Samaj.

Ramakrishna Mission: Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda. The mission actively involved in the social causes such as education, health care and relief in times of calamities. Service to humanity is their slogan which means Service to God.

Theosophical Movement: The Theosophical movement was founded in ‘ USA by Madame Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott. Later the movement laid its foundation headed by Annie Besant in Adyar, Chennai.

She spread her ideas through her newspaper New India and commonweal. This movement played a major role in Indian Nationalist politics.

Question 2.

Explain the activities of the Ramakrishna Mission.

Answer:

Ramakrishna Mission’s activities cover the areas like educational work, healthcare, cultural activities, rural upliftment, tribal welfare and youth movement.

It has its own hospitals, charitable dispensaries, maternity clinics, tuberculosis clinics and mobile dispensaries.

It also maintains training centres for nurses.

Orphanages and homes for the elderly people are maintained. Rural and tribal welfare works are also going on.

It educational activities the Ramakrishna Mission has established many renowned educational institutions in India.

It has its own universities, colleges and vocational training centres.

It has also involved in disaster relief operations during famine, epidemic, fire, flood, earthquake, cyclones and communal disturbances.

It played an important role in the installation of Photo Voltaic (PV) lighting system in the Sundarbans regions of West Bengal. The PV lighting was used to provide electricity to the people, who were traditionally depending on kerosene and diesel.


Tamil board, ssc, history, Chapter 4, The World after World War II, Samacheer kalvi, 

Question 1.

Who was the first director of Whampoa Military Academy?

(a) Sun Yat-Sen

(b) Chiang Kai-Shek

(c) Michael Borodin

(d) Chou En Lai

Answer:

(b) Chiang Kai-Shek

Question 2.

Which American President followed the policy of containment of Communism?

(a) Woodrow Wilson

(b) Truman

(c) Theodore Roosevelt

(d) Franklin Roosevelt

Answer:

(b) Truman

Question 3.

When was People’s Political Consultative Conference held in China?

(a) September 1959

(b) September 1948

(c) September 1954

(d) September 1949

Answer:

(d) September 1949

Question 4.

The United States and European allies formed to resist any Soviet aggression in Europe.

(a) SEATO

(b) NATO

(c) SENTO

(d) Warsaw Pact

Answer:

(b) NATO

Question 5.

Who became the Chairman of the PLO’s Executive Committee in 1969?

(a) Hafez al-Assad

(b) Yasser Arafat

(c) Nasser

(d) Saddam Hussein

Answer:

(b) Yasser Arafat

Question 6.

When was North and South Vietnam united?

(a) 1975

(b) 1976

(c) 1973

(d) 1974

Answer:

(b) 1976

Question 7.

Where was Arab League formed?

(a) Cairo

(b) Jordan

(c) Lebanon

(d) Syria

Answer:

(a) Cairo

Question 8.

When was the Warsaw Pact dissolved?

(a) 1979

(b) 1989

(c) 1990

(d) 1991

Answer:

(d) 1991


II. Fill in the blanks

………………. was known as the “Father of modern China”.

in 1918, the society for the study of Marxism was formed in ………………. University.

After the death of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, the leader of the Kuomintang party was ……………….

……………….. treaty is open to any Arab nation desiring peace and security in the region.

The treaty of ………………. provided for mandates in Turkish -Arab Empire.

Germany joined the NATO in ……………….

………………. was the Headquarters of the Council of Europe.

………………. treaty signed on February 7,1992 created the European Union.

Answers:

Dr. Sun Yat-Sen

Peking

Chiang-Kai-Sheik

Central Treaty organisation

Versailles

1955

Strasbourg

Maastricht


III. Choose the correct statement / statements

Question 1.

(i) In China (1898) the young emperor, under the influence of the educated minority, initiated a series of reforms known as the 100 days of reforms.

(ii) The Kuomintang Party represented the interests of the workers and peasants.

(iii) Yuan Shih-Kai had lost prestige in the eyes of Nationalists, when he agreed to the demand of Japan to have economic control of Manchuria and Shantung.

(iv) Soviet Union refused to recognize the People’s Republic of China for more than two decades.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (i) and (iii) are correct

(d) (i) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(c) (i) and (iii) are correct


Question 2.

(i) In 1948, the Soviets had established left wing government in the countries of Eastern Europe that had been liberated by the Soviet Army.

(ii) The chief objective of NATO was to preserve peace and security in the North Atlantic region.

(iii) The member countries of SEATO were committed to prevent democracy from gaining ground in the region.

(iv) Britain used the atomic bomb against Japan to convey its destructive capability to the USSR.

(a) (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i) and (ii) are correct

(c) (iii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Answer:

(b) (i) and (ii) are correct


Question 3.

Assertion (A): America’s Marshall Plan was for reconstruction of the war¬. ravaged Europe.

Reason (R): The US conceived the Marshal Plan to bring the countries in the Western Europe under its influence.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(b) Both (A)and (R) are wrong

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct.

Answer:

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A


IV. Match the following

Answer:

A. (ii)

B. (iii)

C. (iv)

D. (v)

E. (i)


V. Answer briefly

Question 1.

Write any three causes for the Chinese Revolution of 1911.

Answer:

Three causes of the Chinese Revolution of 1911 are

The government of Manchu dynasty began to disintegrate with the death of the Empress Dowager Cixi in 1908. The new emperor was two-years old and the provincial governors began to assert their independence. In October 1911 the local army mutinied and the revolt spread.

