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Balbharati, solutions, for, Psychology, 12th, Standard, HSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 5, Emotions, 

Complete the following Statement:

_________________is a combination of bodily arousal, expressive behaviour, thoughts and feelings.

Response

Reaction

Emotions

Solution

Emotions

According to James Lange we first experience ________ then emotions.

physical arousal

feelings

thoughts

Solution

physical arousal

Complete the following Statement:

Emotion is used as a _______ to control others.

weapon

measure

opportunity

Solution

weapon

Complete the following Statement:

When you allow another person to exploit you, you are a victim of _____________ abuse.

physical

emotional

social

Solution

emotional

Complete the following Statement:

Exercising releases ____________ which makes you feel good as a stress buster.

endorphins

thyroxin

insulin

Solution

endorphins

Identify the odd items from the following and write a suitable reason for your choice:

admiration

disgust

acceptance

trust

Solution

Disgust

Reason: The other three words are positive emotions.

Identify the odd items from the following and write a suitable reason for your choice:

kicking

ignoring

shoving

screaming

Solution

Ignoring

Reason: The other three words are physical triggers of anger

Identify the odd items from the following and write a suitable reason for your choice:

Reassess

React

Respond

Relax

Solution

React

Reason: The other three words are techniques of anger management.

Identify the odd items from the following and write a suitable reason for your choice:

meditation

social work

compassion

engage in hobbies

Solution

Compassion

Reason: The other three words are related to ‘Relaxation’ technique of anger management.


Match the Pairs:

Solution

State whether the following statement is true or false :

Emotional well being is not easily observable.

Solution

True

Positive emotions energise you.

Solution

True

You should feel guilty for standing up for yourself.

Solution

False

Anger is a basic negative emotion.

Solution

False

Answer the following question in around 35-40 words :

Explain the term facial feedback hypothesis.

Solution

According to the facial feedback hypothesis, our facial expressions provide feedback to our brain about our emotions. Facial expressions are not only the result of our emotions, e.g., smiling in happiness, but they are also capable of influencing emotions, e.g. laughter can actually make us feel happier. The same might hold true for other emotions as well. In the 1840s, William James presented the idea that awareness of our bodily experiences is the basis of emotion.

When does an individual face social rejection?

Solution

An individual faces social rejection when he is ignored in a conversation, isolated, bullied, or digitally spied on.

Social rejection in various forms makes an individual feel unloved and unappreciated.

With the help of an example write the non-verbal triggers of anger.

Solution

Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some real or perceived threat. It is a protective emotion that helps us to defend ourselves against physical or psychological harm.

Triggers of Anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers of anger may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected, or abused (ii) nonverbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated, or rejected. (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

Non-verbal triggers of anger are feelings of being neglected, disregarded, disappointed, unloved, or frequently spurned. It is expressed through gestures such as pointing a finger, shrugging the shoulders; by facial expressions such as sneering, frowning, and also by behaviours such as I groaning/sighing/whining or speaking in a mocking tone.

There are three factors involved in the experience of anger: A trigger (causes of anger) – an individual’s personality – a particular interpretation of that situation

What are the aspects of emotional well being?

Solution

Emotional well-being is innate and not easily observable.

Various aspects of emotional well-being are understanding and managing one’s emotions, encouraging positive emotions, and not getting overwhelmed by the situational negative emotions.


Compare and Contrast :

Happiness and Sadness

Solution

Both happiness and sadness are primary emotions. We experience these emotions from time to time. Happiness is the most positive emotion which is also associated with satisfaction, contentment, and joy while sadness is characterised by feelings like disappointment, grief, shame, and hopelessness.

Happiness is closely associated with our psychological well-being, health, and longevity. On the other hand, prolonged sadness can turn into depression. It is very normal to be sad at times and we can use coping strategies to deal with it

James Lange theory and Cannon Bard’s Theory

Solution

William James and Carl Lange believed that we experience emotions because of our physiological arousal. On the other hand, Walter Cannon and Philip Bard disagreed with James – Lange saying that only physiological arousal will not lead us to experience a particular emotion. This is because we may experience certain physiological arousal but its underneath emotions could be different based upon the situation.

According to James and Lange, we don’t cry because we feel sad but we feel sad because we cry. However, Cannon and Bard explained that we don’t cry only when we are sad but we also cry when we are pleasantly surprised or extremely happy. So, according to them, we experience physiological arousal simultaneously yet separately

Write Short Notes on the following in 50 60 words:

Measures of dealing with Emotional Abuse

Solution

Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression, and psychological trauma to the victim.

The types of emotional abuse may be –

verbal abuse such as blaming, insulting, labeling, threatening, swearing, etc.

non-verbal abuse such as ignoring, rejection, bullying, spying. etc.

The most important technique is to break the silence and stand up for yourself.

Accept that emotional abuse is not because of you, i.e., don’t justify the actions of the abuser.

Respond assertively to the abuser but seek distance from him her.

Give yourself time to heal.

Prioritize your self-care, e.g., eating right, exercise, etc.

Mobilise support from family and friends. If needed, seek professional help

Write Short Notes on the following in 50 60 words:

Plutchiks’s Model of Emotions

Solution.

Plutchik’s stated that there are 8 basic emotions.

He created the wheel of emotions which shows various relationships among the emotions.

The intensity of emotion decreases as we move outward and vice versa.

The colour too indicates the intensity. The darker the shade, the more intense the emotion.

Emotions with no colour depict a combination of two primary emotions.

Plutchik states that we experience complex emotions most of the time.

This model is important from the perspective of emotional literacy.

Plutchik’s model of emotions.

