Relations and Functions | Aster Classes

Tamilnadu, Samacheer Kalvi, 10th, Maths, Solutions, Chapter 1, Relations and Functions, Unit, Exercise 1,

Question 1.


If the ordered pairs (x2 – 3x, y2 + 4y) and (-2, 5) are equal, then find x and y.
Answer:
(x2 – 3x, y2 + 4y) = (-2, 5)
x2 – 3x = -2
x2 – 3x + 2 = 0
(x – 2) (x – 1) = 0
x – 2 = 0 or x – 1 = 0
x = 2 or 1
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Maths Guide Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Unit Exercise 1 1
y2 + 4y = 5
y2 + 4y – 5 = 0
(y + 5) (y – 1) = 0
y + 5 = 0 or y – 1 = 0
y = -5 or y = 1
The value of x = 2, 1
and 7 = -5, 1
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Maths Guide Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Unit Exercise 1 2


Question 2.
The Cartesian product A × A has 9 elements among which (-1, 0) and (0, 1) are found. Find the set A and the remaining elements of A × A.
Solution:
A = {-1, 0, 1}, B = {1, 0, -1}
A × B = {(-1, 1), (-1, 0), (-1, -1), (0, 1), (0, 0), (0, -1), (1, 1), (1, 0), (1, -1)}


Question 3.
Given that f(x) = {x−1−−−−−√4x≥1x<1.
Find
(i) f(0) (ii)f (3) (iii) f(a + 1) in terms of a.(Given that a > 0)
Answer:
f(x) = x−1−−−−−√ ; f(x) = 4
(i) f(0) = 4
(ii) f(3) = 3−1−−−−√ = 2–√
(iii) f(a + 1) = a+1−1−−−−−−−−√ = a−−√


Question 4.
Let A = {9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17} and let f: A → N be defined by f(n) = the highest prime factor of n ∈ A. Write f as a set of ordered pairs and find the range of f.
Solution:
A = {9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17}
f: A → N
f(n) = the highest prime factor of n ∈ A
f = {(9, 3), (10, 5), (11, 11), (12, 3), (13, 13), (14, 7), (15, 5), (16, 2), (17, 17)}
Range = {3, 5, 11, 13, 7, 2, 17}
= {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17}


Question 5.
Find the domain of the function

Answer:

Domain of f(x) = {-1, 0, 1}


Question 6.
If f(x)= x2, g(x) = 3x and h(x) = x – 2 Prove that (fog)oh = fo(goh).
Solution:
f(x) = x2
g(x) = 3x
h(x) = x – 2
(fog)oh = x – 2
LHS = fo(goh)
fog = f(g(x)) = f(3x) = (3x)2 = 9x2
(fog)oh = (fog) h(x) = (fog) (x – 2)
= 9(x – 2)2 = 9(x2 – 4x + 4)
= 9x2 – 36x + 36 ……………. (1)
RHS = fo(goh)
(goh) = g(h(x)) = g(x – 2)
= 3(x – 2) = 3x – 6
fo(goh) = f(3x – 6) = (3x – 6)2
= 9x2 – 36x + 36 ………….. (2)
(1) = (2)
LHS = RHS
(fog)oh = fo(goh) is proved.


Question 7.
Let A= {1,2} and B = {1,2,3,4}, C = {5,6} and D = {5,6,7,8}. Verify whether A × C is a subset of B × D?
Answer:
Given A = {1, 2}
B = {1, 2, 3, 4}
C = {5,6}
D = {5,6, 7,8}
A × C = {1,2} × {5,6}
= {(1,5) (1,6) (2, 5) (2, 6)}
B × D = {1,2, 3, 4} × {5, 6, 7, 8}
= {(1,5) (1,6) (1,7) (1,8)
(2, 5) (2, 6) (2,7) (2, 8)
(3, 5) (3, 6) (3, 7) (3, 8)
(4, 5) (4, 6) (4, 7) (4, 8)}
∴ A × C ⊂ B × D
Hence it is verified


Question 8.
If f(x) = x−1x+1,x≠1 Show that
f(f(x)) = – 1x, Provided x ≠ 0.


Answer:


Question 9.
The functions f and g are defined by f{x) = 6x + 8; g(x) = x−23
(i) Calculate the value of gg [latex]\frac { 1 }{ 2 } [/latex]
(a) Write an expression for gf (x) in its simplest form.
Answer:
f(x) = 6x + 8 ; g(x) = x−23


Question 10.
Write the domain of the following real functions

(ii) if p(x) = =−54×2+1
p(x) is defined for all values of x. So domain is x ∈ R.


Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Ex 1.6

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.