There were a few middle class leaders. Dr. Sun Yat-sen was one among them. He took part in the rising against the Manchus in 1895. The rising failed and Sun Yat-Sen was sent in the prison. But he continued to spread nationalist ideas.

Yuan Shih-Kai, who had earlier served as a minister in the Manchu administration, persuaded those responsible for the ascension of the young Emperor to prevant on him to abdicate.

Question 2.

Explain how in 1928 Kuomintang and Chiang-Kai Shek established Central Government in China.

Answer:

Chiang Kai-shek started conquering China. Starting from Canton, in 1928, he captured Peking and also removed all communists in the Kuomintang party. Thus, he established Central government in China.

Question 3.

Write a note on Mao’s Long March.

Answer:

Mao was an active leader who had gained full control of the Chinese Communist Party, by 1933. In 1934, he organised communist army of about 100,000 and set out on a long March. The marchers were continually harassed by Kuominatang forces, by local war lords and by unfriendly tribesmen of the 100,000 who set out, only 20,000 finally arrived in northern Shemi in late 1935, after crossing nearly 6000 miles. They were soon poined by other communist armies. By 1937, Mao had become the leader of over 10 million people. Mao’s Long March, as it is called so, has become legendary in the history of China.

Question 4.

What do you know of Baghdad Pact?

Answer:

In 1955, Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Iran and Pakistan signed a pact known as Baghdad pact. In 1958, when United States joined, then it was called as Central Treaty organization. The treaty was open to any Arab nation desiring peace and security in their region. It was dissolved in 1979.

Question 5.

What was the Marshall Plan?

Answer:

The Marshall Plan was an American initiative passed in 1948 to and Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 Billion in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. It operated for four years beginning in April 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-tom regions, modernise industry and improve European prosperity.

Question 6.

The Suez Canal crisis confirmed that Israel had been created to serve the cause of western interests-Elaborate.

Answer:

In 1956, Egypt invaded Suez Canal under Colonel Nasser and nationalized it. With the failure of diplomacy, Britain and France decided to use force. They bombed Egyptian air fields as well as Suez Canal area. However, United States and United Nations pressure, all the three invaders withdrew from Suez Canal.

Question 7.

Write a note on Third World Countries.

Answer:

The capitalist countries led by the US were politically designated as the First Worlds, while the communist states led by the Soviet Union came to be known as the Second World states, outside these two were called third World. During the Cold War, third World consisted of the developing world the former colonies of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. With the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991, and the process of globalisation, the term Third World has lost its relevance.

Question 8.

How was the Cuban missile crisis defused?

Answer:

In April 1961, on the island of Bay of Pigs, U.S bombed Cuban airfields and surrounded Cuba, with their warships. At the same time, USSR was secretly installing nuclear missiles in Cuba. Finally when Soviet President Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the missiles, the Cuban missile-crisis defused.


VI. Answer all the questions under each caption

Question 1.

Cold War

(a) Name the two military blocs that emerged in the Post-World War II.

Answer:

United States and the Soviet Union were the two military blocs that emerged in the post World War-II.

(b) Who coined the term “Cold War” and who used it first?

Answer:

The term Cold war was first coined by the English writer George Orwell in 1945 and it was used for the first time by Bernard Baruch, a multimillionaire from USA.

(c) What was the response of Soviet Russia to the formation of NATO?

Answer:

Warsaw Pact was the response of Soviet Russia to the formation of NATO.

(d) What was the context in which Warsaw Pact was dissolved?

Answer:

With the Break-up of USSR in 1991, the Warsaw Pact was dissolved.

Question 2.

Korean War

(a) Who was the President of North Korea during the Korean War?

Answer:

Kim II was the President of North Korea during the Korean War.

(b) Name the southern rival to the President of North Korea.

Answer:

Syngman Rhee

(c) How long did the Korean War last?

Answer:

The Korean War lasted three years

(d) What was the human cost of the War?

Answer:

The human cost was enormous, there were 500,000 western casualties and three times that number on the other side. Approximately two million Korean civilian died.

Question 3.

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

(a) When and where was the first conference on Non-Aligned Movement held?

Answer:

At Belgrade, in 1961, the first conference on NAM was held.

(b) Who were the prominent personalities present in the first conference?

Answer:

The prominent personalities present in the first conference were Tito (Yugoslavia), Nasser (Egypt), Nehru (India), Nikrumah (Ghana), Sukrano (Indonesia),.

(c) What were the objectives of NAM?

Answer:

Peaceful co-existence, commitment to peace and security.

(d) List out any two basic principles of Non-Alignment Movement enunciated in the Belgrade Conference.

Answer:

Non-Alignment with any of the two super powers (USA/USSR).

Fight all forms of colonialism and Imperialism.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 4 The World after World War II


VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Estimate the role of Mao Tse tung in making China a communist country.

Answer:

Mao was greatly influenced by the ideas of Max and Lenin. He wanted to make China a communist country. So, he became active in the political activities of Hunan from the year 1912.

After the death of Sun Yat-Sen in 1925, The Kuomintang was organised under the leadership of Chang Kai-Shek. Being an avowed critic of communists, Chiang removed all the important position holders in the Communist Party including Mao Tse Tung to weaken the party. However, the communists continued to influence the workers and peasants the Kuomintang represented the interests of landlords and capitalists.

Mao had understood that the Kuomintang grip on the towns was too strong. So, he started organising the peasantry. When the relationships between Kuomintang and Communist Party broke, a few hundred Communist-led by Mao retreated into the wild mountains on the border between the provinces of Kiangsi and Hunan. The Kuomintang could not penetrate the mountains.