Diagram 

Anger –A Powerful emotion

Solution

Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some threat. It is a protective emotion that helps us to defend ourselves against physical/ psychological harm. However, anger may also be unwanted, irrational, and destructive. When we experience anger, our amygdala goes into action and overrides the cerebral cortex which is in control of thinking and evaluation. Triggers of anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected or abused (ii) non-verbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated or rejected. (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

here are three factors involved in the experience of anger: A trigger (causes of anger) – individual’s personality – particular interpretation of that situation. As the experience of anger is subjective, it can be controlled too. If we understand the triggers of anger, we can anticipate potential anger episodes and provide an intentional/ acceptable response such as it may energize us towards solving problems. As anger is a powerful emotion, it must be kept in check to avoid it’s destructive out comes..

Managing Emotions

Solution

Managing emotions is defined as the ability to be open to feelings and modulate them in oneself and others so as to promote personal understanding and growth.

Managing emotions is very much a question of choice.

While many individuals struggle to handle their emotions, few of them are self-aware. The latter are able to manage their emotions well and express their emotions in a healthy manner.

Managing emotions is an art as well as science.

Benefits of Emotional Well being

Solution

Emotional well-being means managing our emotions, both positive and negative ones so that we can lead a healthy and productive life.

Persons who have high emotional well-being experience benefits such as-

(i) better able to deal with stress

(ii) better self-regulation

(iii) increased productivity in tasks undertaken

(iv) increased creativity

(v) life satisfaction due to meaningful activities and relationships.

Coping with stress – It helps to deal with stress using healthy methods such as exercise, social support, etc.

Better self-regulation – It enables the person to label how they feel and accepts negative emotions life fear, anger, etc.

Increases productivity in tasks undertaken – The ability to focus is enhanced, the person feels positive and energized.

Increases creativity – The person indulges in divergent thinking, shows curiosity is open to new experiences.

Life satisfaction -The individual is able to have meaningful interactions and relationships, show empathy, altruism, and engage in activities like volunteer work

Answer the following in 50-60 words:

Using the 3 R model of Anger Management present a case study of your own experience.

Solution

Case: Seema was angry with her parents as they didn’t allow her to go to a late-night party.

The 3 R’s of anger management, Relax, Reassess, and Respond can be applied to the above case in the following way:

Relaxation: Seema listened to music for some time which gave her recovery time to manage her anger and see things with a clear perspective. Otherwise, she would have reacted impulsively.

Reassess: Once her mind was relaxed, Seema thought about the situation in an objective manner. She could assess that her parents didn’t intend to restrict her but they were just worried about her safety.

Respond: After careful evaluation of the situation, she talked to her parents and resolved the conflict. She also called up her friend and explained why she could not attend the party.

How does the brain work when angry?

Solution

When a person experiences and expresses anger, the limbic system is functional and not the cortex.

The data coming in passes through the amygdala; where the decision is made whether to send the data to the limbic system or the cortex.

If the incoming data triggers enough emotional charge, then it is sent to the limbic system, causing the person to react using the lower part of the brain.

On average, it takes 20 minutes for an angry person to calm down.

After having realised you are emotionally abused by your best friend, write the steps you will take to deal with it.

Solution

Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression, and psychological trauma.

The types of emotional abuse may be (i) verbal abuse such as blaming, insulting, labeling, threatening, swearing, etc. (ii) non-verbal abuse such as ignoring, rejection, bullying, spying, etc.

Some of the techniques to deal with emotional abuse are –

Accept that emotional abuse is not because of you i.e. don’t justify the actions of the abuser.

Respond assertively to the abuser but seek distance from him/her.

Give yourself time to heal.

Prioritize your self-care, e.g., eating right, exercise, etc.

Mobilise support from family and friends. If needed, seek professional help.

If I realize that I have been emotionally abused by my good friend I will adopt the following steps-

Disengage from the friendship and set personal boundaries

Understand that I am not the cause of abuse and so respond assertively to the abuser

Practice self-care and give me time to heal

If necessary seek guidance from other friends or my family I teachers

Analyse the situations presented below and

a. Write the Emotion/s you experience.

b. What will be your response to this situation?

Anish was scolded by his boss. He came home and in a fit of rage hit his son. You are Anish’s friend who witnessed this outburst.

Solution

I will be very upset and displeased. I will talk to Anish and listen to his situation. I will also make him understand that he used displacement as a defence mechanism and it is morally wrong to do so. Instead, he should take some time to calm himself when such a situation arises in the future.

You helped your friend with study notes during his illness. But when your friend got better he did not respond nor show any sense of appreciation.

Solution.

I will feel disappointment as well as sadness. I will meet the friend and tell him that his lack of courtesy has hurt me.

Though you are a good friend of Anushka, she has not invited you to her new year’s party.

Solution

I will be angry with Anushka. I will be upfront with her. I will explain that being her good friend, I expected her to invite me. I will also give her a chance to explain the reason behind her behaviour. If it is genuine, I will forgive her.

It’s your Birthday and you wake up that morning to find yourself surrounded with beautiful gifts.

Solution

I will obviously feel immense happiness.

You have had a hectic day at college when you come home you find the door locked. You forgot your keys at home that day and your parents have not informed you of their plans.

Solution

I will be frustrated and irritated. Although I would be really upset initially, I will try to calm myself down. I will call my parents and check if they could come home early. I might also call a friend who stays nearby and ask her if I can go to her place

You have planned a surprise day out for your best friend and she tells you she is not interested and has other plans.

Solution

I will be a little sad and disappointed but will accept my friend’s decision sportingly.


Balbharati, solutions, for, Psychology, 12th, Standard, HSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 4, Cognitive Processes,

Choose the correct alternative and complete the sentence:

When we select few stimuli from the environment and bring them into the center of our awareness, it is called __________.

attention

perception

thinking

Solution

attention

Ivan Pavlov is known for explaining learning by __________.

classical conditioning

operant conditioning

observation

Solution

classical conditioning

When we organise the information from the environment, group them and give some meaning, that process is called _______.

attention

perception

thinking

Solution

perception

In operant conditioning the experiment was conducted on___________.

dog

rat

monkey

Solution

rat

The change in behaviour due to practice or experience is known as ________.

perception

thinking

learning

Solution

learning

Answer briefly in 30 to 40 words:

What is fluctuation of attention?