If n(A × B) = 6 and A= {1, 3} then n (B) is ………….
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 6


Answer:
(3) 3
Hint: n(A × B) = 6
n(A) = 2
n(A × B) = n(A) × n(B)
6 = 2 × n(B)
n(B) = 62 = 3


Question 2.
A = {a, b, p}, B = {2, 3}, C = {p, q, r, s} then n[(A ∪ C) × B] is
(1) 8
(2) 20
(3) 12
(4) 16


Answer:
(3) 12
Hint:
A = {a, b, p}, B = {2, 3}, C = {p, q, r, s}
n (A ∪ C) × B
A ∪ C = {a, b, p, q, r, s}
(A ∪ C) × B = {{a, 2), (a, 3), (b, 2), (b, 3), (p, 2), (p, 3), (q, 2), (q, 3), (r, 2), (r, 3), (s, 2), (s, 3)
n [(A ∪ C) × B] = 12


Question 3.
If A = {1,2}, B = {1,2, 3, 4}, C = {5,6} and D = {5, 6, 7, 8} then state which of the following statement is true ……………….
(1) (A × C) ⊂ (B × D)
(2) (B × D) ⊂ (A × C)
(3) (A × B) ⊂ (A × D)
(4) (D × A) ⊂ (B × A)


Answer:
(1) (A × C) ⊂ (B × D)
Hint: n(A × B) = 2 × 4 = 8
(A × C) = 2 × 2 = 4
n(B × C) = 4 × 2 = 8
n(C × D) = 2 × 4 = 8
n(A × C) = 2 × 2 = 4
n(A × D) = 2 × 4 = 8
n(B × D) = 4 × 4 = 16
∴ (A × C) ⊂ (B × D)


Question 4.
If there are 1024 relations from a set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} to a set B, then the number of elements in B is
(1) 3
(2) 2
(3) 4
(4) 6


Answer:
(2) 2
Hint:
n(A) = 5
n(B) = x
n(A × B) = 1024 = 210
25x = 210
⇒ 5x = 10
⇒ x =2


Question 5.
The range of the relation R = {(x, x2) a prime number less than 13} is ……………………
(1) {2, 3, 5, 7}
(2) {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}
(3) {4, 9, 25, 49, 121}
(4) {1, 4, 9, 25, 49, 121}


Answer:
(3) {4, 9, 25, 49, 121}
Hint:
Prime number less than 13 = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}
Range (R) = {(x, x2)}
Range = {4, 9, 25, 49, 121} (square of x)


Question 6.
If the ordered pairs (a + 2, 4) and (5, 2a + b)are equal then (a, b) is
(1) (2, -2)
(2) (5, 1)
(3) (2, 3)
(4) (3, -2)


Answer:
(4) (3, -2)
Hint:
(a + 2, 4), (5, 2a + b)
a + 2 = 5
a = 3
2a + b = 4
6 + b = 4
b = -2


Question 7.
Let n(A) = m and n(B) = n then the total number of non-empty relations that can be defined from A to B is ……………..
(1) mn
(2) nm
(3) 2mn – 1
(4) 2mn
Answer:
(4) 2mn


Question 8.
If {(a, 8),(6, b)}represents an identity function, then the value of a and b are respectively
(1) (8, 6)
(2) (8, 8)
(3) (6, 8)
(4) (6, 6)
Answer:
(1) (8, 6)
Hint:
{{a, 8), (6, b)}
a = 8
b = 6


Question 9.
Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {4, 8, 9, 10}.
A function f: A → B given by f = {(1, 4), (2, 8),(3,9),(4,10)} is a ……………
(1) Many-one function
(2) Identity function
(3) One-to-one function
(4) Into function


Answer:
(3) One-to-one function
Hint:

Different elements of A has different images in B.
∴ It is one-to-one function.


Question 10.
If f (x) = 2x2 and g(x) = 13x, then fog is …………..
(1) 32×2
(2) 23×2
(3) 29×2
(4) 16×2


Answer:
(3) 29×2
Hint:


Question 11.
If f: A → B is a bijective function and if n(B) = 7, then n(A) is equal to
(1) 7
(2) 49
(3) 1
(4) 14
Answer:
(1) 7
Hint:
In a bijective function, n(A) = n(B)
⇒ n(A) = 7


Question 12.
Let f and g be two functions given by
f = {(0,1),(2, 0),(3-4),(4,2),(5,7)}
g = {(0,2),(1,0),(2, 4),(-4,2),(7,0)}
then the range of f o g is …………………
(1) {0,2,3,4,5}
(2) {-4,1,0,2,7}
(3) {1,2,3,4,5}
(4) {0,1,2}


Answer:
(4) {0,1,2}
Hint: f = {(0, 1)(2, 0)(3, -4) (4, 2) (5, 7)}
g = {(0,2)(l,0)(2,4)(-4,2)(7,0)}

fog = f[g(x)]
f [g(0)] = f(2) = 0
f [g(1)] = f(0) = 1
f [g(2)] = f(4) = 2
f[g(-4)] = f(2) = 0
f[g(7)] = f(0) = 1
Range of fog = {0,1,2}


Question 13.
Let f(x) = 1+x2−−−−−√ then
(1) f(xy) = f(x),f(y)
(2) f(xy) ≥ f(x),f(y)
(3) f(xy) ≤ f(x).f(y)
(4) None of these


Answer:
(3) f(xy) ≤ f(x).f(y)
Hint:
1+x2y2−−−−−−−√≤(1+x2)−−−−−−−√(1+y2)−−−−−−−√
⇒ f(xy) ≤ f(x) . f(y)


Question 14.
If g= {(1,1),(2,3),(3,5),(4,7)} is a function given by g(x) = αx + β then the values of α and β are
(1) (-1,2)
(2) (2,-1)
(3) (-1,-2)
(4) (1,2)


Answer:
(2) (2, -1)


Hint: g (x) = αx + β
g(1) = α(1) + β
1 = α + β ….(1)
g (2) = α (2) + β
3 = 2α + β ….(2)
Solve the two equations we get
α = 2, β = -1


Question 15.
f(x) = (x + 1)3 – (x – 1)3 represents a function which is
(1) linear
(2) cubic
(3) reciprocal
(4) quadratic


Answer:
(4) quadratic


Hint:
f(x) = (x + 1)3 – (x – 1)3
= x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1 -[x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 1]
= x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1 – x3 + 3x2 – 3x + 1 = 6x2 + 2
It is a quadratic function.