Meanwhile, the campaign against the communists got distracted as Chiang Kai-Shek had to deal with the constant threat from Japan.

By 1933 Mao had gained full control of the Chinese Communist Party. In 1934, he set out on a long march with the help of about 100,000 communist army. He also got support of other communist armies.

By 1937, Mao had become the leader of over 10 million people. He organised workers and peasants councils in villages of Shensi and Kansu and finally got success in making China a communist country.

Question 2.

Attempt an essay on the Arab-lsraeii wars of 1967 and 1973.

Answer:

Before the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, all Arabs and their . descendants lived in the Palestine.

Ever since the formation, the Palestinian Liberation organisation (PLO). Israel came to be attacked by the Palestinian Guerrilla groups based in Syria, Lebanon and Jordan.

Israel resorted to violent military force .

In November 1966, an Israeli strike on the village of Al-Samu in the west bank of Jordan killed 18 people and wounded 54 people.

Israel’s air battle with Syria in April 1967 ended in the shooting down of six Syrian MIG fighter jets.

After air battle with Syria, when Arab States were mobilized by Nasser on June 5th Israel staged a sudden air strike that destroyed more than, 90% of Egypt’s air force on the tarmac.

Later, Egypt and Syria under Presidents Anwar Sadat and Hafez-al- Assad respectively concluded a secret agreement in January 1973 to bring their armies under one command.

When peace deals did not work out with Israel, Egypt and Syria launched a sudden and surprise attack on the Yom Kippur religious holiday on 6th October 1973.

Though Israel suffered heavy casualities, it finally pushed back the Arab forces.

Due to U.N intervention, Israel was forced to return and Arabs gained nothing.

U.S succeeded in showing their control on their region and oil resource, led to U. S led war against Iraq in 1991.

Question 3.

Narrate the history of transformation of Council of Europe into an European Union.

Answer:

(i) After World War II, it was decided to integrate the states of western Europe. One of the chief objectives was to prevent further European wars by ending the rivalry between France and Germany. In May 1949, ten countries met in London and signed a form called Council of Europe

(ii) Since the Council of Europe had no real power, a proposal to set up two European organisations were made. Accordingly, the European Defence Community (EDC) and the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) were established. Six countries belonging to ECSC signed the treaty of Rome which established the European Economic Community (EEC) or the European Common Market, with headquarters at Brussels.

(iii) The EEC facilitated the elimination of barriers to the movement of goods and services, capital, and labour. It also prohibited public policies or private agreements that restricted market comptetion. Throughout the 1970s and 80s the EEC kept expanding its membership.

(iv) The single European Act came into force on July 1, 1987. It significantly expanded the EEC’s scope giving the meetings of the EPC a legal basis. It also called for more intensive coordination of foreign policy among member countries. According to the SEA each member was given multiple votes, depending on the countries population.

(v) The Maastricht (Netherlands) Treaty signed on February 7, 1992, created the European Union (EU). Today the European Union has 28 member states, and is functioning from its headquarters at Brussels, Belgium.


VIII. Activity

Question 1.

Divide the class into two groups. Let one group act as supporters of USA and the other group act as supporters of Soviet Union, Organise a debate.

Answer:

One group of students act as the supports of USA and the other group act as supporters of Soviet Union on their role in the cold war era.

(Students can have debate based on the following aspects)

During the time of cold war, the two super powers that emerged was USA and USSR.

Strengths of USA:

Strongest navy both the Pacific and Atlantic.

Continued and strong economic position that the USA held in the beginning till the end.

Foreign policy of the USA. The actions of USA during the cold war era, very powerful and could guarantee others the strong power of the nation is to prevent communism spreading elsewhere.

The country was able to generate the vast amount of wealth necessary to sustain the investment in weapons, technology and other operations.

USA was also technologically powerful in target finding, tracking, sensors etc.

The Truman’s doctrine was used throughout the war time. The doctrine helped USA to negotiate with other states to adopt capitalism.

Strengths of USSR:

Strongest land based military, especially tanks.

USSR developed air defense equipment and networks.

Spread of Communism joined together backed USSR.

As against NATO, USSR also formed military block, the Warsaw pact.

With Western European countries USSR facilitated trade relations.

Highly strengthened space exploration.

In the end of cold war, the Soviet Union fell, and the Communism expired.


Question 2.

Involving the entire class, an album may be prepared with pictures relating to Korean, Arab-lsraeli and Vietnam Wars to highlight the human sufferings in terms of death and devastation.

Answer:

Students should go to the search engine in google and type “The War’s impact on the Korean peninsula and trace the article of the journal of America – East Asia Relations” for a detailed Report.

Korean War: To give a sample answer: According to a U.S. Department of state publication, the number of killed, wounded and missing from the Armed forces of the Republic of Korea exceeded 4,00.000. From the U.S. side, 1,42,000. In addition, the heavy toll in death and injuries to the civilian population as well as wide property damage.

Arab-Israel War: Students should trace the answer from the google search engine as: The U.N. Report on Israel’s Gaza War.

To give a sample answer: From the 183 page report of the U.N. report, it is very clear that many civilians died. More than 6,000 Israeli airstrikes, 14,500 tank shells and 35,000 artillery shells led to the destruction of about 18,000 dwellings in Gaza. Nearly 1,462 Palestinian civilians, 299 women and 551 children were killed (According to U.N. Investigation). In Israel six civilians and 67 soldiers were killed.

Vietnam War: Students should trace the answer in the google search engine as “The War’s effect on the Vietnamese Land and People” for a detailed report.