Solution

Attention is the mental process of bringing a few stimuli into the centre of awareness out of the many stimuli present. It is difficult to attend to a single stimulus for a long period of time. Our attention shifts from the original stimulus to another stimulus for a fraction of time and then come back to the original stimulus. This may be due to factors like fatigue, decreased interest, etc. In most cases, attention fluctuates due to the limitations of human attention and hence cannot be totally eliminated

Give three examples of top down processes in perception

Solution

Three examples of top down processes in perception are:

If we read a book and some of its words are blurred due to a few sprinkles of water drops, we are still able to perceive the content entirely based on the context.

Many times, when we are on a phone call, the voice may break due to bad connectivity. Even when we miss a few words, we still perceive what the other person has to say.

If a person’s handwriting is difficult to understand, we may find it easier to perceive the content when we read complete sentences rather than when we read isolated words.

What is meant by thinking?

Solution

Thinking is the mental activity that uses various cognitive elements and processes that involves the manipulation of information.

The core elements of thinking are –

Mental representation – It is a coded internal sensation acquired by direct experiences through the sense organs or by indirect experiences such as narrations, pictures, etc.

Concepts – They form the basis for all cognitive processes, acting as building blocks by connecting with each other to form more complex concepts.

Schema – It is an internal representation that organizes knowledge about related concepts and relationships among them.

Language – Mental representations, concept, and schema are represented by language, for e.g., the word ‘cat’ is a symbol for a ‘cat’.

Describe any two processes of learning

Solution

Two processes of learning are:

Learning by observation: We learn many things by observing someone’s behaviour and reproducing it later. e.g. eating, walking. We also observe and imitate certain ways of thinking, evaluating, judging, and decision making.

Learning by assimilation and accommodation: We keep refining the existing concepts in our brain based on new experiences or new information. This process of forming and refining our concepts on the basis of similarities and differences is called learning by assimilation and accommodation.

Classify the following into Mental Representation, Concepts and Schemata:

Image of your mother in your mind

Building

Tree

School

Theater

Table

Neil Armstrong

Solution.

Find odd one out:

Schema

Perception

Attention

Thinking

Solution

Schema


Searching solution

Defining problem

Incubation

Implementation of the solution

Solution

Incubation


Reasoning

Judgement

Decision making

Relaxing

Solution

Relaxing


Identify if the following behaviours are due to learning or not. Give reasons for your answers.

After much hard work you are able to perform a dance step properly

Solution

It is due to learning as it involves a relatively permanent behavioural change due to practice

In spite of getting hurt, Shayana, a five year old child, continues to play with knife.

Solution

In this case, the behaviour can’t be attributed to learning. This is because even after her past experiences, Shayana has not learned that she should not play with knife in order to avoid getting hurt.

Once Hanif had to pay fine for breaking the signal while driving a car. Now he makes sure to stop the car at red signal.

Solution

It is due to learning as Hanif has made an association between breaking the signal and paying a fine, i.e., negative consequences

Answer the following questions with the help of the given points :

Explain the stages of creative thinking.

Points :

Preparation

Incubation

Illumination

Verification

Solution

Creative thinking is characterised by the ability to perceive the world in new ways, to find hidden patterns, etc. It is a way of looking at problems or situations from a fresh/novel perspective. It involves divergent thinking that focuses on the exploration of ideas and generating many possibilities. It is referred to as “thinking outside of the box.” Researchers, poets, designers, filmmakers always think in a creative way.

The four stages in creative thinking are –

Preparation – This involves formulating the problem and gathering information about it. Many tentative solutions are tried out and discarded. No progress seems to be made by the person.

Incubation – If the person does not get the required results, he/she may focus on things unrelated to that problem. The period helps to work out the problem without consciously thinking about it. The incubation period appears to be non-fruitful.

Illumination – After incubation, suddenly the correct solution appears to the person, due to which he/she experiences excitement. It seems that a solution has fallen into place.

Verification – The new solution may need to be evaluated a number of times. In most cases, minor changes will be required but sometimes it may demand a major overhaul of the entire process.

For e.g., A teacher asks the students to think of unusual uses for a bottle.

The students will begin brainstorming.

The students will come up with many uses for e.g., to store liquids, to hold plants, etc. But these are not unusual uses. They will give up and focus on something else.

The students will suddenly find novel uses for the bottle e.g., juggling, etc.

The students will verify these solutions with their teacher


Answer the following questions in detail:

Explain the laws of perceptual organization.

Solution

Law of proximity: According to this law, the stimuli that are near each other are perceived together than the stimuli that are far away from each other.

we perceive pairs of dots in each line as the dots which are near to each other are perceived together. So, instead of perceiving a line of eight dots, generally, a line of four pairs of dots is perceived.

Law of similarity: According to this law, the stimuli that are similar to each other are perceived together than stimuli that are distinct from each other.

 we perceive four alternate vertical lines of circles and crosses since similar stimuli are perceived together. Generally, we do not perceive four horizontal lines with circles and crosses in alternate sequence.

Law of continuity: According to this law, there is a tendency to perceive a stimulus in continuation as per its established direction. Also, when two stimuli intersect, a continuation of each stimulus is perceived apparently

a straight vertical line and a straight horizontal line are perceived together as a letter ‘L’ and a cutting line is perceived separately. Generally, we do not perceive four different lines going in different directions.

Law of closure: According to this law, there is a tendency to perceive an incomplete stimulus in a complete manner.

 our brain fills up gaps in incomplete stimulus and we perceive it as a triangle and square. Generally, we do not perceive it as three/four separate lines going in different directions.