Question 1.


Using the functions f and g given below, find fog and gof Check whether fog = gof.

(i) f(x) = x – 6, g(x) = x2
Answer:
f(x) = x – 6, g(x) = x2
fog = fog (x)
= f(g(x))
fog = f(x)2
= x2 – 6
gof = go f(x)
= g(x – 6)
= (x – 6)2
= x2 – 12x + 36
fog ≠ gof


(ii) f(x) = 2x, g(x) = 2x2 – 1
Answer:
f(x) – 2x; g(x) = 2x2 – 1
fag = f[g (x)]
= f(2x2 – 1)
= 22×2−1
gof = g [f(x)]
= g (2x)
= 2 (2x)2 – 1
=2×4×2−1
=8×2−1
fog ≠ gof

(iii) f(x) = x+63, g(x) = 3 – x
Answer:
f(x) = x+6x, g(x) = 3 – x
fog = f[g(x)]
= f(3 – x)


(iv) f(x) = 3 + x, g(x) = x – 4
Answer:
f(x) = 3 + x ;g(x) = x – 4
fog = f[g(x)]
= f(x – 4)
= 3 + x – 4
= x – 1
gof = g[f(x)]
= g(3 + x)
= 3 + x – 4
= x – 1
fog = gof

(v) f(x) = 4x2 – 1,g(x) = 1 + x
Answer:
f(x) = 4x2 – 1 ; g(x) = 1 + x
fog = f[g(x)]
= 4(1 + x)
= 4(1 + x)2 – 1
= 4[1 + x2 + 2x] – 1
= 4 + 4x2 + 8x – 1
= 4x2 + 8x + 3
gof = g [f(x)]
= g (4x2 – 1)
= 1 + 4x2 – 1
= 4x2
fog ≠ gof


Question 2.
Find the value of k, such that fog = gof
(i) f(x) = 3x + 2, g(x) = 6x – k
(ii) f(x) = 2x – k, g(x) = 4x + 5
Solution:
(i) f(x) = 3x + 2, g(x) = 6x – k
fog(x) = f(g(x)) = f(6x – k) = 3(6x – k) + 2
= 18x – 3k + 2 …………… (1)
gof(x) = g(f(x)) = g(3x + 2) = 6(3x + 2) – k
= 18x + 12 – k ……………. (2)
(1) = (2)
⇒ 18x – 3k + 2 = 18x + 12 – k
2k = -10
k = -5

(ii) f(x) = 2x – k, g(x) = 4x + 5
fog(x) = f(g(x)) = f(4x + 5) = 2(4x + 5) – k
= 8x + 10 – k ……………… (1)
gof(x) = g(f(x)) = g(2x – k) = 4(2x – k) + 5
= 8x – 4k + 5 ……………. (2)
(1) = (2)
⇒ 8x + 10 – k = 8x – 4k + 5
3k = -5
k = −53


Question 3.
If f(x) = 2x – 1, g(x) = x+12, show that f o g = g o f = x
Answer:
f(x) = 2x – 1 ; g(x) = x+12
fog = f[g(x)]

∴ fog = gof = x
Hence it is proved.


Question 4.
(i) If f (x) = x2 – 1, g(x) = x – 2 find a, if gof(a) = 1.
(ii) Find k, if f(k) = 2k – 1 and fof (k) = 5.
Solution:
(i) f(x) = x2 – 1, g(x) = x – 2
Given gof(a) = 1
gof(x) = g(f(x)
= g(x2 – 1) = x2 – 1 – 2
= x2 – 3
gof(a) ⇒ a2 – 3 = 1 =+ a2 = 4
a = ± 2
(ii) f(k) = 2k – 1
fo f(k) = 5
f(f(k)m = f(2k – 1) = 5
⇒ 2(2k – 1) – 1 = 5
4 k – 2 – 1 = 5 ⇒ 4k = 8
k = 2


Question 5.
Let A,B,C ⊂ N and a function f: A → B be defined by f(x) = 2x + 1 and g: B → C be defined by g(x) = x2 . Find the range of fog and gof.
Answer:
f(x) = 2x + 1 ; g(x) = x2
fog = f[g(x)]
= f(x2)
= 2x2 + 1
2x2 + 1 ∈ N
g o f = g [f(x)]
= g (2x + 1)
g o f = (2x + 1)2
(2x + 1)2 ∈ N
Range = {y/y = 2x2 + 1, x ∈ N};
{y/y = (2x + 1)2, x ∈ N)


Question 6.
If f(x) = x2 – 1. Find (i)f(x) = x2 – 1, (ii)fofof
Solution:
(i) f(x) = x2 – 1
fof(x) = f(fx)) = f(x2 – 1)
= (x2 – 1 )2 – 1;
= x4 – 2x2 + 1 – 1
= x4 – 2x2
(ii) fofof = f o f(f(x))
= f o f (x4 – 2x2)
= f(f(x4 – 2x2))
= (x4 – 2x2)2 – 1
= x8 – 4x6 + 4x4 – 1


Question 7.
If f : R → R and g : R → R are defined by f(x) = x5 and g(x) = x4 then check if f, g are one – one and fog is one – one?
Answer:
f(x) = x5 – It is one – one function
g(x) = x4 – It is one – one function
fog = f[g(x)]
= f(x4)
= (x4)5
fag = x20
It is also one-one function.