To give a sample answer: About 58,000 American soldiers were killed and another 3,04,000 were wounded. Since most of the fighting took place in Vietnam, an estimated 4 million Vietnamese were killed on both sides including as many as 1 -3 million civilians. Many Vietnamese in country side turned into homeless refuges. Many forms and forests were destroyed.

Along with the detailed report, students should collect pictures showing Korea, Arab-Israel and Vietnam War, highlighting human sufferings. Students should click to google search engine and go to → Images → then type Korean War pictures / Arab Israel War pictures / Vietnam War pictures, download it take a print out of its and paste it in a A4 sheet paper or an a chart paper neatly and create an album.


 Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

The emergence of ……………. and ……………. as super powers resulted in the division of the World into two block after World War II.

(a) Japan, USA

(b) USA, USSR

(c) China, Japan

(d) USA, Germany

Answer:

(b) USA, USSR

Question 2.

Dr.Sun yat-sen was born in a poor family near ………

(a) Canton

(b) France

(c) Spain

Answer:

(a) Canton

Question 3

……………. was called the father of modern China.

(a) Chiang-Kai-Shek

(b) Yuan-Shi-Kai

(c) Mao-Tse-Tung

(d) Dr. Sun Yat-Sen

Answer:

(d) Dr. Sun Yat-Sen

Question 4.

Mao was born in ……… in South – East China.

(a) Cambodia

(b) Vietnam

(c) Hunan

Answer:

(c) Hunan

Question 5.

Yuan-Shi-Kai died in the year …………….

(a) 1912

(b) 1913

(c) 1915

(d) 1916

Answer:

(d) 1916

Question 6.

Which of the following is not a part of Indo – China?

(a) Cambodia

(b) China

(c) Vietnam

Answer:

(b) China

Question 7.

The Historical Long March set out in China in …………….

(a) 1935

(b) 1937

(c) 1934

(d) 1936

Answer:

(c) 1934

Question 8.

In which of the following was indentured Vietnamese labour widely used?

(a) Rice cultivation

(b) Rubber plantation

(c) Industry

Answer:

(b) Rubber plantation

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 4 The World after World War II

Question 9.

……………. was the leader of the people’s Republic of China.

(a) Marshall

(b) Truman

(c) Mao-Tse-Tung

(d) Chiang-Kai-shek

Answer:

(c) Mao-Tse-Tung

Question 10.

Ho Chi Minh means ………

(a) He, Who enlightens

(b) Enlightenment

(c) The Enlightened one

Answer:

(a) He, Who enlightens

Question 11.

The Idea of European self-help programme financed by the United States was called as …………….

(a) NATO

(b) SEATO

(c) ECA

(d) Marshall plan

Answer:

(d) Marshall plan

Question 12.

EURATOM was established by the ………

(a) Treaty of Nanking

(b) Treaty of Rome

(c) Treaty of London

Answer:

(b) Treaty of Rome

Question 13.

The term ‘cold war’ was first coined by the English writer …………….

(a) Shakespeare

(b) George Orwell

(c) William Dexter

(d) Peter Alphonse

Answer:

(b) George Orwell

Question 14.

As a part of Marshall plan financing, European nations received nearly ……………. billion in aid.

(a) $ 12

(b) $ 11

(c) $ 15

(d) $ 13

Answer:

(d) $ 13

Question 15.

Greece and Turkey joined NATO in the year …………….

(a) 1945

(b) 1947

(c) 1952

(d) 1955

Answer:

(c) 1952

Question 16.

……………. was otherwise called as pact.

(a) NATO

(b) CENTO

(c) SEATO

(d) EC SC

Answer:

(d) EC SC

Question 17

……………. are included as member countries in NATO.

(a) Canada, Belgium

(b) U.K., Portugal

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of the above

Answer:

(c) Both (a) and (b)

Question 18.

NATO had ……………. members by the year 2017.

(a) 30

(b) 51

(c) 29

(d) 24

Answer:

(c) 29

Question 19.

In December 1954, a conference of eight European nations took place in Moscow. This was called as …………….

(a) Warsaw pact

(b) Counter to NATO

(c) SEATO

(d) Both (a) and (b)

Answer:

(d) Both (a) and (b)

Question 20.

The headquarters of the Warsaw pact was …………….

(a) Belgium

(b) Poland

(c) Moscow

(d) Romania

Answer:

(c) Moscow

Question 21.

The Korea was partitioned into North and South Korea in the year …………….

(a) 1944

(b) 1945

(c) 1946

(d) 1947

Answer:

(b) 1945

Question 22.

With the collapse of the ……………. the idea of non-alignment lost relevance.

(a) Berlin

(b) CIA

(c) ECA

(d) Soviet Union

Answer:

(d) Soviet Union

Question 23.

The NAM held its first conference at ……………. in 1961.

(a) Bandung

(b) Belgrade

(c) Thailand

(d) Philippine

Answer:

(b) Belgrade

Question 24.

The World Zionist Organisation was founded in the year …………….

(a) 1857

(b) 1887

(c) 1897

(d) 1867

Answer:

(c) 1897

Question 25.

Castro nationalised the U.S. owned ……………. companies.

(a) cotton

(b) sugar

(c) oil

(d) petrol

Answer:

(b) sugar

Question 26.

The Cuban Missile crisis was defused by ……………. as the agreed to withdraw the missiles.

(a) Khrushchev

(b) Fidel Castro

(c) Leumi

(d) Stem Gang

Answer:

(a) Khrushchev

Question 27.

