## full solution | Aster Classes

ssc, English, Maharashtra, board, chapter 5, Joan of arc, Ebalbharathi, solution, full solution,

Q1.Discuss in groups pairs and make a list of the weapons used in the old times and in the present times.

#### SOLUTION

Q2.Imagine that you are the captain of your school Kabaddi team. Your final match is against a very strong team. Your team members are sure that you will lose. How will you boost their morale? Work in groups and prepare a shortlist of what can encourage the team.

#### SOLUTION

I will encourage them in the following way.

1. I will tell them that even if the opponent is an elephant, a small ant can defeat it.
2. I will tell them our strong points.
3. We will try to figure out the opponent’s weak points.
4. I will tell them no matter how strong the opponent is, we will do our best and we will win.
5. I will tell them most of the time, we were going to lose yet we won.

Q3.Adding different prepositions to the same action verb changes the meaning of the phrases, thus formed.

For example,

call out – announce

call at – visit

call for – summon

call up – make a telephonic call

call off – cancel

Guess the difference in meanings of the underlined phrases.

• a. He promised to look into the matter.
b. He asked me to look for his lost book.
c. I shall look forward to your arrival.
• a. An epidemic of cholera broke out in the village.
b. The thieves broke into the locked house.
c. They broke up their friendship.
• a. You must carry out your duty faithfully.
c. They carried off the trophy in the football matches.
d. Carry forward the remaining balance to the next page.

#### SOLUTION

Q1.Read the extract from G. B. Shaw’s play on Joan of Arc and fill in the Tree diagram.

#### SOLUTION

Q2.(A)Pick out from the extract of the play two lines that provide evidence for each of the following.

#### SOLUTION

Q2.(B)Using the following points, frame a character sketch of Joan of Arc, in your own words. Suggest an attractive title.

• confidence
• courage
• optimism
• determination
• patriotism

#### SOLUTION

The Heroine of France-Joan of Arc

Joan, a well-built, strong country girl of 17 to 18 years, is brave and courageous and unafraid of anything. She is confident and asks directly for whatever she wants and is sure of getting it. She is optimistic and feels that if God is on one’s side, one can do anything. She is determined to go to Orleans and motivate the Dauphin to fight the English and save Orleans. Squire Robert and the others feel that if anyone can put some fight into the Dauphin, it is Joan. She is extremely patriotic and confidently says that she will teach the French soldiers to fight, and soon there will not be a single English soldier left on the soil of France.

Q3.From the extract, find what the following is compared to and why:

(a)as easy as ____________

#### SOLUTION

as easy as: chasing a cow out of the meadow.

This comparison is made because Joan was a country girl and had probably chased many cows out of the meadows. Besides, cows are docile creatures and can be driven away very easily.

#### SOLUTION

as mad as: Joan, for Joan was planning to go to the Dauphin, who was frightened, and motivate him to fight for Orleans.

(c)The Dauphin in Chinon is like ________

#### SOLUTION

The Dauphin in Chinon is like: a rat in a corner, for just like a cornered rat gives up, he too had given up and refused to fight to save Orleans.

(d)The (enemy) soldiers will be driven away like ___________

#### SOLUTION

The (enemy) soldiers will be driven away like: sheep. This comparison is made because sheep, who are considered to be foolish animals, can be manoeuvered and manipulated easily.

(e)Joan of Arc is a bit of __________________

#### SOLUTION

Joan of Arc is a bit of: miracle because she is courageous, confident and determined enough to go to the Dauphin and motivate him to fight for Orleans. when everybody else had given up.

Q4.Say why? Write it in your notebook.

(a)Joan wanted to meet Captain Squire, OR Explain why Joan wanted to meet Captain Squire.

#### SOLUTION

Joan wanted Captain Squire to give her a horse, an armour and some soldiers and send her to meet the Dauphin. That was the reason she wanted to meet him.

(b)Joan did not ask for many soldiers from Captain Squire.

#### SOLUTION

Joan did not ask for many soldiers from the

Captain Squire because the Dauphin would give her all that she needed.

(c)Poulengey, Jack and Dick had offered to accompany Joan.

#### SOLUTION

Poulengey, Jack and Dick felt there was something about Joan, and that she was a bit of a miracle. Her words had put fire into them. They also felt that it was their last chance of saving Orleans. Hence they offered to accompany her.

(d)French soldiers were always beaten in war.

#### SOLUTION

The French soldiers were always trying to save their lives, and would run away from the battlefield. Hence they were always beaten in war.

(e)Captain Squire Robert said, “I wash my hands off it.”

#### SOLUTION

Captain Robert Squire was uncertain about allowing Joan to go to the Dauphin. He could not believe that Joan would be successful in her mission. Even then, he could not withstand her determination and confidence: he also felt that this was the last chance of saving Orleans, and that there was something special about Joan. However, he did not want to be held responsible for anything; hence he said “I wash my hands off it.”

Q5.Using a dictionary, find the difference between the following pairs of phrases. Make sentences of your own with each of them.

