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Tamil board, ssc, history, Chapter 6, Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu, sanacheer kalvi,

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

Who was the first Palayakkarars to resist the East India Company’s policy of territorial aggrandisement?

(a) Marudhu brothers

(b) Puli Thevar

(c) Velunachiyar

(d) Veerapandya Kattabomman

Answer:

(b) Puli Thevar

Question 2.

Who had borrowed money from the East India Company to meet the expenses he had incurred during the Carnatic wars ?

(a) Velunachiyar

(b) Puli Thevar

(c) Nawab of Arcot

(d) Raja of Travancore

Answer:

(c) Nawab of Arcot

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Question 3.

Who had established close relationship with the three agents of Chanda Sahib?

(a) Velunachiyar

(b) Kattabomman

(c) Puli Thevar

(d) Oomai thurai

Answer:

(c) Puli Thevar

Question 4.

Where was Sivasubramanianar executed?

(a) Kayathar

(b) Nagalapuram

(c) Virupachi

(d) Panchalamkurichi

Answer:

(b) Nagalapuram

Question 5.

Who issued the Tiruchirappalli proclamation of Independence?

(a) Marudhu brothers

(b) Puli Thevar

(c) Veerapandya Kattabomman

(d) Gopala Nayak

Answer:

(a) Marudhu brothers

Question 6.

When did the Vellore Revolt breakout?

(a) 24 May 1805

(b) 10 July 1805

(c) 10 July 1806

(d) 10 September 1806

Answer:

(c) 10 July 1806

Question 7.

Who was the Commander-in-Chief responsible for the new military regulations in Vellore Fort?

(a) Col. Fancourt

(b) Major Armstrong

(c) Sir John Cradock

(d) Colonel Agnew

Answer:

(c) Sir John Cradock

Question 8.

Where were the sons of Tipu Sultan sent after the Vellore Revolt?

(a) Calcutta

(b) Mumbai

(c) Delhi

(d) Mysore

Answer:

(a) Calcutta


II. Fill in the blanks

The Palayakkarars system was put in place in Tamil Nadu by …………….

Except the Palayakkarars of ……………. all other western Palayakkarars supported Puli Thevar.

Velunachiyar and her daughter were under the protection of ……………. for eight years.

Bennerman deputed ……………. to convey his message, asking Kattabomman to surrender.

Kattabomman was hanged to death at …………….

The Rebellion of Marudhu Brothers was categorized in the British records as the …………….

……………. was declared the new Sultan by the rebels in Vellore Fort.

……………. suppressed the revolt in Vellore Fort.

Answers:

Viswanatha Nayaka of Madurai

Sivagiri

Gopala Nayakar

Ramalinganar

Kayathar

Second Palayakarar war

Fateh Hyder (the eldest son of Tipusultan)

Colonel. Gillespie


III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) The Palayakkarars system was in practice in the Kakatiya Kingdom.

(ii) Puli Thevar recaptured Nerkattumseval in 1764 after the death of Khan Sahib.

(iii) Yusuf Khan who was negotiating with the Palayakkarars, without informing the Company administration was charged with treachery and hanged in 1764.

(iv) Ondiveeran led one of the army units of Kattabomman.

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) UnderColonel Campbell, the English Army went along with Mahfuzkhan’s army.

(ii) After Muthu Vadugar’s death in Kalaiyar Kovil battle, Marudhu Brothers assisted Velunachiyar in restoring the throne to her.

(iii) Gopala Nayak spearheaded the famous Dindigul League.

(iv) In May 1799 Cornwallis ordered the advance of Company armies to Tirunelveli.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 3.

Assertion (A): Puli Thevar tried to get the support of Hyder Ali and the French.

Reason (R): Hyder Ali could not help Puli Thevar as he was already in a serious conflict with the Marathas.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

(b) Both (A) and (R) are wrong

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct

Answer:

(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 4.

Assertion (A): Apart from the new military Regulations the most objectionable was the addition of a leather cockade in the turban.

Reason (R): The leather cockade was made of animal skin.

(a) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct

(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

(c) Both (A) and (R) are wrong

(d) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Answer:

(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)


IV. Match the following

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iii)

C. (ii)

D. (i)

E. (iv)


V. Answer the questions briefly

Question 1.

What were the duties of the Palayakkarars?

Answer:

The Palayakkarars carried on the following duties:

They collected revenue, administered the territory control, settled disputes and maintained law and order.

On many occasions the Palayakkarars helped the Nayak rulers to restore the kingdom to them.

Question 2.

Identify the Palayams based on the division of east and west.

Answer:

The two prominent blocs were Eastern and Western Palayams:

Eastern Palayams:

Western Palayams:

Uthumalai

Thallawankottai

Naduvakurichi

Singampatti

Seithur.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Question 3.

Why was Heron dismissed from service?

Answer:

Colonel Heron was urged to deal with Puli Thevar as he continued to defy the authority of the company. Puli Thevar wielded much influence over the western Palayakkarars. Heron had to abandon the plan for want of cannon and of supplies and pay to soldiers. He retired to Madurai. He was then recalled and dismissed from sendee.

Question 4.

What was the significance of the Battle of Kalakadu?

Answer:

With the support of the East India company Arcot Nawab Mohamed Ali wanted to bring Madurai and Tirunelveli regions which were under the command of Nawab Chandra Sahib’s agents.

These agents got the support of Tamil Palayakkarars and had close relationship with Puli Thevar.

An army was sent under the head of Mahfiizkhan to capture Tirunelveli.

Before he station his troops near Kalakadu 2000 soldiers from Travancore joined the forces of Puli Thevar.

In the Battle of Kalakadu Mahfiizkhan troops were routed.

The organized resistance of the Palayakkarars under Puli Thevar gave an opportunity to the English to interfere directly in the affairs of Tirunelveli.

Question 5.

What was the bone of contention between the Company and Kattabomman?

Answer:

The company appointed its collectors to collect taxes from all the palayams. The collectors humiliated the Palayakkarars and adopted force to collect the taxes. This was the bone of contention between the English and Kattabomman.

Question 6.

Highlight the essence of the Tiruchirappalli Proclamation of 1801.

Answer:

The proclamation of 1801 was an early call to the Indians to unite against the British.

Many Palayakkars rebelled together, especially Chinna Maruthu collected nearly 20,000 men to challenge British.

But the Rajas of Pudukkottai, Ettayapuram and Thanjavur supported British.

So, in May 1801, English attacked the rebels in Thanjavur and Trichy rebels failed.

Though the Palayakkarars fell to the English, their exploits and sacrifices inspired later generation.

The rebellion of Marudhu brothers is a land mark event in the history of Tamil Nadu.

It is also known as “South Indian Rebellion”.

Question 7.

Point out the importance of the Treaty of 1801.

Answer:

Under the terms of the Carnatic Treaty of 31 July 1801, the British assumed direct control over Tamilagam and the Palayakkarar system came to an end with the demolition of all forts and disbandment of their army.


VI. Answer the questions given under each caption

Question 1.

Velunachiyar

(a) Who was the military chief of Velunachiyar?

Answer:

The military chief of Velunachiyar was ‘Thandavarayanar’.

(b) What were the martial arts in which she was trained?

Answer:

Velunachiyar had training in martial arts like valari, stick fighting and to wield weapons.

(c) Whom did she marry?

Answer:

She married Muthu Vadugar the Raja of Sivagangai.

(d) What was the name of her daughter?

Answer:

Her daughter name was Vellachinachiyar.


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Question 2.

Dheeran Chinnamalai

(а) When was Dheeran Chinnamalai born?

Answer:

Dheeran Chinnamalai was born in 1756 in the Mandradiar royal family of Palayakottai.

(b) How did he earn the title “Chinnamalai”?

Answer:

Once when Tipu’s diwan Mohammed Ali was returning to Mysore with the tax money, Theerthagiri blocked his way and took back all the tax money. He let Mohammed Ali go by instructing him to tell his Sultan that ‘Chinnamalai; who is between Sivamalai and Chinnamalai, was the one who took away taxes. Thus, he gained the name ‘Dheeran Chennamalai’.

(c) Name the Diwan of Tipu Sultan.

Answer:

Mohammed Ali

(d) Why and where was he hanged to death?

Answer;

He was hanged at the top of the Sankagiri Fort on 31 July 1805 because he refused to accept the rule of the British.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Attempt an essay of the heroic fight Veerapandya Kattabomman conducted against the East India Company.

Answer:

Several events led to the conflicts between Veerapandiya Kattabomman and the East India Company.

Event 1:

Under the provisions of a treaty signed in 1781 with Mysore Sultan the East India Company gained the right to collect taxes from Panchalamkurichi where Veerapandiya Kattabommman was the ruler.

The company appointed its collectors to collect taxes from all the Palayams.

The collectors adopted force and humiliated the Palayakaras to collect the taxes. This was the bone of contention between the English and Kattabomman.

Event 2: Collector Jackson against the wish of the Madras Government wanted to send an army to collect the revenue dues from Kattabomman.

The arrogant English collector ordered Kattabomman to meet him in. Ramanathapuram. But Kattabomman’s attempts became futile as Jackson refused to meet him.

At last Kattabomman was made to stand for three hours before the haughty collector in Ramanathapuram.

Sensing danger Kattabomman with his brother’s help escaped from that place.