In the Arab World, it is treated as the ……………. when large number of Arabs become refugees.

(a) Catastrophe

(b) Nakbah

(c) Negev and (b)

(d) Both (a) and (b)

Answer:

(d) Both (a) and (b)

Question 28.

For resolving the Suez Canal Crisis, ……………. from Indian played a crucial role.

(a) Gandhi

(b) Nehru

(c) Bose

(d) Tilak

Answer:

(b) Nehru

Question 29.

Arab-lsrael war took place in the years …………….

(a) 1967,69

(b) 1969,74

(c) 1967,73

(d) 1972,73

Answer:

(c) 1967,73

Question 30.

……………. became the first president of the state of Palestine in 1989.

(a) Anwar Sadat

(b) Yasser Arafat

(c) Nasser Arafat

(d) Nasser Hussain

Answer:

(b) Yasser Arafat

Question 31.

By the end of second world war, ……………. controlled the northern half of Vietnam.

(a) Vietminh

(b) Ho-Chi-Minh

(c) Ngo Dinh Diem

(d) None

Answer:

(a) Vietminh

Question 32.

……………. controlled the southern half of the Vietnam.

(a) Viet Minh

(b) Bao Dai

(c) Ngo Dinh Diam

(d) None

Answer:

(b) Bao Dai

Question 33.

The North and the South Vietnam were formally united as one country in …………….

(a) 1973

(b) 1976

(c) 1975

(d) 1974

Answer:

(b) 1976

Question 34.

In May 1949, ten countries met in ……………. and signed to form a council of Europe.

(a) Japan

(b) Syria

(c) London

(d) France

Answer:

(c) London

Question 35.

To prevent further European War ……………. was founded.

(a) Council of Europe

(b) Council of Trent

(c) ECSC

(d) EU

Answer:

(a) Council of Europe

Question 36.

……………. did not join the EEC, when it was formed.

(a) U.K

(b) U.S.A

(c) USSR

(d) Italy

Answer:

(a) U.K

Question 37.

Britain, voted to exit the EU in the year …………….

(a) 2015

(b) 2014

(c) 2017

(d) 2019

Answer:

(c) 2017

Question 38.

West Berlin was supported by …………….

(a) USA

(b) UK

(c) USSR

(d) Germany

Answer:

(a) USA

Question 39.

East Berlin was supported by …………….

(a) USA

(b) UK

(c) USSR

(d) Germany

Answer:

(c) USSR

Question 40.

Germany was officially united on …………….

(a) 1987

(b) 1989

(c) 1990

(d) 2003

Answer:

(c) 1990

Question 41.

in 1985, ……………. became the head of the USSR.

(a) Mikhai Gorbachev

(b) Reagen

(c) Stalin

(d) Kohl

Answer:

(a) Mikhai Gorbachev

Question 42.

The Chernobyl disaster took place in the year …………….

(a) 1987

(b) 1984

(c) 1986

(d) 2006

Answer:

(c) 1986

Question 43.

Gorbachev announced his resignation on …………….

(a) 21st November

(b) 25th December

(c) 2nd October

(d) 15th August

Answer:

(b) 25th December

Question 44.

USSR dissolved formally In the year …………….

(a) 31st Dec. 1990

(b) 30th Dec. 1991

(c) 31st Dec. 1991

(d) 28,h Feb. 1991

Answer:

(c) 31st Dec. 1991

Question 45.

……………. was an ally of Gorbachev.

(a) Yeltsin

(b) Brezhnev

(c) Khrushchev

(d) None

Answer:

(a) Yeltsin


II. Fill in the blanks

The Chinese revolution broke out in the year …………………

The first director of the Whampoa Military academy was …………………

The campaign against the communists led by Chiang-Kai-Shek was distracted by ………………… and warlords.

By ………………… Mao became the leader of the Chinese people.

Over ………………… delegates from various countries attended the people’s political consultative conference.

When Japanese surrendered in 1945, the Japanese areas were occupied by the …………………

By the year …………………, communist control has been established over most parts of China.

The two mighty communist powers in the world were ………………… and …………………

The term cold war was first coined by …………………

………………… nations became a part of Marshall’s plan of self-help programme.

The Marshall plan funding ended in …………………

………………… was created to resist Soviet aggression in Europe.

NATO means …………………

NATO was formed in the year …………………

The members of NATO agreed that, any armed attack on any one of them would be considered attack on …………………

For the collective security of the South-east Asia, ………………… was formed in 1954.

Member of SEATO were committed to prevent …………………

SEATO was formed in 1954, after signing of the …………………

………………… was formed by Soviet Union as a counter to NATO.

………………… European nations attended the Warsaw pact in December 1954.

The treaty on Warsaw pact was concluded on …………………

The Warsaw pact was dissolved in …………………

The Warsaw pact dissolved because of the break-up of …………………

The Baghdad pact was otherwise called as …………………

Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan and Great Britain signed a treaty in 1955, known as …………………

When U.S.A joined the Baghdad pact, it was called by name …………………

USA joined the Baghdad pact in the year …………………

CENTO was dissolved in the year …………………

Korea was partitioned as North Korea and South Korea in the year …………………

The president of North Korea was …………………

The party of Kim II was called as …………………

The president of the South Korea was …………………

The party of Syngman Rhee was …………………

Korean War lasted for ………………… years.

NAM refers to the …………………

NAM was signed in ………………… at the ………………… conference.

Bandung is a city in …………………

With the collapse of ………………… the idea of NAM lost importance.

CIA is a Central Intelligence Agency of …………………

The Act of ………………… in Cuba, threatened American economic interests.

