Outline: The connection between mind and body – the neglect of physical education – sports are the best means of physical development – they instil valuable qualities – the duke of Wellington’s remark
‘A sound mind in a sound body’ is an expression so familiar and so often quoted that its meaning is likely to have lost something of its edge and appeal. Yet it expresses a profound truth and formulates an ideal which every individual should set before himself. The body is the temple of the mind and is intimately connected with it. Bodily ailments stunt the growth of the mind, just as mental maladies affect the health of the body.
The education that is imparted in our schools and colleges is mainly intellectual. It is true that every school and college has a playground and offers facilities for sports like cricket and football. But participation in games is not compulsory and little account is taken of it while awarding certificates and degrees. Besides, there is an acute shortage of playgrounds in large cities. Our educationists should realise the organic connection between mind and body, and pay more attention and importance to the physical training of the young.
Outdoor games like hockey, football, basketball and tennis are the best means of ensuring physical health and development. They have several advantages over other forms of exercise. They provide not only exercise for the body but recreation for the mind. Exercising one’s limbs at home or in a gymnasium-calls for some effort of the will, but boys and girls have natural inclination for sports and they derive exercise from them in an agreeable way, without specially exerting themselves. They return to their studies, feeling refreshed and energetic.
Sports also inculcate valuable qualities in young people. They learn how to cooperate with one another and to subordinate their selfish desires to the interests of the team. They learn to play the game, practising fair play and showing generosity towards their opponents. In other words, they cultivate the quality of sportsmanship, which consists in playing a game according to its rules and accepting defeat with good temper. They are likely to follow the ideal of sportsman spirit in life also, showing honesty and uprightness in their dealings with others and never using unfair means to attain personal ends.
The Duke of Wellington emphasised the importance of sports in his memorable remark. “The battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton”. He meant that England’s victory at Waterloo was due to certain qualities like physical courage, co-operation, and loyalty displayed by her officers – qualities which they had learnt from sports and games when they were boys in Eton. It may be said that India’s battle with poverty and ignorance will be won on the playing fields of our schools and colleges.
Difficult Words: Formulates – expresses clearly. maladies – illness, disorders. inculcate – fix firmly, instil.
Category : Secondary School Level
“Walt Disney,” the name that is synonymous with animation pioneered the art of creating animated film cartoons and revolutionized it. He was a man with great vision and an innovative genius.
Walt Disney was born on 5th December, 1901 and he had 5 older siblings. When he was four, his family moved from Illinois to Marceline. He lived with his family on a farm and it is here that Walt met Fr. Sherwood encouraged him to sketch a picture of his horse, and this started Waif’s tryst with sketching. Later, when his family moved back to Chicago, Walt took up classes at McKinley High School and night courses at the Chicago Art Institute.
At the age of 22, he was airing cartoons called “Laugh-0-Grams” at the local theater. The cartoons were successful enough to afford him a new studio but he went bankrupt because he was unable to afford the huge salaries of his staff.
Eventually, he made his way to Hollywood where he set up his studio and made “Alice Comedies”. This heralded the beginning of the Disney Brothers’ Studio. Walt Disney went on to make many full length cartoons like Snow White, Bambi, Pinocchio but his most endearing cartoon remains Mickey Mouse. Walt’s biggest gift to cinematic pleasure was his use of the ‘Multiplane Camera.’ To him goes the credit for the world’s first synchronised sound cartoon. Walt Disney died in 1966 but the man’s spirit still lives on through Disney Movies.
Women In Man’s Profession
Category : Secondary School Level
Throughout most of history women generally have had fewer legal rights and career opportunities than men. Wifehood and motherhood were regarded as women’s most significant professions. In the 20th century, however, women in most nations won the right to vote and increased their educational and job opportunities. Perhaps most important, they fought for and to a large degree accomplished a re-evaluation of traditional views of their role in society.