Explain the core elements of thinking.

solution 

Thinking is the mental activity that makes use of ideas or symbols instead of an overt activity. The types of thinking are (i) Perceptual (concrete) thinking, (ii) Conceptual (abstract) thinking (iii) Reflective thinking, (iv) Creative thinking. The core elements in thinking are –

Mental representation – It is a coded internal sensation acquired by direct experiences through the sense organs or by indirect experiences such as narrations, pictures, etc. Mental representation is the mental imagery with the help of which the brain codes and stores the information. It is like a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol used by the brain to represent external reality. Example: a child is asked to imagine a peacock. The visual image of a peacock with its colourful plumage immediately comes to mind. This refers to the “mental imagery” of an object.

Concepts – They form the basis for all cognitive processes, acting as building blocks by connecting with each other to form more complex concepts. Concepts involve the extraction of some ‘idea’ on the basis of similarities and differences among the sensations. A concept is an idea that represents a class of objects, situations, etc which differentiates it from other classes of objects, situations, etc., for e.g. a child forms a mental image of a ‘dog’. He derives an idea of something similar in all examples of ‘dog’ that he has seen i.e. tail, fur, barking, etc. Thus, he has formed the concept of a dog. If he mistakenly identifies as a cat as a dog. he is corrected by others. So he tries to compare the mental images of dogs and cats. He has now learned and refined two concepts viz. dog and cat.

Schema – It is an internal representation that organizes knowledge about related concepts and relationships among them. Schema involves arranging many concepts in a particular system or organisation. It describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organises categories of information and the relationships among them. A child tries to organise the concepts that he has learned in a systematic way to generate a higher-order understanding of patterns about information collected, for e.g. when a child visits a ‘zoo’ for the first time, images and concepts such as of different animals, caves/cages, etc., are activated in the brain simultaneously. Thus, he is forming the schema of ‘zoo’.

Conclusion:- Mental representation is sensory experiences in the form of mental images in the brain. Many similar mental representations denote concepts while many concepts put in a particular relationship to each other are schema.

With the help of your own examples explain the difference between distraction of attention and fluctuation of attention.

Solution

The distraction of attention: After focusing on a specific stimulus, our attention may drift towards another stimulus due to some external or internal disturbances. This is known as the distraction of attention. Example: While eating, our attention may get distracted if a doorbell rings (external factor) or it may drift due to anxiousness (internal factor).

The fluctuation of attention: We cannot pay attention to a single stimulus for a long period of time. Our attention shifts towards other stimulus for a fraction of time and comes back to the original stimulus. This is known as the fluctuation of attention.

Example: When we are paying attention to eating, our attention may temporarily shift to a crow sitting on the branch of a tree outside our window and then again we pay attention to eating.


Balbharati, solutions, for, Psychology, 12th, Standard, HSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 3, Personality , 

Choose the correct option and complete the following statement:

A person who is shy and reserved is called an ______

introvert

extrovert

ambivert

Solution

introvert

The ink blot test was developed by psychologist ______.

Murray

Rorschach

Morgan

Solution

Rorschach

______ traits are the dominant characteristics of a person.

Cardinal

Secondary

Central

Solution

Cardinal


Match the following pairs.

Solution

State whether the following statement is true or false:

Personality is merely related to external appearance.

Solution

False

People with high neuroticism are emotionally reactive.

Solution

True

Children from families having a warm emotional atmosphere are well adjusted.

Solution

True

Explain the following Concept in 25 to 30 words:

Personality

Solution

The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which was used to refer to masks worn by actors during a stage performance, Thus, the meaning of personality was interpreted as ‘projected behaviour’ of an individual.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.” According to Norman Munn, “Personality is a unique combination of an individual’s physical structure, needs, interests, abilities, and aptitudes.”

Trait

Solution

A trait is a relatively enduring and consistent way of thinking, feeling, and acting. It is some distinctive characteristic of the person that leads him/her to behave in more or less consistent ways across situations and over a period of time. Allport categorised traits as :

Cardinal Traits (single, dominant trait)

Central Traits (core or basic traits)

Secondary Traits

Explain the following Concept in 25 to 30 words:

Sentence completion test

Solution

Sentence Completion Test (SCT) is a type of projective technique used to assess personality. The individual is given a series of incomplete sentences and is asked to complete them in his/her own words, for e.g., My mother ……, My greatest fear is ……. It is assumed that the endings provided by the person will reflect their motivation, urges, internal conflicts, etc.

Structured interview

Solution

A structured interview is a type of interview in which the total number of questions to be asked to an interviewee and the sequence of questions are pre-determined. In this method, no questions are added or deleted through the course of an interview

Unstructured interview

Solution

An unstructured interview is a type of interview in which the total number of questions to be asked to an interviewee and the sequence of questions are not pre-determined. Depending on the responses of an interviewee, some questions are added or deleted through the course of an interview.

Write short notes on the following:

Gordon Allport’s trait theory of personality

Solution

Gordon Allport’s theory of personality is based on the trait perspective.

Allport identified 18,000 separate terms that could be used to describe personality.

Based on these descriptions, he suggested three basic categories of traits as follows:

Cardinal trait: It is a single trait that dominates an individual’s entire personality. It dominates and shapes a person’s behaviour for his whole life. A person becomes known specifically for this trait. e.g. a trait of humanitarianism was the cardinal trait in Mother Teresa’s personality.

Central traits: These traits are general characteristics that form the basic foundation of an individual’s personality. Alternatively, around five to ten traits that best describe an individual’s personality are called central traits. These traits are the building blocks of our personality. e.g. traits like sensitivity, sociability, self-confidence, diligence, honesty.

Secondary traits: These traits appear only in specific situations and so, are narrow in their effect. Secondary traits play a very minor role in determining an individual’s personality as such traits are situational. e.g. getting anxious before an interview, being impatient while waiting in a queue

Effect of mass media on personality development

Solution

The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which was used to refer to masks worn by actors during a stage performance, Thus, the meaning of personality was interpreted as ‘projected behaviour’ of an individual.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.”