Question 8.
Consider the functions f(x), g(x), h(x) as given below. Show that (fog)oh = fo(goh) in each case.
(i) f(x) = x – 1, g(x) = 3x + 1 and h(x) = x2
(ii) f(x) = x2, g(x) = 2x and h(x) = x + 4
(iii) f(x) = x – 4, g(x) = x2 and h(x) = 3x – 5
Solution:
(i) f(x) = x – 1, g(x) = 3x + 1 and h(x) = x2
f(x) = x – 1
g(x) = 3x + 1
f(x) = x2
(fog)oh = fo(goh)
LHS = (fog)oh
fog = f(g(x)) = f(3x + 1) = 3x + 1 – 1 = 3x
(fog)oh = (fog)(h(x)) = (fog)(x) = 3……………. (1)
RHS = fo(goh)
goh = g(h(x)) = g(x2) = 3x2 + 1
fo(goh) = f(3x2 + 1) = 3x2 + 1 – 1= 3x………… (2)
LHS = RHS Hence it is verified.

(ii) f(x) = x2, g(x) = 2x, h(x) = x + 4
(fog)oh = fo(goh)
LHS = (fog)oh
fog = f(g(x)) = f(2x) = (2x)2 = 4x2
(fog)oh = (fog) h(x) = (fog) (x + 4)
= 4(x + 4)2 = 4(x2 + 8x+16)
= 4x2 + 32x + 64 ………….. (1)
RHS = fo(goh) goh = g(h(x)) = g(x + 4)
= 2(x + 4) = (2x + 8)
fo(goh) = f(goh) = f(2x + 8) = (2x + 8)2
= 4x2 + 32x + 64 ……………… (2)
(1) = (2)
LHS = RHS
∴ (fog)oh = fo(goh) It is proved.

(iii) f(x) = x – 4, g(x) = x2, h(x) = 3x – 5
(fog)oh = fo(goh)
LHS = (fog)oh
fog = f(g(x)) = f(x2) = x2 – 4
(fog)oh = (fog)(3x – 5) = (3x – 5)2 – 4
= 9x2 – 30x + 25 -4
= 9x2 – 30x + 21 ………….. (1)
∴ RHS = fo(goh)
(goh) = g(h(x)) = g(3x – 5) = (3x – 5)2
= 9x2 – 30x + 25
fo(goh) = f(9x2 – 30 x + 25)
= 9x2 – 30x + 25 – 4
= 9x2 – 30x + 21 …………… (2)
(1) = (2)
LHS = RHS
∴ (fog)oh = fo(goh)
It is proved.


Question 9.
Let f = {(-1, 3), (0, -1), (2, -9)} be a linear function from Z into Z. Find f(x).
Answer:
The linear equation is f(x) = ax + b
f(-1) = 3
a(-1) + b = 3
-a + b = 3 ….(1)
f(0) = -1
a(0) + b = -1
0 + b = -1
b = -1
Substitute the value of b = -1 in (1)
-a – 1 = 3
-a = 3 + 1
-a = 4
a = -4
∴ The linear equation is -4(x) -1 = -4x – 1 (or) – (4x + 1)


Question 10.
In electrical circuit theory, a circuit C(t) is called a linear circuit if it satisfies the superposition principle given by C(at1 + bt2) = aC(t1) + bC(t2), where a,b are constants. Show that the circuit C(t) = 31 is linear.
Solution:
Given C(t) = 3t. To prove that the function is linear
C(at1) = 3a(t1)
C(bt2) = 3 b(t2)
C(at1 + bt2) = 3 [at1 + bt2] = 3at1 + 3bt2
= a(3t1) + b(3t2) = a[C(t1) + b(Ct2)]
∴ Superposition principle is satisfied.
Hence C(t) = 3t is linear function.


10th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Ex 1.3

Question 1.
Let f = {(x, y) |x,y; ∈ N and y = 2x} be a relation on N. Find the domain, co-domain and range. Is this relation a function?
Answer:
X = {1,2,3,….}
Y = {1,2,3,….}
f = {(1,2) (2, 4) (3, 6) (4, 8) ….}
Domain = {1, 2, 3, 4 ….}
Co – Domain = {1, 2, 3, 4 ….}
Range = {2, 4, 6, 8 }
Yes this relation is a function.


Question 2.
Let X = {3, 4, 6, 8}. Determine whether the relation
R = {(x,f(x)) |x ∈ X, f(x) = x2 + 1}
is a function from X to N?
Answer:
f(x) = x2 + 1
f(3) = 32 + 1 = 9 + 1 = 10
f(4) = 42 + 1 = 16 + 1 = 17
f(6) = 62 + 1 = 36 + 1 = 37
f(8) = 82 + 1 = 64 + 1 = 65
yes, R is a function from X to N


Question 3.
Given the function f: x → x2 – 5x + 6, evaluate
(i) f(-1)
(ii) f(2a)
(iii) f(2)
(iv) f(x – 1)
Solution:
Give the function f: x → x2 – 5x + 6.
(i) f(-1) = (-1)2 – 5(1) + 6 = 1 + 5 + 6 = 12
(ii) f(2a) = (2a)2 – 5(2a) + 6 = 4a2 – 10a + 6
(iii) f(2) = 22 – 5(2) + 6 = 4 – 10 + 6 = 0
(iv) f(x – 1) = (x – 1)2 – 5(x – 1) + 6
= x2 – 2x + 1 – 5x + 5 + 6
= x2 – 7x + 12

Question 4.
A graph representing the function f(x) is given in it is clear that f(9) = 2.