Kattabomman on his return to Panchalamkurichi represented to the Madras Council about his ill treatment by the collector Jackson.

Kattabomman appeared before the committee on 15th December 1798 and proved that he was not committed any offence.

He cleared almost all the revenue arrears.

Jackson was dismissed from his service.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Event 3: Inspired by the Marudhu brothers Tiruchirapaili proclamation Kattabomman was interested to join the confederacy.

Kattabomman and Marudhu brothers jointly decided on a confrontation with the English.

Kattabomman advanced towards Sivagiri who was a tributary to the company.

So the company considered Kattabomman’s expedition as a challenge to their authority.

Under the command of Bannerman on 1st September 1799 an ultimatum was served on Kattabomman to surrender.

The evasive reply of Kattabomman made Bannerman to attack the Fort of Panchalamkurichi.

Kattabomman escaped to Pudukottai.

The Britsh put a prize on his head.

Betrayed by the Rajas of Ettayapuram and Pudukottai Kattabomman was arrested.

During the trial before all the Palayakkarars he bravely admitted all the charges levelled against him.

He was hanged to death at Kayatharu near Tirunelveli on 16th October.

His courageousness and bravery was enacted as ballads by Indian folks.

Question 2.

Highlight the tragic fall of Sivagangai and its outcome.

Answer:

In May 1801, the English attacked the rebels in Thanjavur and Tiruchirappalli. The rebels went to Piranmalai and Kalayarkoil. But they were defeated by the forces of the English. In the end, the able commanders of the English company helped. Unfortunately, the rebellion failed and Sivagangai was annexed in 1801.

Outcomes

The Marudhu brothers were executed in the fort of Tirupathur near Ramanathapuram on 24 October 1801.

Oomaithurai and Sevathaiah were captured and beheaded at Panchalamkuruchi on 16 November 1801.

Seventy-three rebels were exiled to Penang in Malaya.

Though the Palayakkarars fell to the English, their exploits and sacrifices inspired later generations.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Question 3.

Account for the outbreak of Vellore Revolt in 1806.

Answer:

Causes for the outbreak of Vellore Revolt in 1806:

The Sepoys in the British Indian Army had a strong sense of resentment over low salary and poor prospects of promotion.

The English officers disrespect for the social and religious sentiments of the Indian sepoys also angered them.

Many sepoys families were in dire economic straits due to out break of famine in 1805 and the unsettled conditions caused by new land tenures.

The imprisonment of Tipu’s sons and the family members in Vellore Fort.

The immediate cause for the revolt was triggered by the new military regulations introduced by the Commander in Chief Sir John Cradock.

The Indian soldiers were not allowed to wear caste marks or ear rings when in uniform.

They were asked to shave their beard and trim the moustache to look smart.

The most resented cause was the leather cockade made of animal skin.

The sepoys were compelled to wear the turban and those who refused were severely punished.

In 10th July 1806 in the early hours guns were booming and the Indian sepoys of the regiments 1st and 23rd raised their standard of revolt.

VIII. Activity

Question 1.

Teacher can ask the students to prepare an album of patriotic leaders of early revolts against the British rule in Tamil Nadu. Using their imagination they can also draw pictures of different battles in which they attained martyrdom.

Answer:

Few names of the patriotic leaders of the’early revolt against the British mle in Tamil Nadu are listed below.

Subramaniya Bharathiyar

Kumaraswamy Mudaliar (popularly known as Tiruppur Kumaran)

Velunachiyar

Vanchinathan

Veerapandia Kattabomman

V.O. Chidambaram

Dheeran Chinnamalai

Subramaniya Siva

The Maruthu Pandiyar brothers (Periya Maruthu, Chinna Maruthu)

Puli Thevar

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 6 Early Revolts against British Rule in Tamil Nadu

Students can collect pictures of the above mentioned patriotic leaders and paste it in a notebook, prepare an album and submit to the teacher. Below the picture, student should also write the name of the patriotic leader below the picture.

If the student is very good in drawing skills, then instead of pasting pictures, they can also draw two or three of the patriotic leaders images and write their name below and prepare an album. Students can also use their creativity, imagine a battle field and can portrait that also.

Question 2.

Stage play visualising the conversation between Jackson and Kattabomman be attempted by students with the help of teachers.

Answer:

Stage play – Conversation between Jackson and Kattabomman.

Participants: Characters – Kattabomman, Subramanianar, Oomaithurai, Collector Jackson, Company officials soldiers.

Scence – 1 Kattabomman’s Court.

A company official reading the notice issued by collector Jackson. (Kattabomman’s soldier asking permission to let in the company official)

Sepoy : Maharaja, English East India Company’s servant brought a message for you. Shall I ask him to let in. I seek your permission.

Kattabomman : Allow him. (Servant entry)

Kattabomman: What message you have brought?

Servant : Maharaja (Reading the message)

I, “The collector of Ramnad” issuing order to Kattabomman to meet in person.

Kattabomman : yes you can go

Scene – 2

Kattabomman and his Minister and some soldiers going to meet Jackson after hearing he was camping at placard showing courtallam.

Collector has gone Srivilliputtur (Voice)

Placard showing Srivilliputur (You are asked to come to Ramanathapuram)

Scene – 3 (Ramanathapuram Fort)

Kattabomman waiting outside the gate to meet the Collector. After lhour he was asked to get inside the court of collector Jackson.

Jackson: Not noticing him wantedly I am

Kattabomman: I am kattabomman who is collector Jackson.

Jackson: Got angry Hay who are you nian calling me by name?

Kattabomman: I am Kattabomman wants to know who you are? Asking me the question.

(Further got irritated)

Jackson: I am collector Jackson. Are you the defiant Kattabomman.

Kattabomman: I want to know for what reason I was asked to come over here. As a coward ran and came to Ramanathapuram Mr. Jackson.

Jackson: Shut up man. You have the charge on you that you didn’t pay neither the tribute not the tax arrears.

(Irritated by his command)

Kattabomman: Whom do you expect to pay tribute or Taxes. Me? Why I should pay taxes. It’s our land the nature is giving water to the field. We the people till the land, sow the seeds plant the saplings watered the field, nurtured the plants, removed the weeds. What work you have done for asking the tax.

Jackson: Hay man Kattabomman you are talking too much, Your region belong to us.

Kattabomman: (Laughing) Is it so? Who gave you the right of possession?

Jackson: (Furiated yelling) Guards arrest him.

(Guards entry)

Kattabomman: Sensing the danger took out the sword (fighting and escaping from that place)

(screen)

Question 3.

A comparative study of Vellore Revolt and 1857 Revolt by students be tried enabling them to find out to what extent Vellore Revolt had all the forebodings of the latter.

Answer:

Common causes for the Revolt at Vellore and Revolt of 1857.

Vellore Revolt:

Most of the soldiers in the British army were well trained soldiers from various Palayams. Hindus and Muslims majority Indian Troops.

Resentment over low salary promotion prospects

New dress code, rules and regulations affected the religions sentiments.

Uprising was well planned and raised by the soldiers at Vellore Fort shot down many colonels

Immediate cause introduction of Agnew Turban- a leather hat made of animal skin.

Soldiers were forced to wear the Turban.

Spread to other areas Bellary, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Sankagiri, Walajabad, Nandy durg.

Fateh hyder Tipu’s son was declared as their leader.

Revolt of 1857:

Most of the soldiers were from Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims. Out numbered the English officers.

Same point of view low salary inferior out look of the English officers.

Conversion activities interference in the Indian culture affected their sentiments.

Revolt originated from Bengal regiment.

Introduction of Greased cartridges smeared with animal fat.

Indian soldiers were compelled to use the cartridges.

Spead to Kanpur, Delhi, Oudh, Jhansi, Lucknow, Bihar etc.

Emperor Bahadhur Shah II of Delhi was made to sit on the throne and declared as the emperor of India.

These points clearly shows that the Vellore Revolt had all the forebodings of the latter.

Important Questions And Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

Palayakkarars in Tamil refers to the:

(a) Holders of a little kingdom as a feudatory.

(b) Revenue collectors of the British

(c) Rebels of the Carnatic region

(d) Commanders of Nawab of Arcot

Answer:

(a) Holders of a little kingdom as a feudatory.

Question 2.

Palayakkarars police duties were known as ……………….

(a) Padikaval

(b) Village Kaval

(c) Irravu Kaval

Answer:

(a) Padikaval

Question 3.

The first female ruler of Sivagangai who resisted the colonial power of the British:

(a) Jhansi Rani Lakshmibai

(b) Rani Mangammal

(c) Velunachiyar

(d) Kuyili

Answer:

(c) Velunachiyar

Question 4.

Puli Thevar was defeated by …………… in 1767.

(a) Khan Sahib

(b) Captain Campbell

(c) Hyder Ali

Answer:

(b) Captain Campbell

Question 5.

The British commander who put down the Vellore revolt was:

(a) Bannerman

(b) William Bentinck

(c) Sir John cradock

(d) Colonel Gillespie

Answer:

(d) Colonel Gillespie

Question 6.

Who was Mahfuzkhan?

(a) Brother of the Nawab of Arcot

(b) Minister of the Nawab of Arcot

(c) Brother of Yusuf Khan

(d) Indian sepoy in the British army

Answer:

(a) Brother of the Nawab of Arcot

Question 7.