USA bombed Cuban ………………… with the aim of overthrowing Castro’s regime.

………………… was the president of USSR, when the Cuban Missile crisis took place.

Cuba was helped by …………………

When USSR remove missile from Cuba, USA had to agree to remove missile from ………………… and …………………

………………… was a Zionist Terrorist Organisation.

The Zionist Para-military organization was called as …………………

The World Zionist organization was founded in the year …………………

Jews living outside their ancient home scattered around North America and Europe was called as …………………

………………… Nationalised Suez Canal.

India represented by ………………… played a crucial role in resolving the crisis.

The Arab-lsraeli War took place in the years ………………… and …………………

PLO refers to …………………

PLO was formed in …………………

………………… was the prominent leader of Palestine.

By the end of the Second World War, ………………… Controlled the northern half of Vietnam.

South Vietnam was ruled by …………………

America supported troops of ………………… Vietnam.

The city of ………………… was renamed as Ho-Chi-Minh city.

To create a United Europe to resist any threat from Soviet Russia, ………………… was formed.

European Economic Community was otherwise called as …………………

SEA refers to …………………

According to the SEA, each member was given ………………… votes.

The ………………… Treaty created the European Union.

Maastricht is in …………………

EU was created on Maastricht treaty signed on …………………

The headquarters of the EU is at …………………

Brussels is at …………………

………………… Germany was prosperous.

………………… Germany was suffering from lack of democracy and freedom.

Germany was officially reunited on …………………

Glasnost means …………………

Perestroika means …………………

………………… was introduced by Gorbachev to restructure Soviet economic and political system.

After Gorbachev, power fell into the hands of …………………

For ………………… days, Soviet Union, continued to exist only in name.

Soviet Union dissolved formally on 31st December …………………

USSR split into ………………… countries.

………………… was the president of the newly independent Russian State.

U.S.A. troops used ………………… weapons in their war against Vietnam.

Napalm and Agent Orange are the names of incendiary …………………

Answers:

USA and USSR

Berlin Wall

1908

National People’s Party

Socialism

1911

Chiang-Kai-Shek

Japan

1937

650

Kuomintang

1948

Soviet Union, People’s Republic of China

George Orwell

Sixty

1951

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

1949

NATO

SEATO

Communism

Manila Pact

Warsaw Pact

8 (eight)

May 14, 1955

1991

USSR

Central Treaty Organisation

Baghdad Pact

Central Treaty Organisationi

1958

1979

1945

Kim II

People’s Republic of Korea

Syngman Rhee

The Republic of Korea

three

Non-Aligned Movement

1955, Bandung

Indonesia

Soviet Union

America

Castro

Airfields

Khrushchev

USSR

Turkey, Italy

Stem Gang

Irgun Zvai Leumi

1897

Diaspora

Colonel Nasser

Nehru

1967, 1973

Palestine Liberation Organisation

1948

Yasser Arafat

Viet Minh

Ngo Dinh Diem

South

Saigon

Council of Europe

European Common Market

Single European Act

multiple

Maastricht

Netherlands

Feb 7, 1992

Brussels

Belgium

West Berlin’s

East Berlin

3rd October 1990

openness

restructuring

Perestroika

Boris Yeltsin

Six 81.1991

15

Boris Yeltsin

Bacteriological

bombs

III. Choose the correct statement / statements

Question 1.

(i) The cold war period ended with the fall of Berlin Wall

(ii) Mao concentrated mainly on organizing the peasantry.

(iii) In 1937, the communist army of about 100,000 set out on the Long march.

(iv) Marshall plan funded nearly $ 15 billion.

(a) (ii and (ii) are correct

(b) (i) and (iii) are correct

(c) (ii and (iv) are correct

(d) (iii) and (iv) are correct.

Answer:

(a) (ii and (ii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) The USSR was much concerned about the destruction caused by the Second World War.

(ii) The South East Asia Treaty organization was organised for the collective security of countries in South East Asia.

(iii) The Communist States led by the Soviet Union came to be known First World Countries.

(iv) The Capitalist countries led by the U.S.A. were politically designated as Second World Countries.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i), (iii), (iv) are wrong

(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

(d) (ii) and (iii) are correct.

Answer:

(b) (i), (iii), (iv) are wrong

Question 3.

(i) NAM refers to the Non-Aligned Movement.

(ii) The Single European Act of the EU as called as SEA.

(iii) Anwar Sadat was the president of the Palestine in 1989.

(iv) The fighters of South Vietnam were trained in guerrilla warfare.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i), (iii), (iv) are wrong

(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

(d) (ii) and (iii) are correct.

Answer:

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 4.

(i) The Third World principally consist of the developing World.

(ii) With the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, and the process of globalization, the term has lost its relevance.

(iii) The former colonies of Asia, Africa, and Latin America were called as Third World Countries.

(iv) The division of Germany into West and East led to glaring differences in living standards.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i), (ii), (iii) are correct

(c) (i) and (iii) are correct

(d) All the four are correct.

Answer:

(d) All the four are correct.

Question 5.

(i) Yeltsin worked as a Mayor of Moscow.

(ii) Yeltsin was returned to power with overwhelming support of a Moscow in 1899.

(iii) For twelve days, the Soviet Union continued to exist only in name.

(iv) On 28th February 1991, USSR was formally dissolved.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i), (ii), (iii) are correct

(c) (i) and (iii) are correct

(d) All the four are correct.

Answer:

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 6.

(i) CENTO was otherwise called as Manila pact.

