Emotions | Aster Classes

Balbharati, solutions, for, Psychology, 12th, Standard, HSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 5, Emotions, 

Complete the following Statement:

_________________is a combination of bodily arousal, expressive behaviour, thoughts and feelings.

Response

Reaction

Emotions

Solution

Emotions

According to James Lange we first experience ________ then emotions.

physical arousal

feelings

thoughts

Solution

physical arousal

Complete the following Statement:

Emotion is used as a _______ to control others.

weapon

measure

opportunity

Solution

weapon

Complete the following Statement:

When you allow another person to exploit you, you are a victim of _____________ abuse.

physical

emotional

social

Solution

emotional

Complete the following Statement:

Exercising releases ____________ which makes you feel good as a stress buster.

endorphins

thyroxin

insulin

Solution

endorphins

Identify the odd items from the following and write a suitable reason for your choice:

admiration

disgust

acceptance

trust

Solution

Disgust

Reason: The other three words are positive emotions.

Identify the odd items from the following and write a suitable reason for your choice:

kicking

ignoring

shoving

screaming

Solution

Ignoring

Reason: The other three words are physical triggers of anger

Identify the odd items from the following and write a suitable reason for your choice:

Reassess

React

Respond

Relax

Solution

React

Reason: The other three words are techniques of anger management.

Identify the odd items from the following and write a suitable reason for your choice:

meditation

social work

compassion

engage in hobbies

Solution

Compassion

Reason: The other three words are related to ‘Relaxation’ technique of anger management.


Match the Pairs:

Solution

State whether the following statement is true or false :

Emotional well being is not easily observable.

Solution

True

Positive emotions energise you.

Solution

True

You should feel guilty for standing up for yourself.

Solution

False

Anger is a basic negative emotion.

Solution

False

Answer the following question in around 35-40 words :

Explain the term facial feedback hypothesis.

Solution

According to the facial feedback hypothesis, our facial expressions provide feedback to our brain about our emotions. Facial expressions are not only the result of our emotions, e.g., smiling in happiness, but they are also capable of influencing emotions, e.g. laughter can actually make us feel happier. The same might hold true for other emotions as well. In the 1840s, William James presented the idea that awareness of our bodily experiences is the basis of emotion.

When does an individual face social rejection?

Solution

An individual faces social rejection when he is ignored in a conversation, isolated, bullied, or digitally spied on.

Social rejection in various forms makes an individual feel unloved and unappreciated.

With the help of an example write the non-verbal triggers of anger.

Solution

Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some real or perceived threat. It is a protective emotion that helps us to defend ourselves against physical or psychological harm.

Triggers of Anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers of anger may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected, or abused (ii) nonverbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated, or rejected. (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

Non-verbal triggers of anger are feelings of being neglected, disregarded, disappointed, unloved, or frequently spurned. It is expressed through gestures such as pointing a finger, shrugging the shoulders; by facial expressions such as sneering, frowning, and also by behaviours such as I groaning/sighing/whining or speaking in a mocking tone.

There are three factors involved in the experience of anger: A trigger (causes of anger) – an individual’s personality – a particular interpretation of that situation

What are the aspects of emotional well being?

Solution

Emotional well-being is innate and not easily observable.

Various aspects of emotional well-being are understanding and managing one’s emotions, encouraging positive emotions, and not getting overwhelmed by the situational negative emotions.


Compare and Contrast :

Happiness and Sadness

Solution

Both happiness and sadness are primary emotions. We experience these emotions from time to time. Happiness is the most positive emotion which is also associated with satisfaction, contentment, and joy while sadness is characterised by feelings like disappointment, grief, shame, and hopelessness.