Veerapandiya Kattabomman was the Palayakkarar of :

(a) Sivagangai

(b) sivagiri

(c) Madurai

(d) Panchalamkurichi

Answer:

(d) Panchalamkurichi

Question 8.

Where did Kattabomman escape?

(a) Ettayapuram

(b) Coimbatore

(c) Pudukottai

(d) Tarapuram

Answer:

(c) Pudukottai

Question 9.

On his return to Panchalamkurichi ………………….. represented to the Madras council.

(a) Kattabomman

(b) Marudhu brothers

(c) Puli Thevar

(d) Dheeran chinnamalai

Answer:

(a) Kattabomman

Question 10.

Which city was annexed at the end of the Anglo-Mysore War in 1799?

(a) Ramanathapuram

(b) Coimbatore

(c) Panchalamkuruchi

(d) Pudukottai

Answer:

(b) Coimbatore

Question 11.

Jackson was dismissed from service and a new collector ………………….. was appointed.

(a) Syed

(b) Clarke

(c) William Brown

(d) S.R Lushington

Answer:

(d) S.R Lushington

Question 12.

Kattabomman cleared all the revenue arrears leaving only a balance of ………………….. pagodas.

(a) 1180

(b) 1080

(c) 1801

(d) 1108

Answer:

(b) 1080

Question 13.

Yadhul Nayak was the Palayakkarar of:

(a) Coimbatore

(b) Dindigul

(c) Anamalai

(d) Kamudhi

Answer:

(c) Anamalai

Question 14.

Oomathurai and Sevathaiah the two brothers of Kattabomman escaped from the Palayamkottai prison to:

(a) Kamudhi

(b) Sivagangai

(c) Kerala8

(d) Thiruchirappalli

Answer:

(a) Kamudhi

Question 15.

………………….. involved in setting the disputes in the Kongu region.

(a) Dheeran chinnamalai

(b) Velunachiyar

(c) Oomathurai

(d) Gopala Nayak

Answer:

(a) Dheeran chinnamalai

II. Fill in the blanks

The word ………………….. means a domain a military camp or a little kingdom.

The Palayakkararsystem was in practice during the rule of ………………….. of warangal in the Kakatiya kingdom.

The police duties of Palayakkarars were known as …………………..

The Palayakkarars of Sivagiri, Ettayapuram and Panchalamkurichi did not join the confederacy of …………………..

The unity of the Palayakkarars began to break with the …………………..

In 1772 under the command of ………………….. stormed the kalaiyar kovil palace.

The South Indian confederacy was organised by

The forces of Diwan of Mysore and Chinnamalai fought at

The failed because there was no immediate help from outside.

The was the predecessor of the great Revolt of 1857.

Under poligar system was given for valuable military services rendered by any individual.

The began to consolidate and extend its influence after the three carnatic wars in Tamil Nadu.

………………….. the Minister of viswanatha Nayaka helped him to introduce Palayakkarar system in Tamil Nadu.

The Palayakkarar system lasted for from ………………….. the Nayaks of Madurai.

Within their respective Palayams Palayakkarars function as ………………….. authorities.

Traditionally there were ………………….. Palayakkarars created by Nayak rulers.

Many Palayakkarars refused to pay taxes to the company as their lands handed down to them over …………………..

The company branded ………………….. as rebels.

Mahfuzkhan was the brother of …………………..

………………….. was sent with a contingent army under colonel Heron to capture Tirunelveli and Madurai.

Mahfuzkhan had the support of ………………….. and ………………….. from the carnatic to capture Tirunelveli.

Two thousand soldiers from ………………….. joined the forces of Puli Thevar at kalakad.

The Palayakkarars of Tirunelveli under Puli Thevar constantly rebelled against

Yusufkhan’s (Khan sahib) original name was ………………….. before his conversion to Islam.

The ………………….. from Tiruchirappalli arrived in September 1760 to assist Yusufkhan to attack Puli Thevar.

The battering of ………………….. by Yusufkhan took two months.

Expel of French power from Pondicherry made Travancore, ………………….., Uthumalai and ………………….. to support the English.

The ………………….. was charged with treachery and hanged in 1764 by the company.

Captain ………………….. defeated Puli Thevar in 1767.

Puli Thevar escaped and died in …………………..

Velunachiyar was under the protection of Gopala Nayak for ………………….. years.

At the age of 16 ………………….. was married to Muthuvadugar of Sivagangai.

Dalavay means …………………..

In behalf of Velunachiyar Dalavai ………………….. wrote a letter to Sultan Hyder AN seeking military assistance.

Hyder Ali ordered his commandant ………………….. in Dindigul Fort to provide required military assistance to Velunachiyar.

Kuyili faithful friend of Velunachiyar led a unit of women soldiers named after …………………..

………………….. was the shepherd girl who was killed by the company for not divulging information on kuyili the commander.

The company’s administrators ………………….. and ………………….. considered Kattabomman a man of peaceful disposition.

To meet out the expenses of Nawab and his family ………………….. of the revenue (taxes) collection was allowed.

The land revenue arrear from Kattabomman was ………………….. pagodas in 1798.

The did not give permission to collector Jackson to send an army to Panchalamkurichi to collect dues from Kattabomman.

Kattabomman’s Minister ………………….. accompanied him to Ramanathapuram to met collector Jackson.

In a clash at the gate of Ramanathapuram Fort English officer ………………….. was killed.

In may 1799 ………………….. issued orders from Madras for the advance of forces to Tirunelveli.

Bannerman moved his entire army to Panchalamkurichi on …………………..

………………….. gathered all the secrets of the Fort of Panchalamkurichi.

In a clash at ………………….. Sivasubramanianar was taken a prisoner.

Kattabomman escaped to …………………..

………………….. was executed at Nagalapuram on 13th September.

Kattabomman was hanged from a ………………….. in the old Fort of Kayathar.

Answers:

Palayam

Prataba Rudhra

Padikaval or Arasukaval

Puli Thevar

elimination of French power from Pondicherry

Lt. Col Bon Jour

Marudhu brothers of Sivagangai

Noyyal river bed

Vellore Revolt

Vellore Revolt

Palayam

English East India Company

Ariyanathar

two hundred years

independent sovereign

72

sixty generations

defiant Palayakkarars

Nawab of Arcot

Mahfuzkhan

cavalry and foot soldiers

Travancore

Nawab’s authority

Marudhunayagam

artillary

Nerkkatumseval Fort

Seithur, Surandai

Yusufkhan

Campbell

exile

eight

Velunachiyar

Military chief

Thandavarayanar

Syed

Udaiyal

Udaiyal

James London, Colin Jackson

one- sixth

3310

Madras Government

Sivasubramanianar

Lietenant Clarke

Lord Wellesley

5th September 1799

Ramalinganar

Kallarpatti

Pudukottai

Sivasubramanianar

Tamarind tree


III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) Velunachiyar organised an army and succeeded in securing an alliance with Hyder Ali.

(ii) Hyder Ali provided the required military assistance to Velunachiyar

(iii) A fierce battle was fought at Devadanampatti.

(iv) Velunachiyar escaped with her daughter and lived in Ramanathapuram.

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) (i) and (ii) are correct

Answer:

(d) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) Dheeran chinnamalai was trained by the French.

(ii) He launched Gwerilla attack and evaded capture by the British.

(iii) He was born at Coimbatore,

(iv) He refused to accept the rule of the British.

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i) and (iii) are correct

Answer:

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.

(i) Coimbatore was annexed at the end of the Anglo – Mysore was in 1799.

(ii) The status of Raja of Thanjavur had been reduced to that of a vassal.

(iii) English East India company acquired the revenue districts of salem and Dindigul from Tipu.

(iv) A treaty was forced on Marudhu brothers on the charge of disloyalty.

(a) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

(d) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 4.

Assertion (A): Kattabomman took an expedition to Sivagiri to influence to join Marudhu brothers.

Reason (R): Palayakkarars of Sivagiri was a tributory to the company of the British. They refuse to join.

(a) Both A and R are correct. R is the correct explanation of A.

(b) A is correct and R is Wrong

(c) A is wrong ans R is correct

(d) A is correct and R is not the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(a) Both A and R are correct. R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 5.

Assertion (A): Chinna Marudhu collected 20,000 men to challenge the English army and many Palayakkarars joined, but failed.

Reason (R): Divide and Rule Policy of the British split the forces of the Palayakkarars.

(a) A is correct R is wrong

(b) A is wrong and R is correct

(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

(d) A is correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(c) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 6.

Assertion (A): The Nawab of Arcot gave the power of collecting revenue to the English East India company from southern Palayakkarars.

Reason (R): The company branded the defiant Palayakkarars as rebels.

(a) A is correct R is wrong

(b) A is wrong R is correct

(c) Both A and R are correct R explains A.

(d) Both A and R are correct. R is not the correct explanation to A.

Answer:

(a) A is correct R is wrong

IV. Match the following

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column II.

2

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (v)

C. (iv)

D. (i)

E. (ii)

Question 2.

Match the Column I with Column II.

3

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (i)

C. (v)

D. (ii)

E. (iii)

V. Answer the questions briefly

Question 1.

Write a note on Carnatic treaty.

Answer:

The suppression of the Palayakkarar rebellions of 1799 and 1800-1801 resulted in the liquidation of all the local chieftains of Tamil Nadu. Under the terms of the Carnatic treaty of 31 July 1801. The British assumed direct control over Tamilagam and the Palayakarar system to an end with the demolition of all forts and disbandment of their army.