#### SOLUTION

Q6.From an Indian History Book or Internet find out information about Indian Women (queens) who led battles. (For example, Rani of Jhansi and Rani Karnawati of Mewad). Write 3 points of similarity and 3 points of contrast between any one of the above Indian Queens and Joan of Arc. Write in your own words.

#### SOLUTION

Do it yourself.

Joan (Girl) : Good morning, Captain

Squire up to __________

Joan : (simply) ________

Polly and Jack have promised to come with me.

Write a summary of that part of the script (in the indirect speech) in 15 to 20 lines. Do it in your notebook.

#### SOLUTION

Joan asked the Squire to give her a horse. an armour and some soldiers, and send her to the Dauphin. On hearing this, Robert angrily asked the steward why he had not told him that she was mad. The steward told Robert to give Joan what she wanted.Robert then told Joan that he would send her back to her father with orders to lock her up. Joan replied that it wouldn’t happen that way: Robert had not wanted to see her, yet she had managed to see him.

Joan then asked him for a horse which would cost 16 francs. It was a big amount of money, but

she would save it on the armour, as she did not need a beautiful, fitting armour. A soldier’s armour would do. She said that she would not want many soldiers, for the Dauphin would give her what she needed to free Orleans. Three men would be enough for him to send with her. She adds that Polly and Jack had promised to go with her.

Q8.(A)Make the following sentence Affirmative without change of meaning.

(a)Negative: I am not so sure, now.

Affirmative: _________________

#### SOLUTION

Negative: I am not so sure, now.

Affirmative: I am unsure now.

(b)Negative: He will not be able to stop them.

Affirmative: _________________

#### SOLUTION

Negative: He will not be able to stop them.

Affirmative: He will be unable to stop them

(c)Negative: I don’t remember.

Affirmative: _________________

#### SOLUTION

Negative: I don’t remember.

Affirmative: I forget.

(d)Negative: I can do no more.

Affirmative: _________________

#### SOLUTION

Negative: I can do no more.

Affirmative: I can do this much.

(e)Negative: Sir, do not anger her

Affirmative: _________________

#### SOLUTION

Negative: Sir, do not anger her.

Affirmative: Sir please replied from angering her

(f)Negative: I shall not want many soldiers.

Affirmative: _________________

#### SOLUTION

Negative: I shall not want many soldiers.

Affirmative: I shall not only a few soldiers

Q8.(B)Fill in the gaps in the table.

Word-Form

#### SOLUTION

Word-Form

Balbharathi solution, chapter 6, plant water relation, science, biology, maharashtra board, hsc, full solution, latest edition,

### Multiple Choice Question:

1.In soil, water available for absorption by root is ______.

#### OPTIONS

• gravitational water
• capillary water
• hygroscopic water
• combined water

2.The most widely accepted theory for ascent of sap is ______.

#### OPTIONS

• capillarity theory
• root pressure theory
• diffusion
• transpiration pull theory

3.Water movement between the cells is due to ______.

#### OPTIONS

• T.P.
• W.P.
• DPD
• incipient plasmolysiS

4.In guard cells, when sugar is converted into starch, the stomatal pore ______.

#### OPTIONS

• closes almost completely
• opens partially
• opens fully
• remains unchanged

5.Surface tension is due to ____________.

#### OPTIONS

• diffusion
• osmosis
• gravitational force
• cohesion

6.Which of the following type of solution has a lower level of solutes than the solution?

#### OPTIONS

• Isotonic
• Hypotonic
• Hypertonic
• Anisotonic

7.During rainy season wooden doors warp and become difficult to open or to close because of ______

#### OPTIONS

• plasmolysis
• imbibition
• osmosis
• diffusion

8.Water absorption takes place through ______.

#### OPTIONS

• lateral roots
• root cap
• root hair
• primary root

9.Due to low atmospheric pressure the rate of transpiration will ____________.

#### OPTIONS

• increase
• decrease rapidly
• decrease slowly
• remain unaffected

10.Osmosis is a property of ______.

#### OPTIONS

• solute
• solvent
• solution
• membrane

1.What is osmotic pressure?

Explain the term osmosis.

#### SOLUTION

i. The pressure exerted due to osmosis is called osmotic pressure.

ii. Osmotic pressure is a pressure of the solution, which is required in opposite direction, so as to stop the entry of solvent molecules into the cell.

OR

Osmotic pressure of a solution is equivalent to the pressure which must be exerted upon it to prevent flow of solvent across a semipermeable membrane.

2.Name the condition in which protoplast of the plant cell shrinks.

#### SOLUTION

Plasmolysis

3.What happens when a pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure is applied to pure water or a solution?

#### SOLUTION 1

The water potential of pure water or a solution increases on the application of pressure values more than atmospheric pressure. For example: when water diffuses into a plant cell, it causes pressure to build up against the cell wall. This makes the cell wall turgid. This pressure is termed as pressure potential and has a positive value.