(i) Find the following values of the function
(a) f(0)
(b) f(7)
(c) f(2)
(d) f(10)
Answer:
(a) f (0) = 9
(b) f (7) = 6
(c) f (2) = 6
(d) f(10) = 0

(ii) For what value of x is f(x) = 1 ?
Answer:
When f(x) = 1 the value of x is 9.5

(iii) Describe the following
(i) Domain
(ii) Range.
Answer:
Domain = {0, 1, 2, 3,… .10}
= {x / 0 < x < 10, x ∈ R}
Range = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}
= {x / 0 < x < 9, x ∈ R}

(iv) What is the image of 6 under f?
Answer:
The image of 6 under f is 5.


Question 5.
Let f (x) = 2x + 5. If x ≠ 0 then find
f(x+2)−f(2)x
Answer:
f(x) = 2x + 5
f(x + 2) = 2(x + 2) + 5
= 2x + 4 + 5
= 2x + 9


Question 6.
A function/is defined by f(x) = 2x – 3
(i) find f(0)+f(1)2
(ii) find x such that f(x) = 0.
(iii) find x such that/ (A:) = x.
(iv) find x such that fix) =/(l – x).
Answer:
(i) f(x) = 2x – 3
f(0) = 2(0) – 3 = -3
f(1) = 2(1) – 3 = 2 – 3 = -1
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Maths Guide Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Ex 1.3 3

(ii) f(x) = 0
2x – 3 = 0
2x = 3
x = 32

(iii) f(x) = x
2x – 3 = x
2x – x = 3
x = 3

(iv) f(1 – x) = 2(1 – x) – 3
= 2 – 2x – 3
= – 2x – 1
f(x) = f(1 – x)
2x – 3 = – 2x – 1
2x + 2x = 3 – 1
4x = 2
x = 24 = 12

Question 7.
square piece of material, 24 cm on a side, by cutting equal squares from the corners and turning up the sides as shown. Express the volume V of the box as a function of x.


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Maths Guide Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Ex 1.3 4
Solution:

After cutting squares we will get a cuboid,
length of the cuboid (l) = 24 – 2x
breadth of the cuboid (b) = 24 – 2x
height of the cuboid (h) = 2x
Volume of the box = Volume of the cuboid
V = (24 – 2x)(24 – 2x) (x)
= (24 – 2x)2 (x)
= (576 + 4x2 – 96x) x
= 576x + 4x3 – 96x2
V = 4x3 – 96x2 + 576x
V(x) = 4x3 – 96x2 + 576x

Question 8.
A function f is defined by f(x) = 3 – 2x. Find x such that f(x2) = (f (x))2.
Answer:
f(x) = 3 – 2x
f(x2) = 3 – 2 (x2)
= 3 – 2x2
(f (x))2 = (3 – 2x)2
= 9 + 4x2 – 12x
But f(x2) = (f(x))2
3 – 2 x2 = 9 + 4x2 – 12x
-2x2 – 4x+ 12x + 3 – 9 = 0
-6x2 + 12x – 6 = 0
(÷ by – 6) ⇒ x2 – 2x + 1 = 0
(x – 1) (x – 1) = 0
x – 1 = 0 or x – 1 = 0
x = 1
The value of x = 1

Question 9.
A plane is flying at a speed of 500 km per hour. Express the distance d travelled by the plane as function of time t in hours.
Solution:
Speed =  distance covered  time taken 
⇒ distance = Speed × time
⇒ d = 500 × t [ ∵ time = t hrs]
⇒ d = 500 t

Question 10.
The data in the adjacent table depicts the length of a woman’s forehand and her corresponding height. Based on this data, a student finds a relationship between the height (y) and the forehand length (x) as y = ax + b , where a, b are constants.
(i) Check if this relation is a function.
(ii) Find a and b.
(iii) Find the height of a woman whose forehand length is 40 cm.
(iv) Find the length of forehand of a woman if her height is 53.3 inches.

Length ‘x’ of forehand (in cm)Height y (in inches)
3556
4565
5069.5
5574

Answer:
The relation is y = 0.9x + 24.5
(i) Yes the relation is a function.
(ii) When compare with y = ax + b
a = 0.9, b = 24.5
(iii) When the forehand length is 40 cm, then height is 60.5 inches.
Hint: y = 0.9x + 24.5
= 0.9 × 40 + 24.5
= 36 + 24.5
= 60.5 feet

(iv) When the height is 53.3 inches, her forehand length is 32 cm
Hint: y = 0.9x + 24.5
53.3 = 0.9x + 24.5
53.3 – 24.5 = 0.9 x
28.8 = 0.9 x
x = 28.80.9
x = 32 cm

Representation of functions

A function may be represented by

(a) Set of ordered pairs
(b) Table form
(c) Arrow diagram
(d) Graphical form

Vertical line test
A curve drawn in a graph represents a function, if every vertical line intersects the curve in at most one point.

Types of function

1. One – One function (injection)

A function f: A → B is called one-one function if distinct elements of A have a distinct image in B.