Question 2.

Why was the Revenue collection of the southern Palayakkarars was given to the company Rule?

Answer:

Nawab of Arcot had borrowed money from the East India Company to meet the expenses he had incurred during the camatic wars.

When the debts exceeded his capacity to pay, he gave the Revenue Collection Authority to the company rule.

Question 3.

Write a note on Hyder Ali.

Answer:

Hyder Ali was the ruler of Mysore. He was a bitter enemy of England. He was born in 1772. Though he started his career as a soldier, he rose to the position of commander-in-chief. In 1766, when the Raja of Mysore died, Hyder Ali proclaimed himself as the ruler and became the Sultan of Mysore. Tipu Sultan was the son of Hyder Ali.

Question 4.

Name the three major ports of Puli Thevar. When did these forts come under the control of Yusuf Khan?

Answer:

The three major ports of Puli Thevar were Nerkattumseval, Vasudevanallur and Panayur. In 16th May 1761 they came under the control of Yusufkhan.

Question 5.

What does the word ‘Palayam’ mean? What does the Palayakkarar in Tamil refer to?

Answer:

The word ‘Palayam’ means a domain, military camp, or a little kingdom. The Palayakkarar in Tamil refers to the holder of a little Kingdom as a feudatory to a greater sovereign.

Question 6.

Write about the brave act of Kuyili the friend of Velunachiyar.

Answer:

Kiyili was a faithful friend of velunachiyar.

She led the unit of women soldiers.

Kuyili is said to have walked in to the British arsenal (1780) after setting herself on fire, destroying all the ammunition.

Question 7.

Why did the Nawab of Arcot borrow money from the East India company? What happened when his debts exceeded his capacity to pay?

Answer:

The Nawab of Arcot borrowed money from the East India company to meet the expenses he had incurred during the Carnatic wars. When his debts exceeded his capacity to pay, the power of collecting the land revenue dues from southern Palayakkarars was given to the East India company.

Question 8.

How the Rebellion of Marudhu brothers referred as and who participated in the rebellion?

Answer:

In the British records the rebellion of Marudhu brothers (1800) is referred as the “Second Palayakkarar war”.

Those who participated in the Rebellion were: Marudhu Pandiyar of Sivagangai, Gopala Nayak of a Dindigul, Kerala verma of Malabar and Krishnappa Nayak and Dhoondaj i of Mysore.

VI. Answer the questions given under each caption

Question 1.

Siege of Panchalamkuruchi

(a) Why did Lord Wellesley issue orders in May 1799?

Answer:

Lord Wellesley issued orders in May 1799 for the advance of forces from Tiruchirapalli, Thanjavur, and Madurai to Tirunelveli.

(b) Who commanded the troops?

Answer:

Major Bannerman commanded the troops.

(c) What commanded the troops?

Answer:

On 1st September 1799, an ultimatum was served on Kattabomman to surrender.

(d) Why did Bannerman depute Ramalinganar to Kattabomman’s fort?

Answer:

Bannerman deputed Ramalinganar to Kattabomman’s fort so that he could convey a message asking him (Kattabomman) to surrender.

Question 2.

Consequences of Vellore Revolt

(a) Where was Tipu’s sons imprisoned after the revolt?

Answer:

Tipu’s sons were sent to Calcutta after the revolt.

(b) What was the reward given to the people who suppressed the revolt?

Answer:

Col. Gillespie was given 7,000 pagodas. The officers and men engaged in the suppression were rewarded with prize money and promotion.

(c) Name the English Generals who were removed from their office?

Answer:

Col. Sir John Cradock, Adjutant General Agnew and Governor William Bentinck were removed from their office.

(d) What was withdrawn after the revolt?

Answer:

The military regulations were withdrawn after the revolt.

Question 3.

New Military Regulations

(a) What were the Indian soldiers asked to do according to new’ military regulation?

Answer:

According to the new military regulation the Indian soldiers were asked not to wear caste marks or ear rings when in uniform. They were to be cleanly shaven on the chin and maintain uniformity how their moustache looked.

(b) How did the new turban add fuel to fire?

Answer:

The new turban was the leather cockade made of animal skin.

(c) How did the sepoys react to the new turban?

Answer:

The sepoys refused to wear the new turban.

(d) What was the Company’s reaction?

Answer:

The company remained silent. It did not pay any notice to the sepoys grievances.

Question 4.

The Seige of Panchalamkurichi

(a) From which regions forces were sent to Tirunelveli?

Answer:

From the regions of Tiruchirappali, Thanjavur and Madurai sent to Tirunelveli.

(b) Which troops joined the British later?

Answer:

The Travancore troops joined the British later.

(c) What was served on Kattabomman and for what purpose?

Answer:

An ultimatum was served on Kattabomman to surrender.

(d) What was the response of Kattabomman?

Answer:

Kattabomman refused to surrender.

Question 5.

Proclamation of 1801

(a) Who issued the proclamation of 1801?

Answer:

Marudhu pandiyar issued the proclamation of Independence 1801.

(b) Why did they issue the proclamation?

Answer:

The proclamation was an early call to the Indians to unite.

(c) Where was the copies of proclamation pasted?

Answer:

The proclamation was pasted on the walls of Nawab’s palace in Tiruchirappalli Fort and on the walls of Srirangam temple.

(d) From where did the forces reinforced to fight with the revolters?

Answer:

British reinforcements were rushed from Bengal, Ceylon and Malaya.

Question 6.

Grievances of Indian Soldiers

(a) Who deliberate on the future course of action against the company Government?

Answer:

The dispossessed little kings and feudal chieftains.

(b) What was the culmination of the Palayakkarar wars?

Answer:

The Vellore Revolt of 1806

(c) What were the resentment of British Indian army?

Answer:

The British Indian army had a strong resentment over low salary and poor prospects of promotion.

(d) What bothered the Indian sepoys much?

Answer:

The new recruitment of the sepoys to the army.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Write a brief note on Vellore Mutiny.

Answer:

The British administration prohibited the Hindu soldiers from smearing religious marks on their foreheads.

They ordered the Muslims to shave their beard and trim their moustache.

This created a strong resentment among the soldiers.

Instigated by the sons of Tipu, the revolting soldiers gathered in the Vellore fort, under the pretext of a marriage function.

At midnight the soldiers surrounded the fort and killed most of the Europeans.

They unfurled the flag of Tipu over the fort.

Fateh Hyder, the second Son of Tipu was declared as the ruler.

But the revolt was crushed by the British.

Question 2.

How did Velunachiyar able to get back her territory (Sivagangai)?

Answer:

Velunachiyar during her period of hiding organised an army.

She succeeded in securing an alliance with not only Gopala Nayakar (Virupachi near Dindigul) but Hyder Ali as well.

She was affluent in Urdu. Velunachiyar explained in detail in urdu all the problems she had with East India Company.

She conveyed her strong determination to fight the English.

Impressed by her courage, Hyder Ali ordered his commandant Syed in Dindigal fort to provide the necessary military assistance.

Velunachiyar employed agents for gathering intelligence to find where the British had stored ammunition.

With military assistance from Gbpala Nayakar and Hyder Ali she recaptured Sivagangai.

She was crowned as queen with the help of Marudhu brothers.

She was the first female ruler to resist the British colonial power in India.

Question 3.

Write about the Dindigul League.

Answer:

The famous Dindigul league was headed by Gopala Nayak, the Palayakkarar of virupachi.

He formed the league with Lakshmi Nayak of Manaparai and poojai Nayak of Devadanapatti.

He drew the inspiration from Tipu Sultan, who sent a deputation to show his camaraderie.

He led the resistance against the British from Coimbatore and later joined Oomaidurai, Kattabomman’s brother.

He put up a fierce fight at Aanamalai hills.

The local peasants gave him full support.

But Gopala Nayak was overpowered by the British forces in 1801.

Question 4.

Give an account of Marudhu brothers Rebellion of 1800.

Answer:

Despite the suppression of Kattabomman’s revolt in 1799 rebellion broke out again in 1800.

In the British records it is referred to as the second Palayakkarar war.

In April 1800 the confederacy consisting of Marudhu Pandiyars of Sivagangai, GopalaNayak of Dindigul, Kerala verma of malabar and Krishnappa Nayak and Dhoondaji of Mysore met at Virupachi and decided to organise an uprising against the company.

The Uprising, which broke out in Coimbatore in June 1800, soon spread to Ramanathapuram and Madurai.

The company got wind of it and declared war on Krishnappa Nayak of Mysore, Kerala Verma of Malabar and others.

The Palayakars of Coimbatore, Sathyamangalam, and Tarapuram were caught and hanged.

In February 1801, the two brothers of Kattabomman, Oomathurai and Sevathaiah escaped from Palayamkottai prison and Chinna Marudhu took them to Siruvayal his capital.

The English demanded the Marudhu Pandiyars to hand over fugitives but they refused.

Col.Agnew and Col.Innes marched on Sivagangai.

In June 1801 Marudhu Pandyars issued a proclamation of independence the Tiruchirappalli proclamation.

The rebellion failed and Sivagangai was annexed in 1801.


Tamil board, ssc, history, Chapter 5, Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century, sanacheer kalvi,

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

In which year was Sati abolished?