#### SOLUTION 2

If a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is applied to pure water or a solution, its water potential increases. It is equivalent to pumping water from one place to another. Pressure can build up in a plant system when water enters a plant cell due to diffusion causing a pressure built up against the cell wall, it makes the cell turgid.

4.Which type of solution will bring about deplasmolysis?

#### SOLUTION

Hypotonic solution can bring about deplasmolysis.

5.Which type of plants have negative root pressure?

#### SOLUTION

The plants in which transpiration occurs rapidly especially during midsummer shows negative root pressure.

6.In which conditions transpiration pull will be affected?

#### SOLUTION

For transpiration pull to operate, the water column should be unbroken and continuous. However, due to temperature fluctuations during day and night, gas bubbles may enter in water column breaking the continuity.

7.Mention the shape of guard cells in Cyperus.

#### SOLUTION

In Cyperus, both kidney-shaped and dumbbell-shaped guard cells are present.

8.Why do diurnal changes occur in osmotic potential of guard cells?

#### SOLUTION

1. According to Steward, diurnal changes occur in the osmotic potential of guard cells due to starch-sugar inter-conversion.

2. Whereas according to Levitt active transport of potassium ions into the guard cells and out of them causes diurnal changes in the osmotic potential of guard cells.

3. Endo-osmosis and exo-osmosis occur due to diurnal changes in osmotic potential of guard cells.

9.What is the symplast pathway?

#### SOLUTION

When water passes across from one living cell to another living cell through plasmodesmata, then it is called the symplast pathway. It is also called the trans-membrane pathway.

1.Describe the mechanism for absorption of water.

#### SOLUTION

A mechanism for absorption of water:

1. In plants, water is absorbed mainly by two processes: Passive absorption and Active absorption

2. Passive absorption:

a. About 98% of the total water absorbed in plants occurs passively.

b. In passive absorption, living cells of the root do not play an important role in water absorption.

c. The driving force is transpiration pull and it thus proceeds through the DPD gradient.

d. There is no expenditure of energy (ATP) as water moves in accordance with the concentration gradient. Hence, it is passive absorption.

e. Passive absorption occurs during day time when transpiration is in progress. It stops at night when transpiration stops.

f. Rapid transpiration creates tension in the xylem vessel due to negative water potential. This tension is transmitted to xylem in the roots. Consequently, water is pulled upwards passively.

g. During passive absorption, no ATP is utilized. Thus, the rate of respiration is not affected.

3. Active absorption:

a. In this water is absorbed due to the activity of roots.

b. Root cells play an active role in the absorption of water.

c. The driving force is the root pressure developed, in the living cells of the root.

d. Active absorption occurs usually at night when transpiration stops due to closure of stomata.

e. As water absorption is against the DPD gradient, there is an expenditure of ATP (energy) generated through the respiratory activity of cells.

2.Discuss theories of water translocation.

#### SOLUTION

Theories of water translocation:

i. Various theories have been put forth to explain the mechanism of translocation of water. These theories include Vital force theory, Relay pump theory, Physical force theory, Root pressure theory, etc.

ii. Root Pressure Theory (Vital Theory): This theory was proposed by J. Priestley. According to this theory, the activity of living cells of the root is responsible for the translocation of water.

iii. Capillarity theory (physical force theory): This theory was put forth by Boehm in (1863). According to this theory, physical forces and dead cells are responsible for the ascent of sap.

iv. Cohesion- tension theory (Transpiration pull theory): This theory was put forth by Dixon and Jolly (1894). This is presently a widely accepted theory explaining the ascent of sap in plants. This theory is based on two principles i.e. Cohesion and adhesion, and transpiration pull.

3.What is transpiration?

#### SOLUTION

Transpiration:

The loss of water in the form of vapor is called transpiration that occurs through leaves, stem, flowers, and fruits.

4.Describe the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata.

#### SOLUTION

Mechanism of opening and closing of stomata:

1. The opening and closing of stoma is controlled by turgor of guard cells.

2. During day time, guard cells become turgid due to endo-osmosis.

3. Thus turgor pressure is exerted on the thin walls of guard cells.

4. Being elastic and thin, lateral walls are stretched out.

5. Due to kidney or dumb-bell like shape, inner thick walls are pulled apart to open (widen) the stoma.

6. During night time, guard cells become flaccid due to exo-osmosis.

7. Flaccidity closes the stoma almost completely.

8. Endo-osmosis and exo-osmosis occur due to diurnal changes in the osmotic potential of guard cells.

9. According to starch-sugar inter-conversion theory (Steward 1964), during day time, enzyme phosphorylase converts starch to sugar, thus increasing the osmotic potential of guard cells causing entry of water, thereby guard cells are stretched and stoma widens. The reverse reaction occurs at night bringing about the closure of the stoma.