2. Many – One function

,A function f: A → B is called many-on function if two or more elements of A have same image in B.

3. Onto function (surjection)
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Maths Guide Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Ex 1.3 7
A function f: A → B is said to be on to function if the range of f is equal to the co-domain of f.

4. Into function
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Maths Guide Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Ex 1.3 8
A function f: A → B is called an into function if there exists at least one element in B which is not the image of any element of A.

5. Bijection

A function f: A → B is both one – one and onto, then f is called a bijection from A to B.

Horizontal line test
A function represented in a graph is one – one, if every horizontal line intersects the curve in at most one point.

Special cases of function

1. Constant function
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Maths Guide Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Ex 1.3 10
A function f: A → B is called a constant function if the range of f contains only one element.

2. Identity function
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Maths Guide Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Ex 1.3 11
A function f : A → A defined by f(x) = x for all x ∈ A is called an identity function on A and is denoted by IA.

3. Real valued function
A function f: A → B is called a real valued function if the range of f is a subset of the set of all real numbers R.


Question 1.
Let A = {1, 2, 3, 7} and B = {3, 0, -1, 7}, which of the following are relation from A to B?
(i) R1 = {(2,1), (7,1)}
(ii) R2 = {(-1,1)}
(iii) R3 = {(2,-1), (7, 7), (1,3)}
(iv) R4 = {(7, -1), (0, 3), (3, 3), (0, 7)}
Answer:

A = {1,2,3,7} B = {3,0,-1, 7}
A × B = {1,2,3} × {3, 0,-1, 7}
A × B = {(1,3) (1,0) (1,-1) (1,7) (2,3) (2, 0)
(2, -1) (2, 7) (3, 3) (3,0) (3,-1)
(3, 7) (7, 3) (7, 0) (7,-1) (7, 7)}

(i) R1 = {(2, 1)} (7, 1)
It is not a relation, there is no element of (2, 1) and (7, 1) in A × B

(ii) R2 = {(-1),1)}
It is not a relation, there is no element of
(-1, 1) in A × B

(iii) R3 = {(2,-1) (7, 7) (1,3)}
Yes, It is a relation

(iv) R4 = {(7,-1) (0,3) (3, 3) (0,7)}
It is not a relation, there is no element of (0, 3) and (0, 7) in A × B


Question 2.
Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4,…,45} and R be the relation defined as “is square of ” on A. Write R as a subset of A × A. Also, find the domain and range of R.
Solution:
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, . . . 45}, A × A = {(1, 1), (2, 2) ….. (45, 45)}
R – is square of’
R = {(1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9), (4, 16), (5, 25), (6, 36)}
R ⊂ (A × A)
Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
Range of R = {1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36}


Question 3.
A Relation R is given by the set {(x, y)/y = x + 3, x ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}}. Determine its domain and range.
Answer:
x = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
y = x + 3
when x = 0 ⇒ y = 0 + 3 = 3
when x = 1 ⇒ y = 1 + 3 = 4
when x = 2 ⇒ y = 2 + 3 = 5
when x = 3 ⇒ y = 3 + 3 = 6
when x = 4 ⇒ y = 4 + 3 = 7
when x = 5 y = 5 + 3 = 8
R = {(0, 3) (1,4) (2, 5) (3, 6) (4, 7) (5, 8)}
Domain = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
Range = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}


Question 4.
Represent each of the given relations by
(a) an arrow diagram
(b) a graph and
(c) a set in roster form, wherever possible.
(i) {(x,y) | x = 2y,x ∈ {2, 3, 4, 5}, y ∈ {1, 2, 3, 4}
(ii) {(x, y) | y = x + 3, x, y are natural numbers < 10}
Answer:
(i) x = {2, 3, 4, 5} y = {1, 2, 3, 4}
x = 2y
wheny y = 1 ⇒ x = 2 × 1 = 2
when y = 2 ⇒ x = 2 × 2 = 4
when y = 3 ⇒ r = 2 × 3 = 6
when y = 4 ⇒ x = 2 × 4 = 8

(a) Arrow diagram

(ii) x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}
y = {1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9}
y = x + 3
when x = 1 ⇒ y = 1 + 3 = 4
when x = 2 ⇒ y = 2 + 3 = 5
when x = 3 ⇒ y = 3 + 3 = 6
when x = 4 ⇒ y = 4 + 3 = 7
when x = 5 ⇒ y = 5 + 3 = 8
when x = 6 ⇒ y = 6 + 3 = 9
when x = 7 ⇒ y = 7 + 3 = 10
when x = 8 ⇒ y = 8 + 3 = 11
when x = 9 ⇒ y = 9 + 3 = 12

R = {(1,4) (2, 5) (3,6) (4, 7) (5, 8) (6, 9)}

B. Solution.

(c) Roster form: R = {(1, 4) (2, 5) (3, 6) (4, 7) (5, 8) (6, 9)}


Question 5.
A company has four categories of employees given by Assistants (A), Clerks (C), Managers (M) and an Executive Officer (E). The company provide ₹10,000, ₹25,000, ₹50,000 and ₹1,00,000 as salaries to the people who work in the categories A, C, M and E respectively. If A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 were Assistants; C1, C2, C3, C4 were Clerks; M1, M2, M3 were managers and E1, E2 were Executive officers and if the relation R is defined by xRy, where x is the salary given to person y, express the relation R through an ordered pair and an arrow diagram.