(a) 1827

(b) 1829

(c) 1826

(d) 1921

Answer:

(b) 1829

Question 2.

What was the name of the Samaj founded by Dayanand Saraswati?

(a) Arya Samaj

(b) Brahmo Samaj

(c) Prarthana Samaj

(d) Adi Brahmo Samaj

Answer:

(a) Arya Samaj

Question 3.

Whose campaign and work led to the enactment of Widow Remarriage Reform Act of 1856?

(a) Iswarchandra Vidyasagar

(b) Raja Rammohan Roy

(c) Annie Besant

(d) Jyotiba Phule

Answer:

(a) Iswarchandra Vidyasagar

Question 4.

Whose voice was Rast Goftarl

(a) Parsi Movement

(b) Aligarh Movement

(c) Ramakrishna Mission

(d) Dravida Mahajana Sabha

Answer:

(a) Parsi Movement

Question 5.

Who was the founder of Namdhari Movement?

(a) Baba Dayal Das

(b) Baba Ramsingh

(c) Gurunanak

(d) Jyotiba Phule

Answer:

(b) Baba Ramsingh

Question 6.

Who was Swami Shradhananda?

(a) a disciple of Swami Vivekananda

(b) one who caused a split in the Brahmo Samaj of India

(c) one who caused a split in the Arya Samaj

(d) founder of Samathuva Samajam

Answer:

(c) one who caused a split in the Arya Samaj

Question 7.

Who was the founder of Widow Remarriage Association?

(a) M.G. Ranade

(b) Devendranath Tagore

(c) Jvotiba Phule

(d) Ayvankali

Answer:

(a) M.G. Ranade

Question 8.

Who was the author of the book Satyarthaprakash?

(a) Dayananda Saraswathi

(b) Vaikunda Swamy

(c) Annie Besant

(d) Swami Shradanatha

Answer:

(a) Dayananda Saraswathi

II. Fill in the blanks

 …………….. founded the Samarasa Vedha Sanmarga Sangam.

The founder of Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was ……………..

Satyashodak Samaj was launched by ……………..

Gulumgir was written by ……………..

Satyarthaprakash enumerates the positive principles of ……………..

Ramakrishna Mission was established by ……………..

…………….. was the forerunner of Akali Movement.

…………….. brought tremendous changes in the caste structure in Kerala.

Oru paisa Tamilan was started by ……………..

Answers:

Ramalinga Adigal

M.G.Ranade

Jyothika Phule

Jyothika Phule

Vivekanandha

Singh Sabha

Narayana Guru and Ayyankali

Jyothee Thassar

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

Choose the correct statement:

(i) Raja Rammohan Roy preached monotheism

(ii) He encouraged idolatry

(iii) He published tracts condemning social evils

(iv) Raja Rammohan Roy was supported by Governor General William

(a) (i) is correct

(b) (i) and (ii) are correct

(c) (i),(ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) (i),(iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(d) (i),(iii) and (iv) are correct

Question 2.

Choose the correct statement:

(i) Prarthana Samaj was founded by Dr. Atma Ram Pandurang

(ii) Prarthana Samaj encouraged interdining and inter-caste marriage

(iii) Jyotiba Phule worked for the upliftment of men.

(iv) Prarthana Samaj had it’s origin in the Punjab.

(a) (i) is correct

(b) (ii) is correct

(c) (i) and (ii) are correct

(d) (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(c) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 3.

Choose the correct statement:

(i) Ramakrishna Mission was actively involved in social causes such as education, health care, relief in time of calamities.

(ii) Ramakrishna emphasised the spiritual union with god through ecstatic practices.

(iii) Ramakrishna established the Ramakrishna Mission

(iv) Ramakrishna opposed the Partition of Bengal

(a) (i) is correct

(b) (i) and (ii) are correct

(c) (iii) is correct

(d) (iv) alone correct

Answer:

(b) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 4.

Assertion: Jyotiba Phule opened orphanages and homes for widows Reason: Jyotiba Phule opposed child marriage and supported widow remarriage

(a) Assertion is correct but reason is not apt to the assertion

(b) Assertion is correct and the reason is apt to the assertion

(c) Both are wrong

(d) Reason is correct but assertion is irrelevant

Answer:

(a) Assertion is correct but reason is not apt to the assertion

IV. Match the following

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (v)

C. (ii)

D. (i)

E. (iii)

V. Answer briefly

Question 1.

Mention the four articles of faith laid down by Maharishi Debendranath Tagore?

Answer:

Maharashi Debendranath Tagore laid down the following four articles of faith –

In the beginning, there was nothing. The one Supreme Being alone existed who created the Universe.

He alone is the Good of truth, Infinite Wisdom, Goodness and Power, eternal, omnipresent, the One without second.

Our salvation depends on belief in him and in his worship in this world and the next.

Belief consists in loving him and doing his will.

Question 2.

Discuss Mahadev Govind Ranade’s contribution to social reforms.

Answer:

Ranade was the founder of the Widow Marriage Association, the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha and the Deccan Educational Society.

Question 3.

Assess the role of Ayyankali in fighting for the cause of “untouchables.”

Answer:

Ayyankali brought social tremendous changes especially in caste structure. The discrimination he faced as a child turned him into a leader of an anti-caste movement and who later fought for basic rights including access to public spaces and entry to schools. Ayyankali challenged many caste conventions such as clothing style, he wore clothes associated with upper castes that were prohibited for lower castes.

Question 4.

Write a note on reforms of Ramalinga Adigal.

Answer:

Ramalinga Adigal showed his compassion and mercy on all living beings including plants, This he called as Jeevakarunya. He established in 1865, “Samarasa Suddha Sanmarga Sathya Sanga” which means Society for pure truth in Universal self-hood. He also established a free feeding house for everyone irrespective of caste at Vadalur.

Question 5.

What was the impact of Swami Vivekananda’s activist ideology?

Answer:

Vivekananda’s activist ideology related to the desire for political change among many western eductated young Bengalis. Many of the youths, who were involved in the militant nationalist struggle during the Swadeshi Movement, following the Partition of Bengal, were inspired by Vivekananda.

Question 6.

What are the differences between Reformist Movements and Revival Movements?

Answer:

Reformist movement means a movement to reform (or) bring positive changes in the Social or religious institution of a society.

Revival movement means to give a new life to the social or religious institution of a society which seems to be dying or being diluted.

Question 7.

List the social evils eradicated by Brahmo Samaj.

Answer:

The Brahmo Samaj raised voice against:

Caste system

Dowry

Ill-treatment of women

Polygamy

Infanticide

Question 8.

Highlight the work done by -Jyotiba Phule for the welfare of the poor and the marginalized.

Answer:

Jyotiba Phule opened orphanages and homes for widows. He opened the first school for untouchables in 1852 in Poona. He opposed child marriage and supported widow remarriage.

Question 9.

What was the impact of IyotheeThassar’s visit to SriLanka?

Answer:

Jyothee Thassar went to Sri Lanka in 1898 and converted into Buddhism. In the same year, he founded the Sakya Buddhist Society at Madras to construct the rational religious philosophy through Buddhist religion. He argued that the so-called untouchables were orginally Buddhists who were sligmatised by Brahminism. He stated that the revival of Buddhism could leberate the people from the evil of caste practice that afflicted the Hindu society.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption

Question 1.

Aligarh Movement

(i) What is the main aim of this Movement?

Answer:

The main aim of this movement, was to improve the community of Muslims by giving them education, especially is western education and take up government services.

(ii) Who is considered the soul-of this Movement?

Answer:

Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan is considered the soul of this movement

(iii) Why were English books translated into Urudu?

Answer:

English books were translated into Urdu. So that the interest of the Muslims would be best served if it is in Urdu and to concentrate on it.

(iv) Name the college which was later raised to the status of a University?

Answer:

The college was raised to the status of a University in 1920 was Aligarh Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental college.

Question 2.

Ramalinga Adigal

(i) What is Jeevakarunya?

Answer:

It is showing compassion and mercy on all living beings including plants.

(ii) What are the Songs of Grace?

Answer:

His voluminous songs that were compiled and published under the title Thiruvarupta are called Songs of Grace.

(iii) Point out the major contribution of Samarasa Vedha Sanmarga Sathya Sangam?

Answer:

‘Samarasa Vedha Sanmarga Sathya Sangam’ means ‘Society for Pure Truth in Universal self-hood.

(iv) Where did he establish his free feeding house?

Answer:

He established a free feeding houses for everyone irrespective of caste at Vadalur.

Question 3.

Deoband Movement

(i) Who were the organizers of this Movement?

Answer:

The organizers of Deoband movement was the orthodox Muslim Ulema.

(ii) What were the two main objectives of the Movement?

Answer:

(a) The twin objective of this movement were propagating the pure teaching of the Quran and the Hadith.

(b) Encouraging the spirit of Jihad against the foreign and the un- islamic elements.

(iii) Who founded the school at Deoband?

Answer:

The Ulema under the leadership of Muhammad QasimWanotavi and Rashid Ahamad Gangotri founded the school at Deoband in U.R

(iv) Against whom the fatwa was issued by Deoband Ulema?

Answer:

The Deoband Ulema issued a religious decree (Fatwa) against Syed Ahmed Khan’s organisation called the United Patriotic Association and The Muhammaden Anglo-Oriental Association.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Compare and contrast the contributions of Revivalist Movements with that of Reform Movements.