Starch(Stomata open)⇌(Night)Phosphorylase (Day)Sugar(Stomata close)

10. According to the theory of proton transport (Levitt-1974), stomatal movement occurs due to the transport of protons H+ and K+ ions. During the daytime, starch is converted into malic acid. Malic acid dissociates to form malate ions and protons. Protons are transported to subsidiary cells and K+ ions are imported from them.

Potassium Malate is formed that increases osmolarity and causes endoosmosis. Uptake of K+ ions is always accompanied by Cl ions. At night, uptake of K+ and Cl ions is prevented by abscisic acid, changing the permeability of guard cells. Due to this guard cells become hypotonic and thereby become flaccid.

5.What is transpiration?

#### SOLUTION

Transpiration:

The loss of water in the form of vapor is called transpiration that occurs through leaves, stem, flowers, and fruits.

6.Explain the role of transpiration.

#### SOLUTION

Role of transpiration:

i. It removes excess of water.

ii. It helps in the passive absorption of water and minerals from the soil.

iii. It helps in the ascent of sap.

iv. As stomata are open, gaseous exchange required for photosynthesis and respiration is facilitated.

v. It maintains the turgor of the cells.

vi. Transpiration helps in reducing the temperature of leaf and in imparting a cooling effect.

7.What is the significance of transpiration?

#### SOLUTION

Significance of transpiration:

1. It removes excess of water.

2. It helps in the passive absorption of water and minerals from the soil.

3. It helps in the ascent of sap.

4. As stomata are open, gaseous exchange required for photosynthesis and respiration is facilitated.

5. It maintains the turgor of the cells.

6. Transpiration helps in reducing the temperature of leaf and in imparting a cooling effect.

8.Explain the root pressure theory and its limitations.

#### SOLUTION

Root pressure theory (Vital theory):

1. This theory was proposed by J. Priestley.

2. According to this theory, the activity of living cells of root is responsible for the translocation of water.

3. When a stem of a potted plant is cut few inches above the soil by a sharp knife, xylem sap is seen flowing out/ oozing out through the cut end.

4. This exudation at the cut end of the stem is a good proof for the existence of root pressure.

5. As water absorption by roots is a constant and continuous process, hydrostatic pressure is developed in the living cells of cortex of the root. This is termed as root pressure (coined by S. Hales).

6. It is due to root pressure water along with dissolved minerals is not only forced into xylem but it is also conducted upwards against the gravity.

7. Root pressure seems to be largely an osmotic phenomenon and its development is an active process.

8. The value of root pressure is +1 to +2 bars which is enough to pump water to a height of 10 to 20 meters.

9. The factors like oxygen, moisture, the temperature of the soil, salt contents, etc. influence the root pressure.

Limitations of root pressure theory:

Although ascent of sap takes place due to root pressure, there are certain objections raised, such as;

1. It is not applicable to plants taller than 20 meters.

2. Ascent of sap can also occur even in the absence of a root system.

3. Root pressure value is almost nearly zero in taller gymnosperm trees.

4. In actively transpiring plants, no root pressure is developed.

5. Xylem sap under normal condition is under tension i.e. it shows negative hydrostatic pressure or high osmotic pressure.

Thus, root pressure is not the sole mechanism explaining the ascent of sap in all plants of varying heights.

9.Explain capillarity theory of water translocation.

#### SOLUTION

Capillarity theory of water translocation:

1. This theory was put forth by Boehm in (1863).

2. According to this theory, physical forces and dead cells are responsible for the ascent of sap. For e.g. Wick dipped in an oil lamp, shows capillarity due to which oil is raised upwards. The conduction of water in a straw dipped in water is raised to a certain height because of capillarity. The height to which water is raised depends on the diameter of the straw.

3. Capillarity is because of surface tension, and forces of cohesion (attraction between like molecules) and adhesion (attraction between unlike molecules).

4. Xylem vessel/ tracheid with its lumen can be compared with straw.

5. Water column exists because of combined cohesive and adhesive forces of water and xylem wall, due to capillarity.

6. Due to capillarity, water is raised or conducted upwards against gravity, to few centimeters only.

10.Why is transpiration is called ‘a necessary evil’?

#### SOLUTION

Curtis (1926) regarded transpiration as ‘a necessary evil’, because;

1. For stomatal transpiration to occur, stoma must remain open, during day time.

2. When stomata are open then only the gaseous exchange needed for respiration and photosynthesis will take place.

3. If stomatal transpiration stops, it will directly affect the productivity of the plant through the loss of photosynthetic and respiratory activity.

4. Hence for productivity, stomata must remain open.

5. Consequently transpiration cannot be avoided.

11.Explain the movement of water in the root.

#### SOLUTION

Journey of water from soil to xylem in roots (from epiblema upto xylem in the stelar region):

1. Water is absorbed by root hair cells through processes like imbibition, diffusion, osmosis which occur sequentially.

2. Water passes through the epidermal cell (epiblema), cortex, endodermis, Casparian strip, pericycle, and then to protoxylem.