Answer:
Assistants → A1, A2, A3, A4, A5
Clerks → C1, C2, C3, C4
Managers → M1, M2, M3
Executive officers → E1, E2

R = {00000, A1) (10000, A2) (10000, A3) (10000, A4) (10000, A5)
(25000, C1) (25000, C2) (25000, C3) (25000, C4)
(50000, M1) (50000, M2) (50000, M3) (100000, E1) (100000, E2)}

(a) Arrow diagram

Functions Definition
A relation f between two non – empty sets X and Y is called a function from X to Y if for each x ∈ X there exists only one Y ∈ Y such that (x, y) ∈ f
f = {(x, y) / for all x ∈ X, y ∈ f}
Note: The range of a function is a subset of its co-domain


Samacheer Kalvi, 10th, Maths, Guide, Chapter 1, Relations and Functions, Ex 1.1,

1. Find A × B, A × A and B × A
(i) A = {2, -2, 3} and B = {1, -4}
(ii) A = B = {p, q}
(iii) A – {m, n} ; B = Φ
Answer:
(i) A = {2, -2, 3} and B = {1, -4}
A × B = {2,-2, 3} × {1,-4}
= {(2, 1), (2, -4)(-2, 1) (-2, -4) (3, 1) (3,-4)}
A × A = {2,-2, 3} × {2,-2, 3}
= {(2, 2)(2, -2)(2, 3)(-2, 2)
(-2, -2)(-2, 3X3,2) (3,-2) (3,3)}
B × A = {1,-4} × {2,-2, 3}
= {(1, 2)(1, -2)( 1, 3)(-4, 2) (-4,-2)(-4, 3).

(ii) A = B = {p, q}
A × B = {p, q) × {p, q}
= {(p,p),(p,q)(q,p)(q,q)}
A × A = {p,q) × (p,q)
= {(p,p)(p,q)(q,p)(q,q)
B × A = {p,q} × {p,q}
= {(p,p)(p,q)(q,p)(q,q)

(iii) A = {m, n} × B = Φ
Note: B = Φ or {}
A × B = {m, n) × { }
= { )
A × A = {m, n) × (m, n)}
= {(m, m)(w, w)(n, m)(n, n)}
B × A = { } × {w, n}
= { }

Question 2.
Let A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {x | x is a prime number less than 10}. Find A × B and B × A.
Solution:
A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {2, 3, 5, 7}
A × B = {(1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 5), (1, 7), (2, 2), (2, 3) , (2, 5), (2, 7), (3, 2), (3, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7)}
B × A = {(2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3) , (5, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (7, 1), (7, 2) , (7, 3)}

Question 3.
If B × A = {(-2, 3),(-2, 4),(0, 3),(0, 4), (3,3) ,(3, 4)} find A and B.
Answer:
B × A = {(-2, 3)(-2, 4) (0, 3) (0, 4) (3, 3) (3,4)}
A = {3,4}
B = {-2,0,3}

Question 4.
If A ={5, 6}, B = {4, 5, 6} , C = {5, 6, 7}, Show that A × A = (B × B) ∩ (C × C).
Solution:
A = {5,6}, B = {4, 5, 6},C = {5, 6, 7}
A × A = {(5, 5), (5, 6), (6, 5), (6, 6)} ……….. (1)
B × B = {(4, 4), (4, 5), (4, 6), (5, 4),
(5, 5), (5, 6), (6, 4), (6, 5), (6, 6)} …(2)
C × C = {(5, 5), (5, 6), (5, 7), (6, 5), (6, 6),
(6, 7), (7, 5), (7, 6), (7, 7)} …(3)
(B × B) ∩ (C × C) = {(5, 5), (5,6), (6, 5), (6,6)} …(4)
(1) = (4)
A × A = (B × B) ∩ (C × C)
It is proved.

Question 5.
Given A = {1,2,3}, B = {2,3,5}, C = {3,4} and D = {1,3,5}, check if
(A ∩ C) × (B ∩ D) = (A × B) ∩ (C × D) is true?
Answer:
A = {1,2, 3}, B = {2, 3, 5}, C = {3,4} D = {1,3,5}
A ∩ c = {1,2,3} ∩ {3,4}
= (3}
B ∩ D = {2,3, 5} ∩ {1,3,5}
= {3,5}
(A ∩ C) × (B ∩ D) = {3} × {3,5}
= {(3, 3)(3, 5)} ….(1)
A × B = {1,2,3} × {2,3,5}
= {(1,2) (1,3) (1,5) (2, 2) (2, 3) (2, 5) (3, 2) (3, 3) (3, 5)}
C × D = {3,4} × {1,3,5}
= {(3,1) (3, 3) (3, 5) (4,1) (4, 3) (4, 5)}
(A × B) ∩ (C × D) = {(3, 3) (3, 5)} ….(2)
From (1) and (2) we get
(A ∩ C) × (B ∩ D) = (A × B) ∩ (C × D)
This is true.