Answer:

The Indian reformists were quite hesitant to subject their old notions and habits to critical scrutiny. Instead they attempted to harmonise both Indian and Western cultures. However, their ideas and their actions helped to mitigate social evils such as sati, female infanticide, and child marriage, and all kinds of superstitious religious beliefs. Reformist movements like the Brahmo Samaj, the Prathana Samaj and the Aligarh Movement. These movements brought considerable reforms in the contemporary society.

Revivalist movements tended to revive former customs or practices and thus take the society back to the glorious past. The Deoband Movement was a revivalist movement, organised by the orthodox Muslim Ulimas other such movements included the Arya Samaj, the Ramakrishna Mission.

Question 2.

Discuss the circumstances that led to the Reform movements of 19th century.

Answer:

Introduction of English Education made the Indians think that the British aim is to produce English educated middle class clerks.

The People came under the influence of Western ideas and thoughts.

The Propaganda of Christianity in India which served Britains imperial interests.

Many Indian scholars such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Keshab Chandra Sen contributed to bring a change in the social institutions of the country.

The Reformists were deeply concerned with the existed social evils like sati, child marriage and Polygamy.

Following the organisational structure of Christian missionaries, Indian reformers wanted to establish reform movements.

All over India, there set to begin a social awakening on the eradication of terrible caste tyranny.

The reformers strived hard to bring back the glorious past of India.

Question 3.

Evaluate the contributions of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Swami Vivekananda to regenerate Indian society.

Answer:

Ramakrishna Paramhamsa and Vivekananda have played a big role in regenerating the Indian society.

Ramakrishna Paramhamsa: He was a simple priest of Dakshineshwar near Calcutta. He gained popularity in the latter half of the nineteenth century. He emphasised the spiritual union with god through ecstatic practices such as singing bhagan. He was an ardent worshipper of goddess Kali. In his view, all religions contain the universal elements which, if practised, would lead to salvation. He said, “Jiva in Siva” (all living beings are God). They need service not mercy service for man, must be regarded as God. He attracted educated youth who were dissatisfied with the rational orientation of religious reform organisations such as the Brahmo Samaj.

Swami Vivekananda: He was the prime follower of Ramakrishna Paramhamsa. He emphasised a cultural nationalism and made a call to Indian youth to regenerate Hindu society. His ideas bred a sense of self-confidence among Indians who felt inferior in relations to the materialistic achievements of the west. He suggested that the lower castes should be allowed to engage in the Hindu rituals from which they were traditionally excluded. His activist ideology rekindled the desire for political change among many western educated young Bengalis. Many of the youths who were involved in the militant nationalist struggle during the Swadeshi Movement were inspired by Vivekananda.

Question 4.

Write an essay on the role played by the 19th century reformers towards the cause of Women.

Solution:

The position of women in India during the 19th century was miserable. They were not treated equal to men and they were denied rights.

The Social reformers of the 19th century played a significant role in bringing an awakening to the people that women’s participation will strengthen the society.

The reformers strongly advocated education for women.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy with the help of the Governor General of British, William Bentinck abolished Sati in 1829.

He advocated the rights of widows to remarry and wanted polygamy to come to an end. He also raised voice against child marriage.

Reformer Vidyasagar led a movement by which ‘Widows Remarriage Reform Act’ of 1856 was intended

to improve the lot of child widows and save them perpetual widowhood.

Reformer Jyothiba Phule opened Orphanages and homes for widows.

Sikh Reform movement prohibited the dowry system and child marriage.

Reformer Iyothee Thessar considered education as an important tool for empowerment for women and a driving force behind the establishment of several schools for the Untouchables in Tamil Nadu.

VIII. Activity

Question 1.

Debate Social evils of 19th century with those of present day.

Answer:

The list below shows the social evil of 19th century and of the present day. The students should form themselves as separate groups one supporting the 19th century and the other supporting present day. The judgement of the debate can be.

There should be great reformers like that of the 19th century and eradicate the social evils of today. Education itself is a great reformer that should awaken the minds of the young children of today for not involving themselves in any of the social evil nor they see others doing it.

Social evils of 19th century: Child Marriage, superstitious beliefs, Sati, not allowing widows to remarry denying education for women, caste differences, untouchability, Brahman domination.

Social evils of present day: Female Infanticide Dowry system, sexual harassment of women, (or) women safety, Domestic violence (or) violence at home . Drug trafficing, pollution (Air, sound and water) Hygiene and sanitation. Disobeying rules,everywhere and anywhere.

Question 2.

Students can write an assignment on the present state of the reform organizations discussed in the lesson.

Answer:

Assignment on the present state of the reform organizations discussed in the lesson.

Brahmo Samaj founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy denounces image worship and the caste system. In the 19th century the society benefitted by this social reform. The movement lost force in the 20th century its fundamentals are still accepted by the society.

Ramakrishna Mission: The Mission carries out extensive educational and Philanthropic work in India. They work on the principle of selfless work done with dedication to God. As of 2016, the Mission have 182 centers all over the world (136 in India, 13 in USA, 13 in Bangladesh, 2 in Russia) .Besides these, there are private centers all over the world run by the followers of Sri Ramakrishna and Vivekananda. The Mission has received numerous awards throughout its lifetime.

Theosophical society: The Theosophical society at Adyar is a beautiful campus with influence since its founders first arrived here in 1882. The society helps the nation even today by running Olcott Memorial High school in Tamil Nadu. They extend their help by various activities at times of disasters especially Tsunami in 2004. Now in Adyar , open all days except Saturday, Sunday public hoildays.

Arya Samaj: Arya Samaj established a chain of DAV educational institutions for the education of both boys and girls. It represented a form of national awakening of the Indian people. It adopts the programme of mass education, elimination of sub-castes and equality of men and women.

Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

……………… was one of the earlier reformers influenced by the western ideas to initiate reforms.

(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

(b) Keshab Chandra Sen

(c) M.G.Ranade

(d) Atma Ram Pandurang.

Answer:

(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Question 2.

Lord William Bentinck passed an Act in 1829, to abolish “Sati” due to the efforts of

(a) Mrs. Annie Besant

(b) Lala Hansray

(c) Raja Rammohan Roy

Answer:

(c) Raja Rammohan Roy

Question 3.

Arya Samaj movement initiated its movement in ………………

(a) Assam

(b) Punjab

(c) Bihar

(d) Kerala

Answer:

(b) Punjab

Question 4.

The headquarters of the Rama Krishna Mission is at

(a) Kanchipuram

(b) Belur

(c) Melur

Answer:

(b) Belur

Question 5.

Prarthana Samaj was founded in ………………

(a) Bihar

(b) Bombay

(c) Bengal

(d) Madras

Answer:

(b) Bombay

Question 6.

Sir Syed Ahamed Khan started the

(a) Aligarh movement

(b) Muslim League

(c) Theosophical Society

Answer:

(a) Aligarh movement

Question 7.

……………… was the prime follower of Ramakrishna Paramahansa

(a) Vivekananda

(b) Atma Ram Pandurang

(c) M.G. Ranade

(d) Keshab Chandra Sen

Answer:

(a) Vivekananda

Question 8.

A great socialist reformer from Kerala is

(a) Sree Narayana Guru

(b) Guru Nanak

(c) Guru Sai

Answer:

(a) Sree Narayana Guru

Question 9.

Furdunji Naoroji founded the Rahnumai Mazdayasnan Sabha ………………

(a) 1849

(b) 1851

(c) 1850

(d) 1862

Answer:

(b) 1851

Question 10.

The Hindus who had been converted to other religions were reconverted by

(a) Swadeshi movement

(b) Suddhi movement

(c) National movement

Answer:

(b) Suddhi movement

Question 11.

Iyothee Thassar called the ……………… as Sathi Petham Atra Dravidar.

(a) Untouchables

(b) Parsis

(c) Akali

(d) Sikhs

Answer:

(a) Untouchables

Question 12.

……………… criticized the rule of British as the rule of White Devils.

(a) Ramalinga Adigal

(b) Vaikunda Swamigal

(c) Furdunji Naoroji

(d) Iyothee Thassar

Answer:

(b) Vaikunda Swamigal

Question 13.

……………… considered education as a powerful tool for empowerment and a driving force behind the establishment of several schools.

(a) M.G. Ranade

(b) Iyothee Thassar

(c) Vaikunda Swamigal

(d) Sree Narayan Guru

Answer:

(b) Iyothee Thassar

Question 14.

……………… raised funds and campaigned to educate the lower caste of Pulaya people.

(a) Ayyankali

(b) Sree Narayan Guru

(c) M.G. Ranade

(d) Ramalinga Adigal

Answer:

(a) Ayyankali

Question 15.

……………… was called respectfully by his followers as Ayya.

(a) Vaikunda Swamigal

(b) Sree Narayan Guru

(c) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

(d) Namdhari

Answer:

(a) Vaikunda Swamigal

Question 16.

……………… launched the Satyashodak Samaj to stir the non-Brahmin masses to self-respect and ambition.

(a) Ayyankali

(b) Jyotiba Phule.

(c) Narayana Guru

(d) Annie Besant

Answer:

(b) Jyotiba Phule.

Question 17.

……………… started a number of DAV Schools.