3. When the root hair cell absorbs water it becomes turgid. Its turgor pressure increases, but its DPD value decreases.

4. However, the immediately adjacent cortical cell inner to it, has more DPD value, because its O. P. is more.

5. Therefore, cortical cells will absorb water from the turgid root hair cell. It then becomes turgid.

6. The flaccid root hair cell now absorbs water from the soil.

7. Water from the turgid cortical cell is absorbed by the inner cortical cell and the process goes on.

8. Thus, a gradient of suction pressure (DPD) is developed from cells of epiblema to the cortex of the root.

9. Consequently water moves rapidly across the root through loosely arranged living cells of cortex, followed by passage cells of endodermis and finally into the cell of pericycle.

10. Protoxylem is in close proximity to the pericycle.

11. It is due to root pressure, water from pericycle is forced into the xylem.

12. Pathway of water across the root occurs in two types: Apoplast pathway and Symplast pathway

13. Apoplast pathway: When some amount of water passes across the root through the cell wall and the intercellular spaces of cortical cells of the root, it is then called the apoplast pathway. This pathway occurs up to endodermis.

14. Symplast pathway: When water passes across from one living cell to another living cell through plasmodesmata, then it is called the symplast pathway. It is also called the trans-membrane pathway.

12.What is osmotic pressure?

Explain the term osmosis.

#### SOLUTION

i. The pressure exerted due to osmosis is called osmotic pressure.

ii. Osmotic pressure is a pressure of the solution, which is required in opposite direction, so as to stop the entry of solvent molecules into the cell.

OR

Osmotic pressure of a solution is equivalent to the pressure which must be exerted upon it to prevent flow of solvent across a semipermeable membrane.

13.Define and or explain the term:

Diffusion

#### SOLUTION

1. Diffusion means to disperse.
2. Diffusion can be defined as the movement of ions/ atoms/ molecules of a substance from the region of their higher concentration to the region of their lower concentration till equilibrium is reached.
3. The movement is due to the kinetic energy of the molecules.
4. Water passes into the cell by diffusion through a freely permeable cell wall.

## Define and or explain the term:

14.Plasmolysis

#### SOLUTION 1

Plasmolysis – The shrinkage of cytoplasm of a living cell as a result of exosmosis is known as plasmolysis.

#### SOLUTION 2

1. When a living cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, exo-osmosis occurs. This is called plasmolysis.
2. During plasmolysis, the protoplast of the cell shrinks and recedes from the cell wall due to which cell becomes flaccid. Such a cell is called a plasmolysed cell.
3. In a plasmolyzed cell, a gap is developed between the cell wall and the protoplast. This gap is filled up by the outer solution.

15.imbibition

#### SOLUTION

1. Imbibition is swelling up of hydrophilic colloids due to the adsorption of water.

OR

The adsorption of water by hydrophilic compounds is called imbibition.

2. Substance that adsorbs water/liquid is called imbibant and water/ liquid that gets imbibed is called imbibate.

3. The root hair cell wall is made up of pectic compounds and cellulose which are hydrophilic colloids.

4. During imbibition, water molecules get tightly adsorbed without the formation of a solution.

5. Imbibition continues until the equilibrium is reached. In other words, water moves along the concentration gradient.

6. Imbibition is significant in soaking of seeds, swelling up of dried raisins, kneading of flour etc.

16.Guttation

#### SOLUTION

1. The loss of water in the form of liquid is called guttation.
2. It occurs through special structures called water stomata or hydathodes.

17.Transpiration

#### SOLUTION

i. The loss of water in the form of vapour is called transpiration that occurs through leaves, stem, flowers and fruits.

ii. Transpiration occurs through three main sites – cuticle, stomata, and lenticels.

Define and or explain the term:

18.Ascent of sap

#### SOLUTION

The transport of water with dissolved minerals from the root to other aerial parts like stem and leaves, against the gravity, is called translocation or ascent of sap.

19.Active absorption

#### SOLUTION

1. In this water is absorbed due to the activity of roots.
2. Root cells play an active role in the absorption of water.
3. The driving force is the root pressure developed, in the living cells of the root.
4. Active absorption occurs usually at night when transpiration stops due to the closure of stomata.
5. As water absorption is against the DPD gradient, there is an expenditure of ATP (energy) generated through the respiratory activity of cells.

1.Define and or explain the term:

DPD

#### SOLUTION

1. Diffusion pressure of pure solvent (pure water) is always more than the diffusion pressure of the solvent in a solution. The difference in the diffusion pressures of pure solvent and the solvent in a solution is called Diffusion Pressure Deficit (DPD) or Suction Pressure (SP).
2. The term DPD was coined by B.S. Meyer (1938). Nowadays, term water potential is used for DPD.
3. In colloquial language, the term DPD is actually the thirst of a cell with which it absorbs water from the surroundings.
4. The water around the cell wall has more diffusion pressure than cell sap. Due to this, water moves in the cell by diffusion.

2.Define and or explain the term:

Turgor pressure

#### SOLUTION

Turgor pressure (T.P) is the pressure exerted by turgid cell sap on to the cell membrane and cell wall.