The psycho-social factors that have an effect on personality include heredity, family, peer group, culture, and mass media.

Mass media includes print media e.g., newspapers; audio-visual media e.g., T.V. and new media e.g., internet. Media is a source of information, education, entertainment, and even socialization. It has a considerable effect on our value system, behaviour patterns and personality. However, excessive dependence on media may lead to egocentrism, poor academic performance, difficulty in concentration, sleep disturbance, etc.

Answer the following question with given points in 100 to 150 words.

Explain the Big Five Factors Model of Personality.

Points :

Neuroticism

Extroversion

Openness to experience

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Solution

The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which was used to refer to masks worn by actors during a stage performance, Thus, the meaning of personality was interpreted as ‘projected behaviour’ of an individual.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.”

According to Norman Munn, “Personality is a unique combination of individual’s physical structure, needs, interests, abilities, and aptitudes The Five-Factor Model of or Big Five Personality theory, based on the trait perspective proposed by Robert McCrae and Paul Costa. The five broad t.rait, factors are – (i) Neuroticism (ii) Extroversion (iii) Openness to Experience (iv) Agreeableness (v) Conscientiousness

Neuroticism- It refers to a tendency to experience negative emotions such as anger, anxiety, or depression more intensely and for longer periods than normally experienced by others. Those who score high on neuroticism tend to be irritable, fearful, emotionally unstable, and interpret ordinary situations as threatening and hopeless. People who score low in neuroticism are less emotionally reactive and hence tend to be calmer, emotionally stable, and experience more positive feelings

Extroversion – Extroversion is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. People high on this trait are assertive, talkative, sociable, enthusiastic, etc. Individuals showing low extroversion tend to be shy, reserved, lack the activity levels of extroverts. They are low-key and disengaged from the social world.

Openness to Experience – People who are open to experience are intellectually curious imaginative, appreciative of art, sensitive to beauty. They sometimes tend to think and act in nonconforming, adventurous ways. Individuals who score low on openness to experience tend to be conventional, resistant to change, and prefer familiarity and routine. They may lack creativity and aesthetic sense.

Agreeableness – It refers to the ability of a person to get along with others and show concern for social harmony. People high on this trait tend to be friendly, cooperative, generous, and believe that people are basically decent and trustworthy. Persons low on agreeableness tend to be uncooperative, suspicious, even hostile, and jealous.

Conscientiousness – It concerns the way in which people control, regulate, and direct their impulses. People high in conscientiousness are hardworking, disciplined, responsible, dependable, etc, while those low on conscientiousness tend to be careless, unorganised, spontaneous, undisciplined, etc.

Explain the factors influencing personality.

Family 

School

Peer group

Culture

Solution

Family: Family structure and socio-economic status, emotional, academic, and cultural environment, interactions between family members, child-rearing practices, etc. have a significant effect on an individual’s personality. e.g. in the family having a warm emotional atmosphere, love, and respect shown by parents towards children has positive effects on the child’s personality. Conversely, overprotection, rejection, negligence, etc. have adverse effects on a child’s personality.

School: The elements related to school like the teaching-learning process, academic activities, and co-curricular facilities, teachers’ rapport with students, school discipline and policies, etc. have a significant impact on student’s personalities. e.g. creative, well-qualified, experienced, and well-mannered teachers act as role models for students. They provide opportunities for the optimum development of students which in turn helps students in healthier development of their personality.

Peer group: Peers surround us in our everyday lives from early childhood until old age. The peer group may influence personality in a positive as well as negative manner. e.g. good habits such as studying regularly, respecting everyone, etc. may be developed by being in a good company of friends. Conversely, unhealthy habits such as bunking lectures, developing addictions, etc. may be developed by being in a bad company.

Culture: Every culture has its own set of values, beliefs, norms, etc. which influence an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviour patterns. e.g. leadership qualities, listening skills, entrepreneurial skills, tendencies to co-operate, etc. may vary across cultures and so, people from different cultural backgrounds may have different personalities

Answer the following question with given points in 100 to 150 words.

Explain the various methods of personality measurement.

Behavioural analysis

Self-report technique

Projective method

Solution

Behavioural analysis: The behavioural analysis method helps in assessing the personality of an individual with the help of techniques such as interview and observation. In other words, researchers try to get information about an individual’s personality with the help of a structured or unstructured interview or by observing his behaviour.

Self-report technique: In the self-report technique, a person provides information on his own personality by responding to questions or sentences in a particular inventory. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 16 Personality Factors (PF) by Cattell, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), High School Personality Inventory (HSPQ) are some of the examples of self-report inventory.

Projective method: Projective methods are intended to uncover feelings, desires, and conflicts that are hidden at the unconscious level. Here, individuals respond freely to relatively unstructured or ambiguous materials. While responding, they project their own personalities onto the unstructured stimulus. It often reveals their personal conflicts, motivations, coping styles, and other characteristics. e.g. Rorschach’s inkblot test, Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT), Sentence-completion test.


Balbharati, solutions, for, Psychology, 12th, Standard, HSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 2, Intelligence, 

Choose the correct option and complete the following statement:

______ has given formula of I.Q.

Binet

Stern

Wechsle

Solution

Stern

______ has given the concepts of fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.

Cattell

Thorndike

Salovey

Solution

Cattell

______ is an individual test of intelligence.

Army Alpha Test

Army Beta Test

Block Building Test

Solution

Block Building Test 

State whether the following statement is true or false :

Verbal tests of intelligence can be given easily to illiterate people.

Solution

False

It is possible to increase emotional intelligence

Solution

True

There are certain limitations to Artificial Intelligence.

Solution

True

Group tests of intelligence are less expensive

Solution

True


Answer the following in one sentence:

What is meant by intelligence?