(a) Arya Samaj

(b) Brahmo Samaj

(c) Theosophical Society

(d) Prarthana Samaj

Answer:

(a) Arya Samaj

Question 18.

……………… worked mainly for the Ezhava community of Kerala.

(a) Ayyankali

(b) Sree Narayan Guru

(c) Jyotiba Phule

(d) M.G. Ranade

Answer:

(b) Sree Narayan Guru

Question 19.

Deoband movement was a ……………… movement.

(a) Reform

(b) Revival

(c) Anti-Reform

(d) Anti-Revival

Answer:

(b) Revival

Question 20.

Rast Goftar was the main voice of ……………… movement.

(a) Nirankari

(b) Namdhari

(c) Parsi

(d) Vaikundar

Answer:

(c) Parsi

Question 21

……………… condemned the religious custom of animal sacrifice.

(a) Iyothee Thassar

(b) Vaikundar

(c) Ramalinga

(d) Jyotiba Phule

Answer:

(b) Vaikundar

Question 22.

“I saw those people, poor and of unmatched honor, their hearts weary, and I grew weak” who said this”?

(a) Vallalar

(b) Vaikundar

(c) Iyothee Thassar

(d) Deoband

Answer:

(a) Vallalar

Question 23.

……………… and ……………… are the Socio-religious movement among the Sikhs.

(a) Nirankari

(b) Namdhari

(c) (a) and (b)

(d) (a), (b) and Akaii movement

Answer:

(c) (a) and (b)

Question 24.

……………… was the movement founded in USA and later shifted to India,

(a) Ramakrishna Mission

(b) Theosophical Society

(c) Brahmo Samaj

(d) Prarthana Samaj

Answer:

(b) Theosophical Society

Question 25.

……………… established the Khalsa college for the Sikhs in Amritsar.

(a) Namdhari

(b) Nirankari

(c) Singh Sabha

(d) Akaii

Answer:

(c) Singh Sabha

II. Fill in the blanks

English Education was introduced by British with the arm of producing …………….. in India.

In the 19th Century …………….. had its effect on the newly emerging middle class.

The Indian reformers attempted to harmonize both Indian and …………….. cultures.

The two categories of reform movements are: reform movements and …………….. movements.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy preached worship of …………….. God.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s ideas forced Bentinck to bring legislation abolishing ……………..

Sati was abolished in the year ……………..

The Governor General …………….. helped in abolishing Sati in India.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj in ……………..

Brahmo Samaj was taken over by …………….. after the death of Ram Mohan Roy.

Keshab Chandra Sen joined the Brahmo Samaj in ……………..

Widow Remarriage Reform Act was passed in the year ……………..

Gulamgiri was an important work written by ……………..

…………….. was the founder of the Widow Marriage Association.

…………….. was the founder of the Prarthana Samaj.

…………….. movement was similar to the Brahmo Samaj.

The age for marriage was fixed as …………….. years.

The age of marriage was raised to thirteen years in ……………..

The age of consent Act was passed in ……………..

Arya Samaj was initiated at ……………..

…………….. was the founder of Arya Samaj.

Strict monotheism was one of the main principle of ……………..

Swami Dayananda wrote the book ……………..

…………….. started a number of Dayananda Anglo-vedic Schools and Colleges.

 …………….. raised his voice as Go back to Vedas.

…………….. accused that the group running he DAV School is too Westernised.

…………….. worked as a priest in Kali temple but later became a great reformer.

“Jiva is Siva” means ……………..

The counter-conversion movement was called as ……………..

…………….. means songs of Ignorance.

The Theosophical Society was founded by …………….. and ……………..

The Theosophical movement was founded in the …………….. in 1875.

The Theosophical movement was in India at …………….. in Chennai in 1886.

Annie Besant spread Theosophical ideas with the help of the newspapers called …………….. and ……………..

…………….. opened a first School for untouchables in 1852 in Poona.

Jyothi Phule launched the Truth Seekers Society in ……………..

Sri Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam is an organisation to uplift the ……………..

…………….. translated many English books especially Science books into Urdu.

…………….. raised funds to educate the lower class pulaya people.

…………….. started the Aligarh movement.

The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College was founded in the year ……………..

The Aligarh Anglo-Oriental College was raised to the status of a University in ……………..

…………….. used journalism as tool to make inroads into the print public sphere.

Ramalinga Adigal was popularly known as ……………..

Mercy to all living beings including plants is called ……………..

…………….. opposed both Infant marriages and the use of astrology.

…………….. was the founder of the Nirankari movement.

Nirankar movement worship the God as ……………..

Nirankar means ……………..

The Namdhari movement was founded by ……………..

…………….. cult was also known as Ayya Vazhi.

…………….. founded Samathura Samajam.

…………….. was a siddha medicine practitioner who turned into a reformer.

…………….. started a weekly journal Oru Paisa Tamilian.

Answers:

Clerks

Christianity

Western

Revival

One

Sati

1829

Bentinck

1828

Debendranath Tagore

1857

1856

JyotibaPhule

Ranade

Dr. Atma Ram Pandurang

PrarthanaSamaj

Ten

1925

1860

Punjab

Swami Dayanand Saraswati

Arya Samaj

Satyartha Prakash

Arya Samaj

Swami Dayanda Saraswathi

Swami Shradhananda

Ramakrishna

All living beings are God

Suddi movement

Marutpa

Madame H.P Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott

USA

Adyar

New India and Commonweal

JyothiPhule

1870

Depressed classes

Sayyid Ahmed Khan

Sadhu Jana paripalanasangam

Sayyid Ahmed Khan

1875

1920

IyotheeThassar

Vallalar

Jeeva karanga

Parsi Reform movement

Baba Dayal das

Nirankar

Formless

Baba Ram Singh

Vaikunda Swamigal

VaikundaSwamigal

Iyothee Thassar

Iyothee Thassar

III. Choose the correct statements

Question 1.

(i) Raja Ram Mohan Roy argued that the ancient texts of the Hindus preached Monotheism.

(ii) Brahmo Samaj failed to attract the people from the lower sections of society.

(iii) Its impact on the culture of modern Bengal and its middle class was quite significant.

(iv) The poet Rabindranath Tagore carried on the work of Brahmo Samaj after Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (iv) are correct

(c) (i) (ii) (iii) are correct

(d) (ii) (iv) are wrong

Answer:

(c) (i) (ii) (iii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) The age of marriage of initially fixed for 25 years.

(ii) Later it was reduced to thirteen years in 1925.

(iii) It was raised to eighteen in 1891.

(iv) Now, the law remained as twenty as in 1860 Act.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (iv) are correct

(c) (i) (ii) (iii) are correct

(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) are wrong

Answer:

(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) are wrong

Question 3.

(i) Arya Samaj attempted to check the incidence of religious conversion in British India.

(ii) Ramakrishna emphasised the spiritual union with God through the practice of singing bhajans.

(iii) Theosophical Society stimulated the study of the Christianity among people.

(iv) Savitribai Phule devoted her life for the upliftment of the depressed classes.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (ii) (iv) are correct

(c) (iii) (iv) are correct

(d) (i) (ii) (iii) are correct

Answer:

(b) (i) (ii) (iv) are correct

Question 4.

(i) Narendra Nath Datta was known as Swami Vivekananda.

(ii) He became famous for his address on Hinduism at the Indian Congress of Hindus in Chicago in 1893.

(iii) Narayana Guru inspired Kerala Society especially among the Ezhavas.

(iv) inspired by Sree Narayana Guru, Ayyankali founded the Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangam.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (ii) (iv) are correct

(c) (i) (iii) (iv) are correct

(d) (ii) (iii) (iv) are correct.

Answer:

(c) (i) (iii) (iv) are correct

Question 5.

(i) Annie Besant spread Theosophical ideas through her newspapers called New India and Commonweal.

(ii) Jyotiba Phule is chiefly known as the earliest leader of the non-Brahmin movement.

(iii) His work Gulamgiri is an important text that summarized many of his radical ideas.

(iv) Thinkers and writers such as Kumaran Asan and Dr. Palpu were influenced by Narayana Guru ideas.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (ii) (iv) are correct

(c) (ii) (ii) (iii) are correct

(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) are wrong.

Answer:

(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) are wrong.

Question 6.

(i) Deoband School did not prepare its students for the government jobs but for the preaching of Islamic faith.

(ii) In South Travancore, there were restrictions on lower caste people as to what to wear and not to wear.

(iii) lyothee Thassar established a movement called as Oru, Paisa Tamilian.

(iv) John Rathinam ideas were collected into a text called Akila Thirattu.

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

(b) (i) (ii) (iv) are correct

(c) (ii) (iv) are correct

(d) (i) (iii) (iv) are wrong.

Answer:

(a) (i) (ii) are correct

IV. Assertion and Reason

Question 1.

Assertion (A): Keshab Chandra Sen was greatly influenced by Christianity. Reason (R): He was believing in its spirit, but not in the person of its founder.

(a) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A.

(b) R is correct but A is not relevant to R.

(c) A and R is wrong.

(d) R is wrong but A is correct.

Answer:

(a) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 2.

Assertion (A): The Reform movement Arya Samaj was started in Punjab. Reason (R): Swami Dayananda Saraswathi settled in Punjab to preach his ideas

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation.

(b) R is correct but A is not relevant to A.

(c) A and R is wrong.