3.Define and or explain the term:

Water potential

#### SOLUTION

i. Chemical potential of water is called water potential.

ii. It is represented by Greek letter psi (ψ).

iii. The unit of measurement of water potential is bars/ pascals/ atmospheres.

iv. Water potential of protoplasm is equal but opposite in sign to DPD. It has a negative value.

v. Water potential of pure water is always zero. The addition of any solute in it decreases its psi (ψ) value. Therefore, it has a negative value.

vi. Difference between water potential of the adjacent cells decides the movement of water through plasmodesmata across the cells.

vii. Water always flows from less negative potential to more negative water potential (i.e. from high water potential area to low water potential area).

4.Define and or explain the term:

Wall pressure

#### SOLUTION

The cell wall is thick and rigid, exerts a counter pressure on the cell sap. This is called Wall pressure (W. P).

5.Define and or explain the term:

Root pressure

#### SOLUTION

1. During the absorption of water, the continuous flow of water develops hydrostatic pressure in living cells of the root. This is called root pressure.
2. Root pressure causes water to flow from pericycle into the xylem. It also causes upward conduction of water against gravity.
3. A manometer is used to measure the root pressure.

### 7.Distinguish between Diffusion and Osmosis

#### SOLUTION

8.Enlist macronutrients and micronutrients required for plant growth.

Write on macro- and micro nutrients required for plant growth.

#### SOLUTION

1. Macronutrients:
Some minerals like C, H, O, P, N, S, Mg, K, Ca required in large quantity for normal growth of the plant, are called macro elements. Macronutrients are required in large quantities. They mainly play nutritive and structural roles.
2. Micronutrients:
Some minerals like Cu, Mo, Mn, Cl, Bo, Zn required in small quantities for the growth of a plant, are called microelements.
Micronutrients are required in traces because they function in the catalytic role as co-factors.

9.How are the minerals absorbed by the plants?

#### SOLUTION

i. The analysis of plant ash demonstrates that minerals are absorbed by plants from soil and surroundings.

ii. Minerals are absorbed by plants in the ionic (dissolved) form, mainly through roots and then transported.

iii. Mineral ion absorption is independent of water absorption.

iv. It can occur in two ways i.e. active and passive absorption.

v. In passive absorption, the movement of mineral ions into root cells occurs as a result of diffusion. Mineral ions diffuse from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration without the expenditure of energy.

vi. Most minerals in the soil are charged particles hence, they cannot pass across the cell membranes. Hence most of the minerals are absorbed actively with the expenditure energy.

vii. Inactive absorption, minerals are absorbed against the concentration gradient with the expenditure energy.

viii. Absorbed mineral ions are pulled in an upward direction along with xylem sap because of transpiration pull.

ix. Hence, mineral ions are pulled from the source (root) and are transported ascendingly through the sap to the needed areas like apical, lateral, young leaves, developing flowers, fruits, seeds, and storage organs.

x. Mineral ions get unloaded by fine veins through the process of diffusion in the vicinity of cells. Cells uptake them actively.

1.Describe structure of root hair.

#### SOLUTION

1. Root hair is a cytoplasmic extension (prolongation) of epiblema cell.

2. Each root hair may be approximately 1 to 10 mm long and tube-like structure.

3. It is colourless, unbranched, short-lived (ephemeral), and very delicate.

4. It has a large central vacuole surrounded by a thin film of cytoplasm, plasma membrane and thin cell wall, which is two-layered.

5. Outer layer is composed of pectin and the inner layer is made up of cellulose.

6. Cell wall of a root hair is freely permeable but the plasma membrane is selectively permeable.

2.Write on journey of water from soil to xylem in roots.

#### SOLUTION

1. Water is absorbed by root hair cells through processes like imbibition, diffusion, osmosis which occur sequentially.

2. Water passes through the epidermal cell (epiblema), cortex, endodermis, casparian strip, pericycle and then to protoxylem.

3. When root hair cell absorbs water it becomes turgid. Its turgor pressure increases, but its DPD value decreases.

4. However, the immediately adjacent cortical cell inner to it, has more DPD value because its O. P. is more.

5. Therefore, the cortical cells will absorb water from the turgid root hair cell. It then becomes turgid.

6. The flaccid root hair cell now absorbs water from the soil.

7. Water from the turgid cortical cell is absorbed by the inner cortical cell and the process goes on.

8. Thus, a gradient of suction pressure (DPD) is developed from cells of epiblema to the cortex of the root.

9. Consequently water moves rapidly across the root through loosely arranged living cells of cortex, followed by passage cells of endodermis and finally into the cell of pericycle.

10. Protoxylem is in close proximity with pericycle.

11. It is due to root pressure, water from pericycle is forced into the xylem.

12. Pathway of water across the root occurs in two types: Apoplast pathway and Symplast pathway

13. Apoplast pathway: When some amount of water passes across the root through the cell wall and the intercellular spaces of cortical cells of the root, it is then called the apoplast pathway. This pathway occurs up to endodermis.