Solution

David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

Who is considered as the father of intelligence test?

Solution

Alfred Binet is considered as the father of intelligence test.

What is meant by verbal tests of intelligence?

Solution

Verbal tests of intelligence make use of words and numbers to measure intelligence and subjects respond verbally to the test items, e.g., WAIS, Army Alpha Test, etc.

What is meant by individual test of intelligence?

Solution

Intelligence tests that can be administered to a single individual at a time are called individual tests of intelligence.


Define the following concept:

Mental age

Solution 

Mental age can be defined as the age at which an individual performs successfully on all items of the test prepared for that age.

Social intelligence

SOLUTION

E.L. Thorndike proposed the term Social Intelligence. Howard Gardner included ‘interpersonal intelligence’ in the Multiple Intelligences Theory. According to Karl Albrecht, ‘Social intelligence is the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with oneself.’ A continued pattern of nourishing behaviour indicates a high level of social intelligence. Such persons are skilled at interacting with and understanding people around them. They respect and encourage others. They effectively comprehend social dynamics

Emotional intelligence

Solution

John Mayer and Peter Salovey defined Emotional Intelligence as the ‘Ability to perceive and monitor one’s own and others emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action’.


Write short notes on the following :

Intelligence Quotient

Solution

1. The concept of Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) was introduced by German psychologist William Stern in 1912.

2. Stern computed I.Q. as a ratio of Mental Age (M.A.) to Chronological Age (C.A.). This formula is given as:

3. Later, Terman refined the formula of I.Q. by multiplying the ratio of M.A. and C.A. by 100. This formula is given as:

Charles Spearman’s theory of intelligence

Solution

Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently.

Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.” David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.” In 1927, Charles Spearman with the help of a statistical method called factor analysis separated and identified two different factors of intelligence viz. General factor (g) and Specific factor (s).

(i) The general factor is the minimum competence required to carry out daily work.

(ii) Specific factor includes abilities which are required to solve problems in specific areas

Verbal tests of intelligence.

Solution

Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently.

Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”

David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

On the basis of material used in the tests, intelligence tests can be classified as Verbal tests and Non-verbal tests of intelligence.

Intelligence tests that use pictures, designs, material objects, etc., to measure intelligence are called non-verbal tests of intelligence. In these tests, language is not used to measure intelligence. In these tests, subjects are not required to respond verbally to test items. Non-verbal tests are of two types viz. (i) Performance tests for e.g., Koh’s Block Design test, Dr. Bhatia’s Non Verbal test, Alexander’s Pass-along test, etc. and (ii) Paper-pencil tests for e.g., Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices.

Non-verbal tests of intelligence

Solution

Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently.

Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”

David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

On the basis of material used in the tests, intelligence tests can be classified as Verbal tests and Non-verbal tests of intelligence.

Intelligence tests that use pictures, designs, material objects, etc., to measure intelligence are called non-verbal tests of intelligence. In these tests, language is not used to measure intelligence. In these tests, subjects are not required to respond verbally to test items. Non-verbal tests are of two types viz. (i) Performance tests for e.g., Koh’s Block Design test, Dr. Bhatia’s Non Verbal test, Alexander’s Pass-along test, etc. and (ii) Paper-pencil tests for e.g., Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices.

Artificial Intelligences

Solution

Intelligence is the highest attribute of human beings. Different psychologists have defined intelligence differently.

Lewis Terman explains intelligence as, “an ability to think on an abstract level.”

David Wechsler defines intelligence as, “the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”

On the basis of material used in the tests, intelligence tests can be classified as Verbal tests and Non-verbal tests of intelligence.

Intelligence tests that use pictures, designs, material objects, etc., to measure intelligence are called non-verbal tests of intelligence. In these tests, language is not used to measure intelligence. In these tests, subjects are not required to respond verbally to test items. Non-verbal tests are of two types viz. (i) Performance tests for e.g., Koh’s Block Design test, Dr. Bhatia’s Non Verbal test, Alexander’s Pass-along test, etc. and (ii) Paper-pencil tests for e.g., Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices.


Answer the following question with the help of the given points :

Write in brief about individual tests of intelligence

Solution

Meaning:

Intelligence tests that can be administered to a single person at a time are called individual tests of intelligence, for e.g., Stanford Binet Scales, Koh’s Block Design Test, etc.

Advantages

The test administrator can establish a rapport with the client.

The test administrator can get additional information about the client’s feelings, moods, and expressions during testing.

Individual tests are more capable of measuring creative thinking, compared to group tests.

Disadvantages

Individual tests are time-consuming and costly to administer.

Individual tests require a trained and skillful examiner to administer, score, and interpret them.

These tests cannot be used for mass testing

Write in brief about group tests of intelligence

Solution

Meaning

Group tests of intelligence are tests that can be administered to more than one person at a time, i.e., for mass testing, for e.g., Army Alpha and Army Beta Test, OTIS self administrating tests, etc.

Advantages

Group tests are less time consuming and more economical to administer.

In administrating group tests, the role of the examiner is minimal. So, he/she need not go through any specialised training.

These tests can be used in cases where mass testing is needed.

Disadvantages

The test administrator has much less opportunity to establish rapport, obtain cooperation, and maintain the interest of the clients.

Compared to individual tests, group tests are less capable of measuring the creative aspect of intelligence


Answer the following question in detail:

Write in detail about the history of intelligence testing.

Solution

Paul Broca and Sir Francis Galton were among the first scientists to think about measuring intelligence.

In the mid-1880s, Sir Francis Galton administered a battery of tests measuring variables such as head size, reaction time, visual accuracy, auditory threshold, breathing capacity, etc. He assumed that the larger the skull, the smarter the person. His test did not prove very useful.

During the early 1890s, Raymond Cattell used the term ‘mental test’ for the first time. He expanded Sir Francis Galton’s ideas by emphasising that test administration must be standardised so that results are comparable.