(d) R is wrong but A is correct.

Answer:

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation.

Question 3.

Assertion (A): The primary achievement of the Ramakrishna was his ability to attract educated youths..

Reason (R): The Samaj started a number of Dayananda Anglo vedic Schools and colleges.

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation.

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant explanation to A.

(c) A and R is wrong.

(d) R is wrong but A is correct.

Answer:

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant explanation to A.

Question 4.

Assertion (A): Narayana Guru established a grand temple at Arivupuram and dedicated it to all.

Reason (R): In his days, the people of the depressed classes has no access to temples.

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant to A.

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant to A.

(c) A and R is wrong.

(d) A is wrong R is correct.

Answer:

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant to A.

Question 5.

Assertion (A): The School at Deoband encouraged English education. Reason (R): The instruction imparted in the School was the Original Islamic religion.

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation to A.

(b) A is wrong and R is correct.

(c) A is correct and R is not relevant explanation to A.

(d) R is correct but A is wrong.

Answer:

(d) R is correct but A is wrong.

Question 6.

Assertion (A): Ramaiinga Adigal established a free feeding house for everyone irrespective of caste at Vadalur in 1867.

Reason (R): There was a terrible famine in South India in 1866.

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation of A.

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant explanation to A

(c) A is wrong R is correct.

(d) R is correct and R is wrong.

Answer:

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant explanation to A

Question 7.

Assertion (A): Pandithar lyothee Thassar went to Srilanka in 1898 and converted to Buddhism.

Reason (R): He was disappointed with the Hindi dharma, which served as a base for propogating caste in Hindu Society.

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation of A.

(b) A is correct and R is not relevant to A

(c) A is wrong R is correct.

(d) R is correct and A is wrong.

Answer:

(a) A is correct and R is the relevant explanation of A.

V. Match the following

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (vii)

B. (vi)

C. (iv)

D. (iii)

E. (ii)

Question 2.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (vi)

B. (iii)

C. (v)

D. (i)

E. (ii)

VI. Answer briefly

Question 1.

Write a note on Prarthana Samaj.

Answer:

Prarthana Samaj was founded in Bombay in 1867 by Dr. Atmaram Pandurang.

It advocated inter-dining, inter-caste marriage, widow re-marriage, improvement of women and downtrodden classes, abolition of Purdha System and Child marriage.

The Samaj is founded night schools, asylum and Orphanages and other such institutions for the downtrodden people.

Question 2.

Write a note on Brahmo Samaj.

Answer:

It was a reform movement formed in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy at Calcutta. The Samaj mainly focused on the customs of Sati, Child marriage and Polygamy and wanted to remove them legally. The Samaj was successful by abolishing Sati in 1829, with the help of the Governor General Bentinck. It appealed widow remarriage and followed monotheism.

Question 3.

Mention the main principles of the Theosophical Society.

Answer:

To develop the feeding of fraternity.

To study ancient religions, philosophy and science.

To find out the laws of nature and the development of divine power in India.

Question 4.

Write a short note on Ramakrishna Mission.

Answer:

Swami Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna mission. The mission did not restrict itself to religious activities but was actively involved in social causes such as education, health care and relief in times of calamities. Service to humanity is the practical Vedanta of this mission.

Question 5.

Point out the impacts of Social and Religious reform movements in the 19th Century.

Answer:

These movements greatly helped to abolish some of the evils like sati, child marriage and inter and untouchability.

It promoted education, encouraged widow re-marriage, inter-caste marriages and inter-dining.

It instilled social awakening and spirit of nationalism in the middle of Indians.

It made the people to be proud of their culture and glory.

It helped the Indians to face problems with scientific approach and outlook.

Question 6.

List out the Social Reformers of Tamil Nadu.

Answer:

(i) The Social Reformers of Tamil Nadu are Ramalinga Swamigal – emphasising feeding of poor.

(ii) Vaikunda Swamigal – emphasising unity of people of all castes.

(iii) Iyothee Thassar – emphasising Caste less society.

Question 7.

Who is known as Martin-Luthur of Hinduism? Why?

Answer:

Swamy Dayananda Saraswathi is known as the Martin Luther of Hinduism.

He started Suddhi Movement to reconvert the Hindus who had been converted to other religions earlier.

By his efforts, a large number of people were taken back within the fold of Hinduism.

Question 8.

As a student of today, what do you think the social evils present in today’s world and need reform?

Answer:

The Social evils present in today’s world and need reforms are Girl child harassment, female infanticide, Non-observance of societal rules, Adulteration, and above all poverty and pollution.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century

VII. Answer all the questions given under each caption

Question 1.

Brahmo Samaj

(a) Who founded Brahmo Samaj?

Answer:

Raja Rammohan Roy

(b) What Were the languages learnt by Raja Rammohan Roy?

Answer:

Arabic, Sanskrit, Persian, English, French, Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages.

(c) Name the books written by Raja Rammohan Roy.

Answer:

Precepts of Jesus Christ and Guide to Peace and Happiness were written by Raja Rammohan Roy.

(d) What did Brahmo Samaj believe?

Answer:

It believed in a “Universal religion” based on the principle of one Supreme God.

Question 2.

Arya Samaj

(a) When, where and who founded the Arya Samaj.

Answer:

The Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswathi in 1875, in Punjab.

(b) What was the main idea focused by the Samaj.

Answer:

‘Go Back to Vedas’.

(c) What did the Samaj do in the field of education?

Answer:

The Samaj started a number of Dayananda Anglo-vedic schools and colleges to spread education.

(d) What was the name of the school started after dayananda starting OAV schools are westernised?

Answer:

By 1900, Swami Shraddhanada established his own network of schools called Gurukulas emphasising the study of vedas.

Question 3.

The Theosophical Society

(a) Who was the founder of the Theosophical Society?

Answer:

It was founded by Madame Blavatsky and Henry S. Olcott.

(b) Why was it founded?

Answer:

It was founded to preach about God and Wisdom.

(c) Who was the president of this society in 1893?

Answer:

Mrs. Annie Besant.

(d) Where is the headquarters of this society located?

Answer:

The headquarters of this society is at Adyar in Chennai.

Question 4.

Parsi and Sikh Reform Movements

(a) Who founded the Parsis’ Reform Society?

Answer:

Furdunji Naoroji founded the Parsis’ Reform Society in 1851.

(b) What are the names of the two Sikh Reform Movements?

Answer:

Nirankaris and Namdharis are the names of the two Sikh Reform Movements.

(c) Name the leader from Parsi community who played a big role in early congress?

Answer:

Pherozeshah Mehta and Dinshaw Wacha played a big role in early congress from Parsi community.

(d) Who were the founders of the Sikh Reform movements? What was the objective?

Answer:

Baba Dayal Das was the founder of the Nirankari movement and Baba Ram Singh was the founder of the Namdhari movement Its main objective was to restore the purity of Sikhism and the authority of Guru Nanak.

VIII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Elaborate the Early Reform Movements in Bengal.

Answer:

Brahmo Samaj: This was one of the earlier reform movement founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Deeply concerned with the customs of Sati, child marriage and polygamy, raised his voice through the Samaj and abolished sati by legislation in 1829. The Samaj strongly advocated education for women, widow remarriage and western education. It Condemned Idol worship and meaningless rituals and ceremonies.

Adi Brahmo Samaj: In 1886, a Split occurred in Brahmo Samaj and Keshab Chandra Sen left the Samaj and founded a new organisation called Debendranath’s organisation also called as Adi-Brahmo Samaj, This Samaj also followed the ideas of Brahmo Samaj.

Prarthana Samaj: A movement similar to Brahmo Samaj founded in Bombay was called Prathana Samaj. It was founded by R.C Bhandarkar and Mahadev Govinda Ranade. Inter caste dining, Inter-caste marriage, Widow remarriage, improvement of women and depressed classes were their main activities.

Arya Samaj: The Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswathi. This is a revival movement stating ‘ Go back to Vedas’, The Samaj concentrated on social reforms and education . DAV schools of today were originally started by Arya Samaj.

Ramakrishna Mission: Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda. The mission actively involved in the social causes such as education, health care and relief in times of calamities. Service to humanity is their slogan which means Service to God.

Theosophical Movement: The Theosophical movement was founded in ‘ USA by Madame Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott. Later the movement laid its foundation headed by Annie Besant in Adyar, Chennai.

She spread her ideas through her newspaper New India and commonweal. This movement played a major role in Indian Nationalist politics.

Question 2.

Explain the activities of the Ramakrishna Mission.

Answer:

Ramakrishna Mission’s activities cover the areas like educational work, healthcare, cultural activities, rural upliftment, tribal welfare and youth movement.

It has its own hospitals, charitable dispensaries, maternity clinics, tuberculosis clinics and mobile dispensaries.

It also maintains training centres for nurses.

Orphanages and homes for the elderly people are maintained. Rural and tribal welfare works are also going on.

It educational activities the Ramakrishna Mission has established many renowned educational institutions in India.

It has its own universities, colleges and vocational training centres.

It has also involved in disaster relief operations during famine, epidemic, fire, flood, earthquake, cyclones and communal disturbances.

It played an important role in the installation of Photo Voltaic (PV) lighting system in the Sundarbans regions of West Bengal. The PV lighting was used to provide electricity to the people, who were traditionally depending on kerosene and diesel.


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