14. Symplast pathway: When water passes across from one living cell to another living cell through plasmodesmata, then it is called the symplast pathway. It is also called the trans-membrane pathway.

3.Explain cohesion theory for translocation of water.

#### SOLUTION

1. This theory was put forth by Dixon and Jolly (1894).

2. This is presently a widely accepted theory explaining the ascent of sap in plants.

3. This theory is based on two principles i.e. Cohesion and adhesion, and transpiration pull.

a. A strong force of attraction between water molecules is called cohesive force.

b. While a strong force of attraction between water molecules and the lignified wall of the lumen of the xylem vessel, is called adhesive force.

c. Due to combined cohesive and adhesive forces a continuous water column is developed (formed) in the xylem right from root up to the tip of the topmost leaf in the plant.

5. Transpiration pull:

a. The transpiration pull developed in the leaf vessel is transmitted down to the root and thus accounts for the ascent of sap.

b. Excess water is lost in the form of vapour, mainly through the stomata found on a leaf.

c. This water loss increases the D.P.D. of mesophyll cells. These cells withdraw water ultimately from the xylem in the leaf.

d. In other words, due to continuous transpiration, a gradient of suction pressure (i.e. D.P.D.) is developed right from guard cells up to the xylem in the leaf. This will create a tension (called a negative pull or transpiration pull) in the xylem.

e. Consequently, the water column is pulled out of xylem. Thus, water is pulled upwards passively against the gravity leading to the ascent of sap.

4.Write mechanism of opening and closing of stoma.

#### SOLUTION

1. Opening and closing of stoma is controlled by the turgor of guard cells.

2. During day time, guard cells become turgid due to endo-osmosis.

3. Thus turgor pressure is exerted on the thin walls of guard cells.

4. Being elastic and thin, lateral walls are stretched out.

5. Due to kidney or dumb-bell like shape, inner thick walls are pulled apart to open (widen) the stoma.

6. During night time, guard cells become flaccid due to exo-osmosis.

7. Flaccidity closes the stoma almost completely.

8. Endo-osmosis and exo-osmosis occur due to diurnal changes in the osmotic potential of guard cells.

9. According to starch-sugar inter-conversion theory (Steward 1964), during day time, enzyme phosphorylase converts starch to sugar, thus increasing the osmotic potential of guard cells causing entry of water, thereby guard cells are stretched and stoma widens. The reverse reaction occurs at night bringing about the closure of the stoma.

Starch(Stomata open)⇌(Night)Phosphorylase (Day)Sugar(Stomata close)

10. According to the theory of proton transport (Levitt-1974), stomatal movement occurs due to the transport of protons H+ and K+ ions. During the daytime, starch is converted into malic acid. Malic acid dissociates to form malate ions and protons. Protons are transported to subsidiary cells and K+ ions are imported from them. Potassium Malate is formed that increases osmolarity and causes endosmosis. The uptake of K+ ions is always accompanied by Cl ions. At night, uptake of K+ and Cl– ions is prevented by abscisic acid, changing the permeability of guard cells. Due to this guard cells become hypotonic and thereby become flaccid.

5.What is hydroponics? How is it useful in identifying the role of nutrients?

#### SOLUTION

1. Hydroponics is a technique in which plants are grown in nutrient solutions in absence of soil. Roots are immersed in an adequately aerated, dilute, and defined solution of nutrients. Purified water and mineral salts are used in the nutrient medium.
2. In hydroponics, the concentration of a particular mineral in a solution of nutrients in which roots are immersed can be increased or decreased. By this method, essential elements can be identified and their deficiency symptoms can be discovered.
Thus it helps to identify the role of nutrients in plant growth.

6.Explain the active absorption of minerals.

#### SOLUTION

1. Uptake of mineral ions against the concentration gradient is called active absorption.

2. Such movement requires an expenditure of energy by the absorbing cell. This energy is derived from respiration and is supplied through ATP.

3. The rate of active absorption of minerals depends upon respiration.

4. When the roots are deprived of oxygen, they show a sudden drop in the active absorption of minerals. The mineral ions accumulated in the root hair pass into the cortex and finally reach the xylem.

5. The minerals in the xylem are then carried along with water to other parts of the plant along the transpiration stream and are subsequently assimilated into organic molecules and then redistributed to other parts of the plant through the phloem.

7.Enlist macronutrients and micronutrients required for plant growth.

Write on macro- and micro nutrients required for plant growth.

#### SOLUTION

1. Macronutrients:
Some minerals like C, H, O, P, N, S, Mg, K, Ca required in large quantity for normal growth of the plant, are called macro elements. Macronutrients are required in large quantities. They mainly play nutritive and structural roles.
2. Micronutrients:
Some minerals like Cu, Mo, Mn, Cl, Bo, Zn required in small quantities for the growth of a plant, are called microelements.
Micronutrients are required in traces because they function in the catalytic role as co-factors.

