Location and Extent | Aster Classes

Chapter 2: Location and Extent

Find the difference between the post-independence characteristics of India and Brazil.


The differences between the post-independence characteristics of India and Brazil are as follows:

(i) India’s economy depends largely on agriculture and industries of oil, metals, etc.(i) Brazil’s economy depends largely on its natural resources.
(ii) The current population of India is approximately 1300 million.(ii) The current population of Brazil is approximately 210 million.
(iii) The capital of India is New Delhi.(iii) The capital of Brazil is Brasilia.
(iv) The national flag consists of three horizontal bands of saffron, white, and green. The blue chakra in the center can (on the white band) has 24 spokes in the wheel. The saffron band stands for courage. sacrifice and renunciation. The white band stands for purity and truth. The green band stands for faith and fertility. The blue chakra stands for the wheel of Law and Dharma.(iv) The national flag is green in color, with a large yellow diamond in the middle. This diamond has a blue globe with 27 stars. There is also a white line that passes through the globe which bears the motto: ORDER E PROGRESSO. This stands for order and progress. On the modern flag. The green color Stands for the forests, and the yellow diamond stands for minerals (or natural resources that shaped the country’s economy. The blue globe with the stars stands for the sky or number of states. This design is inspired by the previous banner of the Empire of Brazil in 1822.
(v) The Indian national anthem is Jana Gana Mana. The lyrics and music were given by Rabindranath Tagore in 1950.(v) The Brazilian national anthem is Hino Nacional Brasileiro. The lyrics and music were given by Joaquim Osorio Duque-Estrada and Francisco Manual da Silva respectively.
(vi) Environmental issues include air pollution from vehicles and industries, lack of sufficient natural resources due to overpopulation, water pollution due to sewage and pesticide, overgrazing, forestation, etc.(vi) Environmental issues include air and water pollution, improper mining activities, illegal wildlife trade, oil spills, loss of wetlands, deforestation, etc.

The imperial power which ruled Brazil also ruled a part of India.

Find out when that part of India achieved independence ?


Brazil was ruled by the imperial power of the Kingdom of Portugal.

On 22nd April in 1500, the Portuguese naval fleet arrived on the shores of Brazil.

Colonization began officially, in 1534 when King John III divided Brazil into 15 parts.

He appointed a Governer to control entire colony in 1549.

Brazil became independent from the Portuguese on 7th September 1822.

India gained independence from British rule on 15th August 1947, but some parts of India were still suffering from colonial rule.

One of these parts was Goa, which was still under Portuguese control.

Goa gained independence from Portugal on December 19th, in 1961.

The fight for the freedom of Goa began on June 18th, 1946 when Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia defied the ban on public meetings which was imposed by the Portuguese government.

This launched the first civil disobedience movement which inspired others to fight for freedom of Goa.

Are the sentences right or wrong. ? Rewrite the wrong ones.

1.Brazil is mainly located in the Southern Hemisphere.


is right.

It is mainly located in the southern hemisphere while some of its parts also lie in the northern and western hemispheres

2.Tropic of Capricorn passes through the middle of India.

  • right
  • wrong



Tropic of Cancer is the circle marking the latitude 23.5 degrees north.

It passes through the middle of India.

It passes through eight states of India – Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura, Mizoram.

3.The longitudinal extent of Brazil is less than India.


 Is wrong.

The longitudinal extent of Brazil is more than India.

The longitudinal extent of India is approximately 30 degrees where the same of Brazil is 39 degrees

4.Equator passes through the northern part of Brazil.


Is right.

The Equator passes through the northern part of Brazil.

The Equator is also known as 0-degree latitude.

5.Brazil has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean.


Is wrong.

Brazil has a coastline along the North and South Atlantic Ocean.

6.Pakistan is a neighboring country to the south east of India.


Is wrong.

Pakistan is a neighbouring country to the north west of India.

7.The southern part of India is called Peninsula.


Is right.

The southern part of India is called Peninsula.

Peninsula is the region surrounded by water from the majority of its sides.

Answer in brief:

1.What problems did Brazil and India face after independence?


Brazil gained its independence in 1822 from Portuguese.

But it was under the populist military government after independence and also faced global financial difficulties.

There was an issue of maintaining unity within the nation.

Apart from that, it faced many problems due to the large size of the country.

It was difficult to provide facilities to the deepest parts as the Amazon Jungle, central plateau or the northeast desert.

Slavery was a big issue for all American countries.

Slaves were an intrinsic part of Brazil, but they had many costs, this kind of economy structure made it harder for the country to develop.

India had a major issue of communal violence due to a partition on the basis of religion.

There was widespread bloodshed on both sides.

Resettlement of the displaced people was a big issue.

There was a need to focus on agriculture which was completely exploited by the Britishers.

Apart from this, India too faced the issue of maintaining unity among different states and among people of different faiths.


India and Brazil are two resourceful countries that were ruled by foreign governments for a long time.

Upon winning independence, the countries suffered from problems.

They are,

  • They did not know how to operate and govern themselves as most of the government officials were immigrants.
  • The native people knew very less about it.
  • The crime rate also increased due to the mismanagement of the power and resources
  • Corruption came into play and the officials became money motivated.
  • The countries also suffered from unemployment because the resources were not managed properly.

2.How are Brazil and India different from each other in terms of location?


LocationNorthern and Eastern HemisphereSouthern and Western Hemisphere
ContinentAsianSouth American
OceanIndian OceanNorth and South Atlantic Ocean
Latitude line passesTropic of CancerEquator and tropic of copricorn

3.Describe the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India and Brazil.


The Latitudinal extent of India is 8°4’N to 37°6’N. The Longitudinal extent of India is 68°7’E to 97°25’E.

The Latitudinal extent of Brazil is 5°15’N to 33°45’S. The Longitudinal extent of Brazil is 34°45’E to 73°48’W

Select the correct option

1.India’s southernmost point is known as :

  • Lakshadweep
  • Kaniyakumari
  • Indira point
  • Port Blair

2.These two countries in South America do not share their border with Brazil.

  • chile-ecuador
  • argentina-bolivia
  • columbia-french guiana
  • surinam-uruguay

3.Both the countries have ……….. type of government.

  • Military
  • Republic
  • Communist
  • Presidential

4.Which of the following shapes show the coastal part of Brazil correctly?

  • i
  • ii
  • iii
  • iv

5.Which of the following shapes show the coastal part of India correctly?

  • i
  • ii
  • iii
  • iv

6.Considering hemisphere, which shape correctly represents the hemisphere in which India lies?

  • ii
  • iii
  • iv

7.Considering the hemisphere, which correctly represents the hemisphere in which Brazil mainly lies?

  1. i
  2. ii
  3. iii
  4. iv


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