Happiness is closely associated with our psychological well-being, health, and longevity. On the other hand, prolonged sadness can turn into depression. It is very normal to be sad at times and we can use coping strategies to deal with it

James Lange theory and Cannon Bard’s Theory

Solution

William James and Carl Lange believed that we experience emotions because of our physiological arousal. On the other hand, Walter Cannon and Philip Bard disagreed with James – Lange saying that only physiological arousal will not lead us to experience a particular emotion. This is because we may experience certain physiological arousal but its underneath emotions could be different based upon the situation.

According to James and Lange, we don’t cry because we feel sad but we feel sad because we cry. However, Cannon and Bard explained that we don’t cry only when we are sad but we also cry when we are pleasantly surprised or extremely happy. So, according to them, we experience physiological arousal simultaneously yet separately

Write Short Notes on the following in 50 60 words:

Measures of dealing with Emotional Abuse

Solution

Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression, and psychological trauma to the victim.

The types of emotional abuse may be –

verbal abuse such as blaming, insulting, labeling, threatening, swearing, etc.

non-verbal abuse such as ignoring, rejection, bullying, spying. etc.

The most important technique is to break the silence and stand up for yourself.

Accept that emotional abuse is not because of you, i.e., don’t justify the actions of the abuser.

Respond assertively to the abuser but seek distance from him her.

Give yourself time to heal.

Prioritize your self-care, e.g., eating right, exercise, etc.

Mobilise support from family and friends. If needed, seek professional help

Write Short Notes on the following in 50 60 words:

Plutchiks’s Model of Emotions

Solution.

Plutchik’s stated that there are 8 basic emotions.

He created the wheel of emotions which shows various relationships among the emotions.

The intensity of emotion decreases as we move outward and vice versa.

The colour too indicates the intensity. The darker the shade, the more intense the emotion.

Emotions with no colour depict a combination of two primary emotions.

Plutchik states that we experience complex emotions most of the time.

This model is important from the perspective of emotional literacy.

Plutchik’s model of emotions.

Diagram 

Anger –A Powerful emotion

Solution

Anger is a common emotion that everybody experiences in life from time to time. Anger is a normal response to some threat. It is a protective emotion that helps us to defend ourselves against physical/ psychological harm. However, anger may also be unwanted, irrational, and destructive. When we experience anger, our amygdala goes into action and overrides the cerebral cortex which is in control of thinking and evaluation. Triggers of anger refer to any event that signals the brain to activate the body’s anger system. The triggers may be (i) verbal, for e.g., being blamed, disrespected or abused (ii) non-verbal, for e.g., being ignored unappreciated or rejected. (iii) physical such as physical threats, sexual/ physical assault, etc.

here are three factors involved in the experience of anger: A trigger (causes of anger) – individual’s personality – particular interpretation of that situation. As the experience of anger is subjective, it can be controlled too. If we understand the triggers of anger, we can anticipate potential anger episodes and provide an intentional/ acceptable response such as it may energize us towards solving problems. As anger is a powerful emotion, it must be kept in check to avoid it’s destructive out comes..

Managing Emotions

Solution

Managing emotions is defined as the ability to be open to feelings and modulate them in oneself and others so as to promote personal understanding and growth.

Managing emotions is very much a question of choice.

While many individuals struggle to handle their emotions, few of them are self-aware. The latter are able to manage their emotions well and express their emotions in a healthy manner.

Managing emotions is an art as well as science.

Benefits of Emotional Well being

Solution

Emotional well-being means managing our emotions, both positive and negative ones so that we can lead a healthy and productive life.

Persons who have high emotional well-being experience benefits such as-

(i) better able to deal with stress

(ii) better self-regulation

(iii) increased productivity in tasks undertaken

(iv) increased creativity

(v) life satisfaction due to meaningful activities and relationships.

Coping with stress – It helps to deal with stress using healthy methods such as exercise, social support, etc.

Better self-regulation – It enables the person to label how they feel and accepts negative emotions life fear, anger, etc.

Increases productivity in tasks undertaken – The ability to focus is enhanced, the person feels positive and energized.