(ii) As a counter to SEATO, NATO was formed.

(iii) The Korean war helped to bring down the intensity of the Cold war.

(iv) The EEC eliminated barriers to the movement of goods, Capital and labour.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i), (ii), (iii) are wrong

(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

(d) All the four are correct.

Answer:

(b) (i), (ii), (iii) are wrong

Question 7.

(i) The Berlin Wall was just a physical barrier.

(ii) Berlin Wall divided East Germany and West Germany.

(iii) USA supported East Berlin.

(iv) USSR supported West Berlin.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i), (ii), (iii) are wrong

(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

(d) All the four are wrong.

Answer:

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

IV. Assertion and Reason

Question 1.

Assertion (A): Yuan Shih-Kai of China lost prestige in his country.

Reason (R): He agreed to the demand of Japan to have economic control of Manchuria and Shantung.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, R is not the correct explanation of A

(b) Both (A) and (R) are wrong

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and R is the correct explanation of A

(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct.

Answer:

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and R is the correct explanation of A

Question 2.

Assertion (A): The rivalry that developed after World War 11 is referred to as “Cold War”.

Reason (R): This war did not take recourse to weapons.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, R is not the correct explanation of A

(b) Both (A) and (R) are wrong

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and R is the correct explanation of A

(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct.

Answer:

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and R is the correct explanation of A

Question 3.

Assertion (A): There was High military expenditure on both sides of USA and USSR.

Reason (R): Soviet Union tested the nuclear bomb and America used the nuclear bomb against Japan.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, R is not the correct explanation of A

(b) Both (A) and (R) are wrong

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and R is the correct explanation of A

(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct.

Answer:

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and R is the correct explanation of A

Question 4.

Assertion (A): The U.S. and its European allies formed the NATO to wage war against Vietnam.

Reason (R): As a counter to the NATO, Soviet Union organised the Warsaw pact.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, R is not the correct explanation of A

(b) Both (A) and (R.) are wrong

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct.

Answer:

(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct.

Question 5.

Assertion (A): A small country had succeeded in winning Independence and the greatest power of the World-The country Vietnam.

Reason (R): The help given to Vietnam by the Socialist Countries, the political support given by Asia and Africa is evident.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, R is not the correct explanation of A

(b) Both (A) and (R) are wrong

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct.

Answer:

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

Question 6.

Assertion (A): Sun Yat-sen sent Chiang Kai-shek to Moscow, in Russia. The Russians in turn sent Michael Borodin to China.

Reason {R): Chiang Kai-shek started conquering China from Canton.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, R is not the correct explanation of A

(b) Both (A) and (R) are wrong

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct.

Answer:

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, R is not the correct explanation of A

Question 7.

Assertion (A): U.S.A. supported Diem government in South Vietnam. Reason (R): U.S. wanted to establish a strong government in South Vietnam.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, R is not the correct explanation of A

(b) Both (A) and (R) are wrong

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct.

Answer:

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

V. Match the following

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 4 The World after World War II 3

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iii)

C. (ii)

D. (i)

E. (vi)

Question 2.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 4 The World after World War II 4

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (iii)

C. (i)

D. (ii)

E. (vi)

VI. Answer briefly

Question 1.

Describe about Zionist movement.

Answer:

(i) In Palestine, the ancient home of Jews, only a few thousand Jews were living in 1900.

(ii) Some 15 million were scattered around Europe and North America.

(iii) These Jews had been subjected to systematic persecution for centuries.

(iv) But in the late nineteenth century, the persecution in Russia (Where two-thirds of the world’s jews lived), France and Germany was intense.

(v) Some Jews emigrated to Palestine, while many more went to the United States and Britain.

(vi) In 1896, Thodore Herzel, a Viennese journalist, published a pamphlet called the Jewish state in which he called for the creation of a Jewish national home. In 1897 the world zionist organisation was founded.

Question 2.

What was Truman’s policy?

Answer:

Truman, the president of USA announced a policy of containment of communism. This implies U.S. would support those countries which were threatened by USSR to spread communism.

Question 3.

Mention the initial member countries of the EU.

Answer:

Belgium

France

Italy

Luxemburg

Netherlands

West Germany

Question 4.

What is meant by SEA?

Answer:

SEA refers to the single European Act which came into force on July 1,1987. According to the SEA, each member was given multiple votes depending on the country’s population. Its main aim is establishing a single market.

Question 5.

Name the organs of the EU.

Answer:

European parliament

Council of the European Union

European commission

Court of Justice

Court of Auditors

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 4 The World after World War II

Question 6.

Write a note on European Union.

Answer:

On February 7, 1992, the Maastricht Treaty that signed in Netherlands created the European Union. All the member countries of the EU will use common currency Euro, a single market and common Act. EU at present has 28 members with head quarters at Brussels, Belgium.

Question 7.

How was the European union formed?

Answer:

According to the Merger Treaty of 1967, the three communities namely the European coal and steel community, the European Economic community and the European Atomic Energy community were merged together to form the European union.

VII. Answer all the questions under each caption

Question 1.

People’s Republic of China

(a) Who was the leader of the People’s Republic of China?

Answer:

Mao Tse-Tung was the leader of the People’s Republic of China.

(b) Name the two mighty Communist powers of the world?

Answer:

The Soviet-Union and the people’s Republic of China.

(c) Who did not recognise People’s Republic of China and for how long?

Answer:

The UNO refused to recognise people’s Republic of China for more than twenty years.

(d) How did the government of Taiwan got recognition?