In 1905, Alfred Binet published the first scale of intelligence in collaboration with Theodore Simon. The Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale consists of several components such as logical reasoning, finding rhyming words, and naming objects. This scale was revised in 1908 and 1911.

In 1916, Lewis Terman from Stanford University revised the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale. He established new age norms and extended the upper age limit of the scale. This revised test was known as the Stanford Binet Test. It was revised in 1937, 1960, 1972, 1986, and 2004.

In 1917, Robert Yerks with his colleagues prepared Army Alpha and Army Beta intelligence tests which were used while recruiting soldiers in the army.

In 1939, the Army General Classification Test was used on a large scale while recruiting soldiers in the army during the Second World War.

In 1939, David Wechsler published the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale. It was revised in 1955 and renamed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The fourth edition of this test (WAIS-IV) was released in 2008 by Karl Pearson. Wechsler also developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC).

Besides these tests, many other psychologists have developed various intelligence tests

Intelligence testing has a wide usage in various areas’. Justify with examples.

Solution

David Wechsler defines intelligence as, ‘the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.’

Types of Intelligence Tests

Individual tests of intelligence – Individual tests of intelligence are tests that can be administered to a single person at a time, for e.g., Stanford Binet Scales, WAIS, Koh’s Block Design Test, etc.

Group tests of intelligence – Group tests of intelligence are tests that can be administered to more than one person at a time, i.e., for mass testing, for e.g., Army Alpha and Army Beta Test, OTIS self-administrating tests, etc.

Verbal tests of intelligence – Verbal tests of intelligence make use of words and numbers to measure intelligence and subjects respond verbally to the test items, for e.g., WAIS, Army Alpha Test, etc.

Non-verbal tests of intelligence –

Non-verbal tests of intelligence do not use language to measure intelligence. They make use of pictures, designs, objects, etc. Such tests may be (i) Performance tests, e.g., Koh’s Block Design Test or (ii) Paper-pencil test e.g., Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices.

Application of Intelligence Testing

Effective Schooling – On the basis of intelligence test scores, teachers can classify students into intellectual categories and devise special instructional programmes suited to their mental development.

Aids Mental Health Personnel – Intelligence tests are helpful to Mental Health personnel such as psychologists, etc., for diagnosis purposes and therapy.

Effective Parenting- Parents can provide appropriate educational facilities to their children based on their IQ scores.

Career Counselling- Scores obtained on intelligence tests help the student to select the right educational options/ courses.

Vocational Counselling-Individuals can choose a suitable career and achieve job satisfaction when they make a realistic choice of vocation based on IQ scores.

Explain the characteristics of people having high social intelligence.

Solution

People having high social intelligence are good at understanding and interacting with others.

They have the ability to monitor their verbal and non-verbal expressions while communicating.

They are good speakers and active listeners.

They are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires, and intentions of others.

They have a good understanding of social dynamics. vi. They are flexible in their approach while dealing with others.

They are goal-oriented, persistent, and self-confident.

They can effectively resolve conflicts in a social context.

They are successful negotiators.

They enhance personal and professional relationships with others


Balbharati, solutions, for, Psychology, 12th, Standard, HSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 1, Psychology, A Scientific, Discipline, 

Exercises | Q Q.1. (1) | Page 11

Choose the correct option and complete the following statement:

Till 1879, psychology was a branch of ______.

physics

philosophy

physiology

SOLUTION

Till 1879, psychology was a branch of philosophy.


Choose the correct option and complete the following statement:

Psychology is a ______ science.

natural

social

biological

Solution

Psychology is a social science.


Choose the correct option and complete the following statement:

______ is considered as founder of Psychoanalysis.

Wilhelm Wundt

Carl Rogers

Sigmund Freud

Solution

Sigmund Freud is considered as founder of Psychoanalysis.


Exercises | Q Q.2. | Page 11

Match the Pairs :

Solution

Group ‘A’    Group ‘B’

1. Structuralism    e. Wilhelm Wundt 

2. Functionalism    d. William James

3. Behaviourism    a. John Watson

4. Cognitivism    c. Ulric Neisser

State whether the following statement is true or false :

Psychology is a study of mental processes.

True

False

Solution

True.

State whether the following statement is true or false :

Case study method is quite often used by clinical psychologists.

True

False

Solution

True.

State whether the following statement is true or false :

An experimenter is a person on whom the experiment is conducted.

True

False

Solution

False.


Answer the following in one sentence:

In which year was the first psychology laboratory established?

Solution

The first psychology laboratory was established in 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt, at the University of Leipzig in Germany.

Answer the following in one sentence:

Who is considered as the ‘Father of American Psychology’?

Solution

William James is considered the ‘Father of American Psychology’

Answer the following in one sentence:

What is meant by an experimenter?

Solution

William James is considered the ‘Father of American Psychology’


Define the following concepts :

Replicability

Solution

Replicability is the possibility to repeat research or its findings in order to test its validity.

Define the following concepts :

Correlation coefficient

Solution

The correlation coefficient is the measurement of the correlation between two or more variables. Its value extends between-1.00 to +l.00. The concept was first introduced by Sir Francis Galton. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is the most commonly used type of correlation coefficient.

Write short notes on the following :

Observation method

Solution

The observation method is a research method that is employed in conditions where experiments may not be possible or even necessary. Observation is used by child psychologists and social psychologists. It may be carried out in a natural setting, e.g., observing candidates waiting for their turn for an interview. It may also be carried out in controlled conditions.

The following factors should be kept in mind while carrying out the observation –

It should be done systematically.

A comprehensive list of behaviours to be observed must be prepared.

The persons should not be aware of being observed.

The disadvantages of observation are:

It is a time-consuming method.

Objectivity is difficult to maintain during observation.

It is difficult to establish cause-effect relationships.