Question 6.
Let A = {x ∈ W | x < 2}, B = {x ∈ N |1 < x < 4} and C = {3, 5}. Verify that
(i) A × (B ∪ C) = (A × B) ∪ (A × C)
(ii) A × (B ∩ C) = (A × B) ∩ (A × C)
(iii) (A ∪ B) × C = (A × C) ∪ (B × C)
(iv) A × (B ∪ C) = (A × B) ∪ (A × C)
Solution:
A = {x ∈ W|x < 2} = {0,1}
B = {x ∈ N |1 < x < 4} = {2,3,4}
C = {3,5}
LHS =A × (B ∪ C)
B ∪ C = {2, 3, 4} ∪ {3, 5}
= {2, 3, 4, 5}
A × (B ∪ C) = {(0, 2), (0, 3), (0,4), (0, 5), (1, 2) , (1, 3), (1, 4),(1, 5)} ………. (1)
RHS = (A × B) ∪ (A × C)
(A × B) = {(0, 2), (0, 3), (0, 4), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4)}
(A × C) = {(0, 3), (0, 5), (1, 3), (1, 5)}
(A × B) ∪ (A × C)= {(0, 2), (0, 3), (0,4), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (0, 5), (1, 5)} ….(2)
(1) = (2),

LHS = RHS
Hence it is proved.

(ii) A × (B ∩ C) = (A × B) ∩ (A × C)
LHS = A × (B ∩ C)
(B ∩ C) = {3}
A × (B ∩ C) = {(0, 3), (1, 3)} …(1)
RHS = (A × B) ∩ (A × C)
(A × B) = {(0, 2), (0, 3), (0, 4), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4)}
(A × C) = {(0, 3), (0, 5), (1, 3), (1, 5)}
(A × B) ∩ (A × C) = {(0, 3), (1, 3)} ……….. (2)
(1) = (2) ⇒ LHS = RHS.
Hence it is verified.

(iii) (A ∪ B) × C = (A × C) ∪ (B × C)
LHS = (A ∪ B) × C
A ∪ B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}
(A ∪ B) × C = {(0, 3), (0, 5), (1, 3), (1, 5), (2, 3), (2, 5), (3, 3), (3, 5), (4, 3), (4, 5)} …………. (1)
RHS = (A × C) ∪ (B × C)
(A × C) = {(0, 3), (0, 5), (1, 3), (1, 5)}
(B × C) = {(2, 3), (2, 5), (3, 3), (3, 5), (4, 3), (4, 5)}
(A × C) ∪ (B × C) = {(0, 3), (0, 5), (1, 3), (1, 5), (2, 3), (2, 5), (3, 3), (3, 5), (4, 3), (4, 5)} ………… (2)
(1) = (2)
∴ LHS = RHS.

Hence it is verified.


Question 7.
Let A = The set of all natural numbers less than 8, B = The set of all prime numbers less than 8, C = The set of even prime number. Verify that
(i) (A ∩ B) × C = (A × c) ∩ (B × C)
(ii) A × (B – C) = (A × B) – (A × C)
Answer:
A = {1,2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7}
B = {2, 3, 5,7}
C = {2}

(i) (A ∩ B) × C = (A × C) ∩ (B × C)
A ∩ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} ∩ {2, 3, 5, 7}
= {2, 3, 5, 7}
(A ∩ B) × C = {2, 3, 5, 7} × {2}
= {(2, 2) (3, 2) (5, 2) (7, 2)} ….(1)
A × C = {1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} × {2}
= {(1,2) (2, 2) (3, 2) (4, 2)
(5.2) (6, 2) (7, 2)}
B × C = {2, 3, 5, 7} × {2}
= {(2, 2) (3, 2) (5, 2) (7, 2)}
(A × C) ∩ (B × C) = {(2, 2) (3, 2) (5, 2) (7, 2)} ….(2)
From (1) and (2) we get
(A ∩ B) × C = (A × C) ∩ (B × C)

(ii) A × (B – C) = (A × B) – (A × C)
B – C = {2, 3, 5, 7} – {2}
= {3,5,7}
A × (B – C) = {1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7} × {3,5,7}
= {(1, 3) (1, 5) (1, 7) (2, 3) (2, 5)
(2, 7) (3, 3) (3, 5) (3, 7) (4, 3)
(4, 5) (4, 7) (5, 3) (5, 5) (5, 7)
(6, 3) (6, 5) (6, 7) (7, 3) (7, 5) (7, 7)} ………….(1)
A × B = {1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} × {2, 3, 5,7}
= {(1, 2) (1, 3) (1, 5) (1, 7) (2, 2) (2, 3)
(2, 5) (2, 7) (3, 2) (3, 3) (3, 5) (3, 7)
(4, 2) (4, 3) (4, 5) (4, 7) (5, 2) (5, 3) (5, 5)
(5, 7) (6, 2) (6, 3) (6, 5) (6, 7)
(7, 2) (7, 3) (7, 5) (7, 7)}
A × C = {1,2, 3,4, 5, 6, 7} × {2}
= {(1, 2) (2, 2) (3, 2) (4, 2) (5, 2) (6.2) (7,2)}
(A × B) – (A × C) = {(1, 3) (1, 5) (1, 7)
(2, 3) (2, 5) (2, 7) (3, 3) (3, 5)
(3, 7) (4, 3) (4, 5) (4, 7) (5, 3) (5, 5)
(5, 7) (6, 3) (6, 5) (6, 7) (7, 3) (7, 5) (7, 7)} ….(2)
From (1) and (2) we get
A × (B – C) = (A × B) – (A × C)

Relations
Let A and B be any two non-empty sets. A “relation” R from A to B is a subset of A × B satisfying some specified conditions.

Note:

  1. The domain of the relations R = {x ∈ A/xRy, for some y ∈ B}
  2. The co-domain of the relation R is B
  3. The range of the ralation

R = (y ∈ B/xRy for some x ∈ A}


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