Answer:

The government of Chiang Kai-shek in Taiwan was given recognition ‘ due to the pressure from USA.

Question 2.

Achievements of EU

(a) What is the symbol of the Euro?

Answer:

The symbol of the Euro is €.

(b) What did the Euro eliminate?

Answer:

The Euro eliminated foreign exchange hurdles encountered by companies doing business across European border.

(c) How many members are there in the EU at present?

Answer:

At present, there are 28 members in the EU.

(d) Who allocates funds to European research projects?

Answer:

The European Research council.

Question 3.

Disintegration of The Soviet Union.

(a) Who became the head of USSR in 1985?

Answer:

Mikhail Gorbachev became the head of the USSR in 1985.

(b) What is meant by “thaw”?

Answer:

The “Thaw” refers to the period from the early 1950’s and 1960’s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union was relaxed and millions of political prisioners were released. It was the period of Khrushchev’s reign.

(c) What is meant by Glasnost?

Answer:

Glasnost means openness. It was the policy of more transperancy and openness in the government policy of former Soviet Russia introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev.

(d) What is meant by Perestroika?

Answer:

Perestroika means restructuring. It refers to the programme introduced by Mikhail Gorbhachev to restructure Soviet economic and political system.

Question 4.

Berlin Wall

(a) Who constructed a wall which virtually cut off West Berlin and East Berlin? and when?

Answer:

East German began to construct a wall in 1961 which virtually cut off West Berlin and East Berlin.

(b) How was it guarded?

Answer:

It was guarded with watchtowers and other lethal impediments to stop people from the east.

(c) What does the Berlin wall symbolise?

Answer:

It was symbolic boundary between Communism and Capitalism.

(d) What happened with the fall of the Berlin wall?

Answer:

With the fall of the Berlin wall , followed by the collapse of the Soviet Union, the cold war came to an end.

VIII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Write a brief account of the life and achievements of Ho Chi Minh.

Answer:

He was born in a small town in Central Vietnam. He studied in French school that produced great leaders. After his studies he worked on a French liner operating between Saigon and Marseilles. He was greatly inspired by European communist parties, became member of commintem and was instrumental in bringing together competing nationalists groups to form the Vietnamese communist party in 1930. It was later renamed the Indo-Chinese communist party. After spending 30 years abroad in Europe, China Thailand, he returned to Vietnam in 1941. He became President of the Vietnam Democratic Republic in 1943.

After the split of Vietnam, he and the communists took control of North Vietnam. With the help of his government, National Liberation Front in the south fought for unification of the country. He fought hard to maintain the autonomy of Vietnam and till the end proved true to his name. Ho Chi Minh meaning He, Who Enlightens.

Question 2.

Illustrate the cold war developments in case of the Vietnam war. Narrate how North and South Vietnam unified as Independent Nation.

Solution:

By 1945, the end of the second world war, Viet Minh controlled the northern half of Vietnam, led by Ho-chi- Minh.

Viet Minh and french reached an agreement by which North Vietnam would be a free state.

While French was helped by America, Viet Minh was helped by the new Chinese communist government.

War broke out between them. Eventually , France troops were defeated.

The Geneva conference that met on Korea and Indo China in 1954, decided that of Laos. Combodia and Vietnam. The independent states would be Laos and Cambodia. Vietnam, temporarily divided.

While North Vietnam controlled by Viet Minh with leader Ho-Chi-Minh and south Vietnam would be under the leadership of Bao Dai.

At the same time, South Vietnam was ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem.

When U.S wanted to establish a strong Non-communist government in South Vietnam. In 1965, marines landed on Danang naval base and namely 2,10,000 traps in the country, j (ix) The U.S bombed both North and South.

The fighters of North Vietnam trained in Guerrilla warfare sustained.

America suffered heavy casualties , vast devastated and many were killed.

The youth rebelled against the horrors of the war.

The protest against the war spread all over the world.

By 1975, the armies of the North and the only one party of South Vietnam called National Liberation front of South Vietnam attacked America.

By 30th April 1975, all the American troops had withdrawn and capital of South Vietnam Saigon was liberated.

North Vietnam and South Vietnam formally united as one country in 1976.

The city of Saigon was renamed as the Ho-Chi-Minh city .

Thus, the emergence of Vietnam as a united and Independent nation was an historic event.

Question 3.

Explain the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Answer:

In the middle of 1980’s Soviet Union economy was suffering.

In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev took over as the president of USSR.

Gorbachev spoke about the need for openness (Glasnost) and Perestroika (restructuring).

But his ideas of reform did not work out for him because, to compete with U.S, USSR need to allocate more funds to the military.

The economic stagnation of the Soviet Union aggrevated tension and promoted nationalist feelings.

In the year 1988, Mass protest broke out in Armenia and in the Baltic states.

Gorbachev made attempts to stabilize his position by relying on conservative forces in 1989, 1991.

But the massive miner’s strike interrupted. The series of worker’s strike under mined the communist regimes first in Poland, then in Hungary.

The fall of Berlin wall in Germany, encouraged people to be united.

Gorbachev made a last attempt to take a hard line against miner’s strike and huge demonstrations in Moscow in 1991.

In response, the conservative forces in his government used troops in Moscow and held Gorbachev under house arrest.

Power fell into the hands of Boris Yeltsin.

In November 1991, eleven republics announced that they would establish a common wealth of independent states.

On 25th Dec 1991 , Gorbachev resigned.

For six days, the Soviet Union continued to remain only in name and at midnight on 31st December 1991 it was formally dissolved.

The USSR was no more.


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