Secondary Economic Activities | Aster Classes

Chapter 5, Secondary Economic Activities, geography, hsc, ebalbharathi, solution,

Complete the chain:

1) Small- scale industries(1) Manual manufacturing(1) Ceramics
2) Cottage industries(2) Skilled crafts person(2) Tata Iron and Steel company
3) Consumer goods(3) Individual(3) Potters
4) Private(4) Ready for direct consumption(4) Pharmaceutical


(1) Small scale industries(1) Ready for direct consumption(1) Potters
(2) Cottage industries(2) Manual manufacturing(2) Ceramics
(3) Consumer goods(3) Skilled crafts person(3) Pharmaceutical
(4) Private(4) Individual(4) Tata Iron and Steel company

1.Identify the correct correlation:

A: Assertion; R: Reasoning

A: The humid climate of Mumbai offered great scope for the development of cotton textile industries.

R: Industries require ample amount of water.


  • Only A is correct
  • Only R is correct
  • Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
  • Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A

2.Identify the correct correlation:

A: Assertion; R: Reasoning

A: In India, industries are found concentrated in few areas are available.

R: India is predominantly agrarian country.


  • Only A is correct
  • Only R is correct
  • Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
  • Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A

Give geographical reasons:

1.Distribution of industries is uneven.


Distribution of industries depend upon various physical factors like climate, raw material, water and power supply, labour, transportation, land, etc., and economic factors like capital, market and government policies.

Physical and economic factors vary from region to region and political factors vary from country to country. Industries are developed where physical and economic factors are favourable for their development, thus, distribution of industries is uneven.

For example, in India industries are concentrated in Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chota Nagpur region and in the rest of India, agriculture is the only major economic activity.

2.Iron and steel industries are found in mineral rich area of Dhanbad.


Important raw materials used in iron and steel industry are iron-ore, limestone, dolomite, manganese and coal. All these raw materials are heavy, bulky and weight-losing. The cost of transportation of these materials are very high. Dhanbad and its surrounding areas are the major iron-ore and coal producing areas. Since this industry is using weight-losing raw materials which are available around Dhanbad, iron and steel industry is found at Dhanbad.

3.Fruit-processing industries are found in Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts of Konkan region.


Fruit processing industries use fruits as raw material. Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts are known for horticulture. They are major mango, jackfruit, cashew and kokum producing districts of Maharashtra. All these fruits are raw materials in fruit processing industry. These raw materials are bulky, weight-losing and perishable and hence the industry is located in Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts where fruits are grown in plenty.

4.What are the major factors which have hindered the growth of industries in South America?


Industries in the continent of South America are developed only in coastal areas of Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Peru. The hindrances in the growth of industries in South America are due to unfavourable physical factors such as dense forests in Brazil, deserts in interior parts of Argentina, Andes mountain range running along the west coast. The economic factors like limited capital, lack of modern technology and lack of transportation facilities etc., create hindrance in development of industries. Comparatively low density of population and lack of markets are the other factors responsible to have hindered the growth of industries in South America.

5.What factors are responsible for non-development of industries in Central Australia?


Central part of Australia is covered by the Great Australian desert. Since it is a desert, physical factors like climate, water, raw materials, labour and transport facilities are not suitable for the development of industries. Because of these adverse physical conditions, the density of population is extremely low and therefore there are limited markets. Also, due to these unfavourable economic factors also industries are not developed in central Australia.

Short notes:

1.Footloose industries.


Footloose industry is a general term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect of factors of location such as land, labour, climate and capital.

– The raw material used as well as finished products of these industries are very light so their location near the source of raw material or transport is not important. These industries often have spatially fixed cost, which means that costs of the product do not change despite where the product is assembled. Diamond cutting, computer chips and mobiles manufacturing are some of the examples of footloose industries. Advance technology like internet, email are used for raw material as well as marketing. These are generally non-polluted industries.

2.Public sector industries.


Public sector industries are owned by the state. The investments in public sector industries is done by the government. Also, marketing of goods is done through government agencies. Public sectors include public goods and governmental services such as military, law enforcement infrastructure (public roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply electrical grids, health, etc.). Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) is one of the largest engineering and manufacturing companies of its kind in India engaged in designing engineering construction.

3.Economics of scale.


Economics of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain because of various facilities established due to basic industries in certain region. Sometimes due to advantage of many favourable factors for industrial development in certain areas, there is concentration of industries in that area, which is called agglomeration of industries in these regions industries develop not due to any locational factors but due to economies of scale enjoyed because agglomeration of industries. Due to the development of basic industries other ancillary industries which are complementary to each other also develop. For example, once cotton textile industry develops in any region, readymade garment making industries, industries supplying dyes and chemicals, industries producing materials like thread, buttons, laces, etc., also develop. Due to such agglomeration, the industries in that region get more profit compared to their investment due to economies of scale such as cheap transport, labour, financial facilities etc. For example, transport companies give concession, hence, the cost of transportation decreases. Since industries in this region are complementary, it is easier to collect or supply goods from other industries of nearby areas. For example, dye making industries supply dyes to cotton textile industry and cotton textile industry supplies cloth to ready-made garment industries.

