Chapter 4, Primary Economic Activities, hsc, geography, Maharashtra board, ebalbharathi solution,
1.Gathering of various products from the forests for livelihood is mainly carried in
2.Ideal location for fishing
3.Primary Economic activity not related directly to latitudinal locations
4.Characteristics of extensive commercial agriculture
|(1) Intensive subsistence agriculture||(1) Dogger bank||(1) Small size of farm|
|(2) Pampas grassland region||(2) Offshore oil and gas production||(2) Unfavourable|
|(3) Fishing||(3) Rice||(3) Bombay high|
|(4) Gathering||(4) Dense forest||(4) NE Atlantic Ocean|
|(5) Mining||(5) Commercial animal husbandry||(5) South America|
|(1) Intensive subsistence agriculture||(3) Rice||(1) Small size of farm|
|(2) Pampas grassland region||(5) Commercial animal husbandry||(5) South America|
|(3) Fishing||(1) Dogger bank||(4) NE Atlantic Ocean|
|(4) Gathering||(4) Dense forest||(2) Unfavourable Climate|
|(5) Mining||(2) Offshore oil and gas production||(3) Bombay high|
2.Physical factors and fishing
Development of fishing requires specific physical factors. Therefore, it is developed on a commercial scale where physical factors are favourable for fishing. The following are the important physical factors, which can be responsible for the development of fishing.
3.Lumbering on a commercial scale
Commercial lumbering is well developed in coniferous forest region of Canada, North Western Europe and Soviet Union. The important factors responsible for the development of commercial lumbering in the above areas are as follows.
4.Hunting and loss of ecosystem
Before the development of agriculture hunting was the important activity of man to obtain food. Many animal species were becoming extinct because of large scale hunting. Therefore, to protect the ecosystem, in many countries commercial hunting is banned. Presently, many laws are being passed to conserve and protect the animals and ecosystem. Yet, many tribal people such as Eskimos in Tundra region, Pygmies of Equatorial Selvas, Bushmen of Kalahari, Sentinels in Andaman etc., are still hunting.
1.Agriculture is done on a large scale in India.
More than 46 percent of the total population of India is engaged in Agricultural Activities.
– In northern India, we have extensive fertile alluvial soil in Gangetic plains most suitable for the development of agriculture. In south peninsular India, there is very fertile black cotton soil suitable for a variety of crops. Along the coastal lines fertile soil is found in the deltas of river Krishna, Godavari, Mahanadi, Tapi, Narmada, etc. Many rivers like Ganga. Yamuna, Godavari, Tapi, Narmada and their thousands of tributaries and canals provide water for irrigation. The economic and social factors, including labour, market, capital, transportation facilities, storage facilities and government policies, etc., are all favourable for the development of agriculture.
2.Mining is developed in Chhota Nagpur plateau of India.
The distribution of minerals is highly uneven in India. The geology of Chhota Nagpur region is very rich in minerals. There is concentration of minerals like iron-ore, manganese, mica, copper, limestone, and lead in Chhota Nagpur region. The government policy, capital investment in mining activities, technological development, availability of skilled labour, transport facilities, etc., are favourable for the development of mining activity in Chhota Nagpur region. Development of many industries related to minerals are located in this area, which gave boost to the development of mining activities.
3.Lumbering is developed on a large scale in Canada.
Lumbering is one of the most important economic activity in the areas covered by coniferous forest in Canada. In Canada coniferous forest grow in large belt, since the climate is suitable for the growth of coniferous trees. In these forests only one species of trees grows in one area which is favourable for the lumbering. The development of lumbering depends upon the type of wood, climate, market and transport facilities. Commercial lumbering is developed in Canada because there is coniferous forest region, which provides soft wood, which is easy to cut, carry and durable. Cool climate of Canada, well developed transport facilities for the movement of logs, use of machinery for logging, large demand in local and international market for paper and pulp industries, limited development of other economic activities due to extreme cold climate are the other factors responsible for lumbering in Canada.
4.Extensive agriculture is a commercial type of agriculture.