Write short notes on the following :

Survey method

Solution

A survey is defined as a research method used for collecting data from a pre-defined group of respondents (sample) so as to gain information and insights on various topics of interest such as political opinions, consumers’ preferences, etc.

The survey method collects the required information with the help of questionnaires, checklists, rating scales, inventories, and interviews.

Surveys can be undertaken using email, telephonic calls, or direct interaction with respondents.

The survey method is an economic and efficient method of data collection.

It is largely used by social psychologists, educational psychologists, and industrial psychologists.

Write short notes on the following :

Case study method

Solution

The case study method is a qualitative research method employed by clinical psychologists. It provides intensive, descriptive information about an individual from multiple sources such as family, peers, school, academic and health records, etc. This helps to assess the person’s level of psychological and social functioning. Researchers may employ techniques like observation, interviews, psychological tests, etc. Psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget made extensive use of the case study method. However, this method is very time consuming and subjective.

Write short notes on the following :

Importance of rationality

Solution

Stanovich and his colleagues stated that rationality involves adaptive reasoning, good judgment, and good decision making.

According to Dr. Albert Ellis, rationality as a personal philosophy helps an individual to attain many goals in life and to be happy.

Rationality also ensures that a person does not compromise on social norms, values, and ethics for the sake of his own happiness.

A rational person’s emotions, thoughts, and acts do not get driven by irrational influences.

In short, rationality contributes to the psychological well-being of a person and thereby, improves the quality of life.

Answer the following question in detail:

Write detailed information of the experimental method in psychology.

Solution

The experimental method is one of the scientific methods to study behaviour.

In the experimental method, experimenter conducts experiments on participants by following certain steps. These steps are:

Identifying problem

Developing a hypothesis

Selecting an experimental design and standardising the experimental procedure

Conducting an experiment and collecting data

Analysing data

Drawing conclusions

Some of the important features of the experimental method are as follows:

It is one of the most objective methods of collecting data.

It facilitates accurate observations under controlled conditions.

It helps in finding out the cause and effect relationship between two or more variables.

The findings of the experimental method are verifiable.

The experimental method has assigned the status of science to Psychology.

Answer the following question in detail:

Explain some of the challenges in establishing psychology as a science.

Solution

Many criticisms of psychology as a science have been made on practical, philosophical, and ethical grounds. The challenges in establishing psychology as science are:

It is in a preparadigmatic state – According to American philosopher, Thomas Kuhn, psychology is still in a preparadigmatic state as it has not succeeded in producing a cumulative body of knowledge that has a clear conceptual cove.

Issues related to objectivity and validity – Methods used in psychology such as introspection, surveys, and questionnaires are subjective. Due to this, psychology lacks two criteria of science, i.e., objectivity and validity.

Issues related to predictability and replicability – In psychology, it is difficult to make exact predictions as people respond differently in different situations. Test results are more varied and hence difficult to replicate.

Objectifying humans – According to some psychologists, subjecting human behaviour to experimentation amounts to objectifying individuals.

Answer the following question in detail:

Explain some of the characteristics of a rational individual.

Solution

Understanding self-interest and social interest: Rational people understand what helps them to grow and promote themselves. They take the responsibility of making choices that enable them to grow. Additionally, rational people take care of not violating other person’s rights while achieving their own interests. They consider the interests of society in which they live along with their self-interests.

Self-direction: Rational people assume primary responsibility for their own lives. They do not demand or need excessive support or nurturance from others.

Tolerance: Rational people are highly tolerant, i.e. they respect individual differences between people. They also accept one’s own and others’ right to be wrong, i.e. they accept the fact that human beings can make mistakes.

Self-acceptance and self-responsibility: Rational people accept themselves unconditionally with all their strengths and flaws. They also accept responsibility for their own thoughts, beliefs, feelings, and behaviour.

Answer the following question in detail:

Explain the types of correlation.

Solution

Answer the following question in detail:

Explain the key features of science.

Solution

The word science is derived from the Latin word ‘Scientia’ which means ‘knowledge’. Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world, following a systematic methodology based on evidence.

The key features of science are:

Empirical evidence – It refers to acquiring information through direct observation or experiments. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence.

Objectivity – This refers to the ability to observe and accept facts as they exist, setting aside all sources of expectations, values, prejudices, etc.

Scientific causality – Science aims to establish a cause·effect relationship between the variables under consideration, i.e., the effect of the Independent Variable on the Dependent Variable.

Systematic exploration – Science adopts a sequential procedure for studying various phenomena. It includes scientific steps like formulating a hypothesis, collection of facts, scientific generalisation, etc.

Replication – Scientific knowledge can be replicated under the same circumstances as the original experiment. This ensures the reliability of results towards establishing a scientific theory.

Predictability – Science involves describing and explaining phenomena as well as to make predictions accordingly.

How Rational Am I?

Identify the strongest and the weakest characteristics in you from those explained by Dr. Albert Ellis.

Solution

The strongest characteristic in me is tolerance. I understand that all people are different. So, I respect others’ opinions even when it is completely different than mine. I never impose my feelings, thoughts, or beliefs on anyone and always have the willingness to understand others’ points of view. I don’t judge others as being ‘wrong’ just because their ways of thinking and behaving are different than my ideologies.

The weakest characteristic in me is excessive dependence on my family and close friends. I believe that sometimes I depend on them for love and support a little more than I should. Hence, I feel I need to be more self-reliant in order to grow as a person.

How Rational Am I?

How will you work on your weakest characteristic? Write two strategies.

Solution

Two strategies that I can use to improve the flexibility in my life is :

Adopt an unbiased perspective and non-judgmental thinking

Practicing meditation and mindfulness.


CBSE, Syllabus, for, Class 11, 2020 – 2021 (Reduced & Revised), psychology,

CBSE Class 11 Psychology Syllabus (Reduced) 2020-21 (Released on 7th July) 

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