COMPLETED

Balbharati, Solutions, for, Book-keeping, and, Accountancy, 12th, Standard, Hsc, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 2, Accounts of ‘Not for Profit’ Concerns, Full solution,

### PRACTICAL SUMS

Balbharati, Solutions, for, Book-keeping, and, Accountancy, 12th, Standard, Hsc, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 2, Accounts of ‘Not for Profit’ Concerns, Full solution,

Library Books ₹ _________ ? Less 10 % Depreciation ₹ 5,000 = ₹ 45,000.

Solution:

Library Books ₹ 50,000Less 10 % Depreciation ₹ 5,000 = ₹ 45,000

Balbharati, Solutions, for, Book-keeping, and, Accountancy, 12th, Standard, Hsc, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 2, Accounts of ‘Not for Profit’ Concerns, Full solution,

Opening stock of stationery ₹ 5,000, purchases of stationery ₹ 7000, outstanding stationery bill ₹ 12,000, closing stock ₹ 1000. What is the amount of stationery consumed?

Solution:

Balbharati, Solutions, for, Book-keeping, and, Accountancy, 12th, Standard, Hsc, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 2, Accounts of ‘Not for Profit’ Concerns, Full solution,

12% p.a. Interest on Bank loan ₹ 80,000 for 1 year.

Solution:
12 % p.a. Interest on Bank loan ₹ 80,000 for 1 year.

Interest = (PNR/100) = 80000 x (12/100) = ₹ 9600

Thus, interest on Bank loan ₹ 80,000 for 1 year = ₹ 9600.

Balbharati, Solutions, for, Book-keeping, and, Accountancy, 12th, Standard, Hsc, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 2, Accounts of ‘Not for Profit’ Concerns, Full solution,

Calculate the following:

10 % p.a. Depreciation on Furniture ₹ 50,000 (for three months)

Solution
10 % p.a. Depreciation on Furniture ₹ 50,000 (for three months)

Depreciation = Cost of Asset × Rate × Period=50,000 × (10/100) × (3/12)= ₹ 1250

Depreciation for 3 months

Thus, Depreciation on furniture @10% on ₹ 50,000 for 3 months = ₹ 1250.

Balbharati, Solutions, for, Book-keeping, and, Accountancy, 12th, Standard, Hsc, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 2, Accounts of ‘Not for Profit’ Concerns, Full solution,

### Complete the table

Balbharati, Solutions, for, Book-keeping, and, Accountancy, 12th, Standard, Hsc, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 2, Accounts of ‘Not for Profit’ Concerns, Full solution,

Chapter 2: Accounts of ‘Not for Profit’ Concerns

### Find odd one

Trading Account, Profit and Loss Account, Receipts and Payments Account, Balance Sheet.

Profit and Loss Account

Receipts and Payments Account,

Balance Sheet.

Machinery, Furniture, Computers, Salaries.

Machinery

Furniture

Computers

Salaries.

Subscription

Stationery

Reliance Industries, Venna Vidya Mandir, Laxmi Hospital, Manoj Sports club.

Reliance Industries

Venna Vidya Mandir

Laxmi Hospital

Manoj Sports club

Surplus, Deficit, Net Profit, Capital fund.

Surplus

Deficit

Net Profit

Capital fund

Balbharati, Solutions, for, Book-keeping, and, Accountancy, 12th, Standard, Hsc, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 2, Accounts of ‘Not for Profit’ Concerns, Full solution,

Chapter 2: Accounts of ‘Not for Profit’ Concerns

What do you mean by ‘Not for Profit’ Concern?

A concern or organisation which is formed and established to serve its members and society or general public by undertaking various activities without any profit motive is called a ‘Not for Profit’ concern.

Which organisations prepare Income and Expenditure Account?

‘Not for profit’ concern prepares Income and Expenditure Account.

What is Receipts and Payments Account?

An account which is prepared by a ‘Not for Profit Concern’ to record a summary of all types of cash receipts and cash payments inclusive of bank transactions is called receipts and Payments Account.

Why Income and Expenditure Account is prepared?

Income and Expenditure Account is prepared to ascertain, whether the concern has sufficient incomes to meet its expenses, or not.

What is Capital Fund?

Excess of Assets over Liabilities is known as Capital Fund which also consists of contributions, subscriptions, entrance fees, surplus income, etc.

What is a Subscription?

Subscription is the periodical payment made by the members to the ‘Not for Profit’ concern for maintaining his membership.

What is ‘Legacy’?

Any asset, property or amount of cash which ‘Not for Profit’ concern receives as per the provisions made in the will of the donor after his death is called Legacy.

What is Surplus?

Excess of income over expenditure shown by Income and Expenditure Account represents Surplus for the financial year.

To which account ‘Surplus’ or ‘Deficit’ is transferred?

‘Surplus’ or ‘Deficit’ is transferred to Balance Sheet by adding it or subtracting it from Capital Fund

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