Extensive commercial agriculture was developed in temperate grassland region in Steppes, Prairies, Downs, Pampas and Veld grasslands. In these grassland areas population density is low and size of farms is very large from few hundred to thousand acres. There is extensive use of machinery from sowing to harvesting. Modern and scientific methods of agriculture are used, so production is large. The per hectare production is low whereas per capita production is high. Since population in those grasslands is very low and there is surplus production, therefore, large quantities of food grains are available for export, so this agriculture is known as commercial type of agriculture.
5.Lumbering is practiced more in coniferous region than in tropical region.
Lumbering activity depends upon nature of wood – hard or soft, density of forest, number of species in the forest, transportation facilities, use of machinery and market. In coniferous forest region trees provide softwood, which is easy to cut and durable. In coniferous forest region one type of species are found in extensive area, so lumbering is easy. In coniferous forest region there is use of machinery for lumbering and transport facilities are also well developed. There is lot of demand for softwood in local and international market, hence commercial lumbering is more developed. On the other hand, in tropical region, density of trees is very high, different types trees grow in close proximity, so lumbering is difficult. In tropical region surface movement is difficult and transport facilities are not developed because of marshy land. In tropical region there is no local market since trees provide hardwood and therefore commercial lumbering is not developed.
6.Hunting has been banned.
In the olden days hunting was the most important primitive activity of man to obtain food. Since agriculture was not developed, it was the only source of food for man. As a result, large number of animals were killed to such an extent, that some of the species of animal have become extinct or at the verge of extinction. In order to conserve and protect animals, hunting is banned all over the world.
1.Lumbering in equatorial forests and Temperate forests.
|Equatorial Forests||Temperate Forests|
|(i) It is a tropical evergreen forest.||(i) It is a temperate coniferous forest.|
|(ii) It is mixed forest.||(ii) One species of trees are found over an extensive area.|
|(iii) Wood is hard.||(iii) Wood is soft.|
|(iv) Hot and humid climate, suitable for labour.||(iv) Cool and pleasant climate is suitable for labour.|
|(v) Surface movement difficult.||(v) Surface movement not difficult.|
|(vi) Mechanisation not possible for cutting trees.||(vi) Mechanisation is used for cutting trees.|
|(vii) No demand in local market.||(vii) Local market well developed.|
2.Plantation agriculture and Extensive commercial agriculture.
|Plantation Agriculture||Extensive Commercial Agriculture|
|(i) Developed in tropical region.||(i) Developed in temperate region.|
|(ii) Labour intensive farming.||(ii) Machinery is more used.|
|(iii) Only crops are grown.||(iii) Commercial animal rearing is also done along with farming.|
|(iv) Tea coffee, cocoa spices are important crops.||(iv) Wheat and maize are important crops.|
|(v) This type of agriculture is practiced in Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, etc.||(v) This type of agriculture is practiced in temperate grasslands of North America, South America, Europe and Asia.|
|(vi) Crops for export purpose.||(vi) Crops for export purposes.|
3.Mining and Fishing.
|(i) Since ancient times man is using minerals as raw material.||(i) Since ancient time man is using fish as a food.|
|(ii) Found naturally in crust of the earth.||(ii) Found naturally but in rivers, lakes, seas and oceans.|
|(iii) Used as industrial raw materials.||(iii) Used as a food.|
|(iv) Highly uneven distribution.||(iv) Found everywhere in waterbodies.|
|(v) Availability of minerals depends upon geological structure.||(v) Availability of fish depends on nature of coast line, cool climate, cold and warm ocean water currents etc.|
1.What are the factors affecting commercial fishing?
Following factors affect commercial fishing.
2.Write a note on Intensive Subsistence agriculture.
3.Give characteristics of Market Gardening.
The following are the characteristics of market gardening.
4.Write a note on the areas in the world practicing commercial animal husbandry.
5.Mining is dependent on the extraction of naturally occurring minerals. Explain.
6.Write in detail about the characteristics of primary economic activities.
1.On an outline map of the world, show thefollowing with appropriate symbols and prepare an index:
1.Given below is the data about the continent wise employment engaged in primary economic activities in the year 2018. Draw a suitable diagram to represent the data and answer the questions that follow:
|Continent||% of population engaged in primary economic activities|