Increases creativity – The person indulges in divergent thinking, shows curiosity is open to new experiences.

Life satisfaction -The individual is able to have meaningful interactions and relationships, show empathy, altruism, and engage in activities like volunteer work

Answer the following in 50-60 words:

Using the 3 R model of Anger Management present a case study of your own experience.

Solution

Case: Seema was angry with her parents as they didn’t allow her to go to a late-night party.

The 3 R’s of anger management, Relax, Reassess, and Respond can be applied to the above case in the following way:

Relaxation: Seema listened to music for some time which gave her recovery time to manage her anger and see things with a clear perspective. Otherwise, she would have reacted impulsively.

Reassess: Once her mind was relaxed, Seema thought about the situation in an objective manner. She could assess that her parents didn’t intend to restrict her but they were just worried about her safety.

Respond: After careful evaluation of the situation, she talked to her parents and resolved the conflict. She also called up her friend and explained why she could not attend the party.

How does the brain work when angry?

Solution

When a person experiences and expresses anger, the limbic system is functional and not the cortex.

The data coming in passes through the amygdala; where the decision is made whether to send the data to the limbic system or the cortex.

If the incoming data triggers enough emotional charge, then it is sent to the limbic system, causing the person to react using the lower part of the brain.

On average, it takes 20 minutes for an angry person to calm down.

After having realised you are emotionally abused by your best friend, write the steps you will take to deal with it.

Solution

Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It occurs when one person subjects or exposes another person to intentionally harmful behaviour that may result in anxiety, depression, and psychological trauma.

The types of emotional abuse may be (i) verbal abuse such as blaming, insulting, labeling, threatening, swearing, etc. (ii) non-verbal abuse such as ignoring, rejection, bullying, spying, etc.

Some of the techniques to deal with emotional abuse are –

Accept that emotional abuse is not because of you i.e. don’t justify the actions of the abuser.

Respond assertively to the abuser but seek distance from him/her.

Give yourself time to heal.

Prioritize your self-care, e.g., eating right, exercise, etc.

Mobilise support from family and friends. If needed, seek professional help.

If I realize that I have been emotionally abused by my good friend I will adopt the following steps-

Disengage from the friendship and set personal boundaries

Understand that I am not the cause of abuse and so respond assertively to the abuser

Practice self-care and give me time to heal

If necessary seek guidance from other friends or my family I teachers

Analyse the situations presented below and

a. Write the Emotion/s you experience.

b. What will be your response to this situation?

Anish was scolded by his boss. He came home and in a fit of rage hit his son. You are Anish’s friend who witnessed this outburst.

Solution

I will be very upset and displeased. I will talk to Anish and listen to his situation. I will also make him understand that he used displacement as a defence mechanism and it is morally wrong to do so. Instead, he should take some time to calm himself when such a situation arises in the future.

You helped your friend with study notes during his illness. But when your friend got better he did not respond nor show any sense of appreciation.

Solution.

I will feel disappointment as well as sadness. I will meet the friend and tell him that his lack of courtesy has hurt me.

Though you are a good friend of Anushka, she has not invited you to her new year’s party.

Solution

I will be angry with Anushka. I will be upfront with her. I will explain that being her good friend, I expected her to invite me. I will also give her a chance to explain the reason behind her behaviour. If it is genuine, I will forgive her.

It’s your Birthday and you wake up that morning to find yourself surrounded with beautiful gifts.

Solution

I will obviously feel immense happiness.

You have had a hectic day at college when you come home you find the door locked. You forgot your keys at home that day and your parents have not informed you of their plans.

Solution

I will be frustrated and irritated. Although I would be really upset initially, I will try to calm myself down. I will call my parents and check if they could come home early. I might also call a friend who stays nearby and ask her if I can go to her place

You have planned a surprise day out for your best friend and she tells you she is not interested and has other plans.

Solution

I will be a little sad and disappointed but will accept my friend’s decision sportingly.


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