4.Role of transportation in industries.


Transportation facilities are important for the collection of raw materials and distribution of finished products. Low cost of transportation is the key factor in the location of industries. Transport network is crucial for sustained economic growth and development of a nation. Transport system helps to send raw material, fuel and machinery to different industries at the right time and runs the industry. Thus, transport plays a crucial role in the development of industries.

Differentiate between:

1.Weight-losing and Weight-gaining industries.


(i) Weight-losing industries are those industries in which raw material are relatively bulky but finished products are relatively light.(i) Weight-gaining industries are those industries in which raw materials are relatively lighter than finished products.
(ii) Weight-losing industries are located near raw materials.(ii) Weight-gaining industries are located near markets.
(iii) For example, sugar industries locate near sugarcane producing areas. 10 tons of sugarcane is required to produce 1 ton of sugar.(iii) For example, cotton textile industries locate near the market because finished product cotton cloth is heavier than the raw material cotton.

2.Primary and Secondary Activities.


Primary ActivitiesSecondary Activities
(i) Primary activities include activities, such as hunting, fishing, mining, agriculture.(i) Secondary activities include manufacturing and constructions.
(ii)These activities concerned with are obtaining materials directly from nature. For example, fish from water or wood from trees.(ii) These activities add value to the already existing products by changing their form, making them more suitable to satisfy our needs and wants.
(iii) Primary activities produce raw materials.(iii) Secondary activities produce finished products,
(iv) Production of goods in primary activities depends upon natural factors.(iv) Production of goods in secondary activities depends on technology, skill of labours and capital

3.Basic Industries and Consumer Industries.


Basic IndustriesConsumer Industries
(i) The finished products of these industries are used by other industries.(i) The finished products of these are used as raw material which are directly consumed by consumers.
(ii)For example, iron and steel industry provides steel as raw material to machine tool making or agricultural implements making industry.(ii) For example, the medicines made in pharmaceutical industries are directly consumed by consumers.
(iii) These industries supply their products to others. Hence, they are called linkage products.(iii) These industries supply their products to consumers. Hence, they are called as consumer goods industries.

Answer the following:

1.Explain the physical factors affecting location of industries.


Climate, raw material, water, power, labour, land and transport are important physical factors deciding the location of industry. Extreme climate like too hot, too cold, dry and very humid climate are not suitable for industries. Generally, industries develop in areas of moderate climate.

Availability of raw material is essential for the development of industries. Industries using perishable, heavy, bulky and weight-losing raw materials are located in the areas of source of raw materials. For example, sugar mills near sugarcane growing areas.

Most of the industries require lot of water for processing, like cooling, washing ete. Such industries are located near lakes, rivers or other water bodies. For example, many industries are located around Great Lakes in USA.

Labour is another important factor deciding location of industries. Availability of skilled, semi-skilled and cheap labour is very important to work in industries. Hence, we generally find labour colonies are located where skilled and cheap labour is available.

Transport facilities are essential for transport of raw materials and finished products. Low cost transport is the key factor in the development of industries. Industries develop in the areas, where transportation network is well developed. For example, many industries are developed along Trans-Siberian railway line in Russia.

Industrial development need huge land for the construction of industrial units. Industries develop where cheap, plain and extensive land is available.

Industries need power supply, main sources of power supply are coal, oil, electricity and now a days wind energy, solar energy etc. Industries locate near coal mines, or availability of electricity. For example, industries concentrated around coal mining area of Ruhr region of Germany or industries concentrated near Khopoli hydro power station.

2.Explain the factors affecting location of sugar industries.


The following are the factors affecting the location of sugar industries.

  1. Sugar industry is and agro-based industry.
  2. Sugarcane is the raw material in sugar industry.
  3. Sugarcane is perishable and weight-losing raw material.
  4. It is also heavy and bulky raw material.
  5. Taking into consideration all above characteristics of raw material used in sugar industry, it is always located in the areas of sugarcane production.
  6. In Maharashtra, Satara, Kolhapur, Ahmednagar, Sangli etc., are the sugarcane producing districts and the same districts have concentration of sugar industry.

Show the following on a map of the world with suitable index:

  1. Ruhr industrial region
  2. An industrial region in Japan
  3. An industrial region in South Africa
  4. An industrial region in Australia
  5. Industrial region near Great Lakes




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