Women were long considered naturally weaker than men, squeamish, and unable to perform work requiring muscular or intellectual prowess. Domestic chores were relegated to women, leaving ‘heavier9 labour to men. This ignored the fact that caring for children, housekeeping, cooking, and washing clothes also required heavy, sustained labour. Physiological tests now suggest that women have a greater tolerance for pain, and live longer.
A central issue in the study of gender is whether women and men are fundamentally different or essentially the same. “Difference theorists” contend that women are more nurturing, caring, and cooperative, as opposed to men, who are more independent, detached, and hierarchical. Men traditionally “do dominance” while women “do deference,” and females face dominant and agonistic behavior by their male colleagues.
In a developed country like the USA, women constituted more than 45 percent of employed persons in 1989, but they had only a small share of the decision-making jobs. Although the number of women working as managers, officials, and other administrators has been increasing, in 1989 they were outnumbered about 1.5 to 1 by men. Despite the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women in 1970 were paid about 45 percent less than men for the same jobs; in 1988, about 32 percent less. Professional women did not get the important assignments and promotions given to their male colleagues. Many cases before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1970 were registered by women charging sex discrimination in jobs.
Nevertheless the work environment is changing. Women, now, across the world are gradually entering occupations that have hired mostly men, in order to earn an equal place in society. Many occupations forecast to have the largest job growth – and likely to be filled by women are health-care aides and medical assistants, retail sales, customer service, restaurant workers, clerks, child- care workers; and better occupations in which women’s participation is expected to grow further are medical doctors and other professionals, IT professionals. engineers, teachers, judiciary, lawyers, accountants, computer-related jobs, media, art & culture, managers, construction trades, business entrepreneurship, defence services, police, airline pilots and all others one can think of, as appropriate education and training opportunities are becoming within their reach.
A popular adage among the working women goes as ‘A Woman has to work Twice as hard to prove that she is half as good’ sums up quite appropriately the general bias of the society and the women’s sentiment on the subject. An objective observer would see that often in a workplace, if a male makes a mistake, then it is commented that ‘He is having a bad day9, but if a female makes the same mistake then it would be ‘Women can’t do a job.’ However, the trend seems to be changing surely, albeit very slowly.
Most developed countries have enacted laws that would provide women with equal opportunity, equal pay for equal work, renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women at workplace, and special provisions for their security and maternity relief.
India has the world’s largest number of professionally qualified women, has more female doctors, surgeons, scientists and professors than the United States, has more working women than any other country in the world; this includes female workers at all levels of skill. There is a National Human Rights Commission for Women that is empowered to handle all human rights violations against women.
‘Women are no less than Men
Writing An Essay
Category : Secondary School Level
Whatever you choose to write for an essay, you usually follow the same basic structure:
Begin an essay with an introduction which is the first paragraph. This paragraph begins with a specific sentence called the ‘essay statement’. What you intend to convey in your composition is contained in this statement. It introduces the main idea of what your entire composition will be discussing. Ensure your thesis statement is a specific statement and is focused on a single idea rather than several.
The opening paragraph should be designed to capture the interest of your reader. It focuses on your assertion, on what you are going to write about.
The body is a group of paragraphs that develop on the main idea as introduced in the main statement. The main idea must now be elaborated with each developmental paragraph discussing a supporting point for the main idea. Each paragraph argues, describes, explains, discusses, defines, clarifies, illustrates or whatever on the thesis statement.
Each body paragraph has the same basic structure. It has a topic sentence followed by four or five supporting sentences. One idea is discussed in each paragraph. Introduce supporting details, facts, examples, quotations for each of these ideas. A concluding sentence summarizing or restating the idea ends each paragraph.
The conclusion is a summary paragraph. You complete the composition by summarizing, reviewing or restating the main idea in different words or briefly stating your opinion, feelings or suggesting a solution. Ensure the concluding paragraph is not too long; three or four sentences will be enough.
Your essay should leave the reader satisfied.