Poverty in India | Aster Classes

Chapter 8, Poverty in India, fyjc, 11th std, Economics, Maharashtra board, 2021,

Assertion and reasoning question :

1.Assertion (A): Poverty level declines with a rise in agricultural output.

Reasoning (R): Agricultural incomes have declined due to wide fluctuations in climatic conditions.

  • (A) is True, but (R) is False.
  • (A) is False, but (R) is True
  • Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  • Both (A) and (R) are True, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

2.Assertion (A): Urban poverty is attributed mainly to spillover effects of migration among the rural poor.

Reasoning (R): Poor rural infrastructure, lack of alternative jobs results in forced migration.

  • (A) is true, but (R) is False.
  • (A) is false, but (R) is True.
  • Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  • Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

3.Assertion (A): Relative poverty is found in all the countries of the world.

Reasoning (R): Differences in the levels of income are the only criteria for judging relative poverty.

  • (A) is true, but (R) is False
  • (A) is false, but (R) is True
  • Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  • Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

4.Assertion (A): Poverty is not just a lack of money but also a lack of capabilities.

Reasoning (R): Lack of freedom to satisfy hunger, lack of health care facilities, denial of political freedom leads to poverty.

  • (A) is True, but (R) is False
  • (A) is false, but (R) is True
  • Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  • Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

5.Assertion (A): Food security, credit facilities guarantee social protection to the poor.

Reasoning (R): Leakages in the administrative system perpetuates poverty.

  • (A) is true, but (R) is False
  • (A) is false, but (R) is True
  • Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  • Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Find the odd word out :

1.Colours of Ration card – 

  • White
  • Green
  • Saffron
  • Yellow

2.High Poverty ratio –

  • Chhatisgarh
  • Jharkhand
  • Bihar
  • Kerala

3.Calories –

  • 2400
  • 1800
  • 2100
  • 2250.

Give economic term:

1.Denial of opportunities to certain section 1 of the people in society.

SOLUTION

Denial of opportunities to certain section 1 of the people in society.- Poverty

2.The concept of poverty covers material and non-material dimensions.

SOLUTION

The concept of poverty covers material and non-material dimensions.- Multi-dimensional.

3.Poverty judged on the basis of relative standards of living of the people.

SOLUTION

Poverty judged on the basis of relative standards of living of the people. – Relative poverty.

4.Poverty that can be completely eradicated.

SOLUTION

Poverty that can be completely eradicated.- Absolute poverty.

5.Threshold expenditure needed to satisfy basic human needs at socially acceptable levels.

SOLUTION

Threshold expenditure needed to satisfy basic human needs at socially acceptable levels.– poverty line.

Identify and explain the concept from the given illustration:

1.Baban’s daughter had to be hospitalized due to weakness caused by undernourishment or lack of minimum calorie requirement in the intake of food.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Absolute poverty.
  2. Explanation of concept: Absolute poverty can be defined as the absence of minimum income to satisfy the desired level of the calorie intake of food.

2.Dhanajirao is a wealthy landlord, but his annual income is relatively less in comparison to entrepreneur Raobahadur.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Relative poverty.
  2. Explantation of concept: Relative poverty arises due to the difference in the standard of living due to inequality in income.

3.Urmi’s family lives in a situation whereby they are not able to fulfill even the basic needs of life such as food, clothing and shelter.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Poverty
  2. Explanation of concept: Poverty refers to a situation in Which a person is unable to fulfil even the basic needs of life such as food, clothing and shelter due to lack of sufficient income.

4.Sanjay’s family receives food grains on the basis of the yellow ration card through the public distribution system.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Food security through tricolour Family Ration Card
  2. Explanation of concept: To ensure food security, the government of Maharashtra has introduced Tri colour Family Ration Card. Yellow Colour ration cards are issued only to families who fall under below poverty line (BPL) category.

5.In certain parts of the State, starvation-related deaths have been observed whereas in certain areas gross wastage of food has been reported.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Economic inequality.
  2. Explanation of concept: Economic inequality is inequality in consumption expenditure. assets, agricultural land holdings, etc. arising due to inequality in income.

State with reasons whether you agree or disagree with the following statement:

1.Population control is the only measure to eradicate poverty.

Options
  • Agree
  • Disagree

SOLUTION

No. I do not agree with this statement.

  1. Population control is one of the measures to eradicate poverty.
  2. Rural industrialization, minimum wages, progressive tax system, nationalization of banks, etc. are some of the other measures to eradicate poverty.
  3. Poverty is also being eradicated as one of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Thus, population control is one of the measures to eradicate poverty.

2.Relative poverty is universal by nature.

Options
  • Agree
  • Disagree

SOLUTION

Yes, I agree with this statement.

  1. Relative poverty is measured with respect to differences in the levels of income, wealth, consumption, etc.
  2. Low-income group people become poor When compared to high-income group people.
  3. The difference in income groups, wealth, etc. is found in all countries of the world. Therefore, relative poverty is seen in underdeveloped countries, developing countries as well as developed counties. Thus, relative poverty is universal by nature.

3.Regional imbalance is the only cause of poverty.

Options
  • Agree
  • Disagree

SOLUTION

No, I do not agree with this statement.

  1. The regional imbalance is one of the causes of poverty.
  2. Poverty is also caused due to population explosion, economic inequalities, inflation, unemployment, etc.
  3. Poverty is also caused due to poverty itself. This is known as a vicious circle of poverty. Thus, the regional imbalance is one of the causes of poverty.

Answer in detail:

1.Assess various measures undertaken to eradicate poverty.

SOLUTION

Various measures undertaken to eradicate poverty are as follows:

  1. Control of population: Government of India has introduced the Family Welfare Programme and population policies to keep a check over the population growth. This, in turn, helps in controlling poverty.
  2. Agriculture: Government provides financial assistance to farmers to purchase agricultural inputs. The Government also announces Minimum Support Prices for selected crops to ensure stable agricultural income to farmers.
  3. Rural works: Through various schemes. the employment opportunities are providing to the poor through the construction of rural roads, irrigation projects. rural electrification, etc.
  4. Rural industrialization: To promote employment in rural areas. the government encourages setting up of small scale and cottage industries.
  5. Minimum Wages: Minimum Wages Act was passed in 1948 to provide fair wages to agricultural and industrial workers. It has been revised from time to time. This has helped in the reduction of poverty.
  6. Public Distribution System: The government has also taken efforts to ensure food security to the poor. Food gain is made available to the poor people at highly subsidized rates through ration shops under the Public Distribution System.
  7. Nationalization of banks: To ensure financial aid. credit facilities are made available to the poor people at low rates of interest. For this purpose, nationalization of banks was undertaken by the government of India in 1969 and 1980.
  8. Progressive tax measures: To reduce Inequalities in the distribution of income. the progressive income tax system has been introduced in India.
  9. Education: Government has taken many efforts to spread education in c0untry. To increase the enrolment ratio. primary education has been made free and compulsory for all. I have an education for girls mid-day meal programmes. sanitation and safe drinking water. etc. have also been provided.
  10. Affordable housing: Government has also started slum rehabilitation programmes. Affordable housing facilities are provided to the rural and urban poor.
  11. Health facilities: Government has established primary health centres. government hospitals to provide medical treatment at subsidized rates to the poor people, especially in rural areas.
  12. Skill development and self-employment: For the removal of poverty in India, skill development is considered one of the important aspects of job creation. For this purpose. government has started providing opportunities for skill-based training This will inspire people towards entrepreneurship or self-employment. This, in turn, will help to eradicate poverty.

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