Economy and Occupations | Aster Classes

Chapter 8, Economy and Occupations, ssc, geography, Maharashtra board,

Read the following graph and answer the questions:

a) Which country’s national income washighest in 2016 and was it how much?

b) Comparing India and Brazil, which country had a higher national income in 1980?

c) Comparing India and Brazil, which country had a higher income in 2016?

d) Tell the difference between the GNP of Brazil and India in 2016.

e) Calculate the difference between the national incomes of developed and developing countries in 2016.

SOLUTION

a. National income is the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during a particular period of time, generally within a year.
In 2016, the national income of the US was the highest.
It was nearly 1900 million US dollars.
b. National income is the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during a particular period of time, generally within a year.
In 1980, Brazil had a higher national income compared to India.
The difference between their incomes is only negligible.
c. National income is the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during a particular period of time, generally within a year.
In 2016, India had a higher national income compared to Brazil.
The national income of India has just crossed 200 million US dollars, while the national income of Brazil is reaching 200 million US dollars.
d. National income is the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during a particular period of time, generally within a year.
In 2016, India had a higher national income compared to Brazil.
The national income of India has just crossed 200 million US dollars, while the national income of Brazil is reaching 200 million US dollars.
e. National income is the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during a particular period of time, generally within a year.
The US is a developed economy while both Brazil and India are developing countries.
There is a huge gap between the national incomes of both developed and developing countries.
In 2016, the US had a national income of nearly 1900 million US dollars, but the national income of India has just crossed 200 million US dollars.
There exists a huge gap between the two amounting to about 1700 million US dollars.

Classify the following activities in by ticking (✓) in the respective column.

Acti
vities
Pri
mary
Secon
dary
Ter
tiary
Television Broadcasting   
Bee-keep
ing
   
coir and Rope making   
Jaggery- making   
Producing blades of the
plough.
   
Construction   
Extracting Iron Ore   
Auto mobile Produ ction   
Rice Produ ction   
Tea ching   
Driving buses   
Pro viding lodging and board ing facili ties   

SOLUTION

Acti
vities
Pri
mary
Secon
dary
Ter
tiary
Tele
vision Broad
casting
  
Bee-kee
ping
  
coir and Rope making  
Jaggery- making  
Producing blades of the
plough.
  
Construction  
Extracting Iron Ore  
Auto
mobile Production
  
Rice Production  
Teach
ing
  
Driving buses  
Provid
ing lodging and
board
ing
faci
lities
  

Which type of occupations gives a boost to the development of a country’s economy?

SOLUTION

Economic development occurs when the national income and per capita income of the county rises.

The rise in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is due to the increasing economic activities.

But a boost in the national income would be with the improvement of the secondary and tertiary sector.

The history of all the developed countries shows that their development is by the improvement of both the secondary and the tertiary sector.

The primary sector will contribute to the development of the country only in the initial stages.

Only with the transition to the secondary sectors like manufacturing and the service sector the economy can achieve growth.

To achieve economic development, the economy would have to provide basic necessities to the people and improve their standard of living.

The following images are related to agricultural activities.

Identify and write whether they are practiced in Brazil or India.

SOLUTION

The first images depict the coffee plantations.

This is practised in both India and Brazil.

Brazil is the world’s largest producer of coffee seeds.

India is also ranked in the 7th position in the production and export of coffee beans.

Coffee is a tropical plant that grows in the hot and humid regions.

It is generally cultivated on the hill slopes.

In Brazil, it is produced mainly in the southeastern states of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Parana and other places.

In India, it is mainly produced in the southern states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. 

The second image depicts tea gardens. This is majorly found in India.

India is the 2nd largest producer of tea leaves in the world. The production of tea is negligible in Brazil.

Tea is an important cash crop grown both in the tropical and the sub-tropical regions.

A hot, humid and moist condition is required for the excellent growth of the crop.

It requires a temperature of 21 ̊ and an average rainfall of 150 cm.

Since the shrub requires a cooler, rainy and tropical climate for its growth, it is majorly cultivated in the hilly regions.

It gives the best yield in the well-drained fertile soil that is rich in nutrients.

In India, it is mainly cultivated in the north-eastern states of Assam, Sikkim, Nagaland, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and the hilly regions of the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

The third image depicts slash and burn cultivation.

It is also called shifting cultivation whereby a piece of land is cultivated for a period of time until its fertility is depleted.

The initial land is abandoned and another land area cleared is set on fire to make it the next cultivation spot.

This is mainly found in the African and South American countries like Brazil.

Earlier this was practised in India too, but now it is not common in the country.

The fourth image depicts the cultivation of paddy.

It is found in both Brazil and India.

Rice is the staple diet crop especially for the regions surrounding the tropical areas of the world.

A hot, humid and moist condition is required for the excellent growth of the crop.

It gives the best yield in the alluvial soil that has rich nutrients because of the deposition by the flow of rivers and water bodies over time.

It results in the formation of river beds and ensures the development of smooth and fertile soil ideal for cultivation.

In Brazil, it is produced mainly in the southern states of Santa Catarina and the Rio Grande do Sul.

In India, rice is mainly produced in the states falling in the alluvial best of the Ganga-Brahmaputra river basin and the southern states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.


With the help of the pie chart given in fig tell what is the contribution of secondary activities in Brazil’s GDP?

SOLUTION

National income is the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during a particular period of time, generally within a year.

A boost in the national income would be with the improvement of the secondary and tertiary sector.

The history of all the developed countries shows that their development is by the improvement of both the secondary and the tertiary sector.

The manufacturing industry in Brazil is contributing nearly 27.5% in the GDP.


Read the adjoining table and answer the following questions.

a) What is balance of trade?

b) Tell the types of balance of trades.

c)  In which country export exceeds import in all the years?

d)  Brazil’s balance of trade belong to which type?

e)  India ‘s balance of trade belong to which type?

SOLUTION

a. The balance of trade is the difference between export and import between a given period of time.

It is an important component of the Balance of Payment.

It measures the economic strength of the country’s economy

The balance of Trade = ExportImport


b. The balance of trade is the difference between export and import between a given period of time.

The balance of trade can be of three types:

Favourable balance/Surplus: It is the situation where exports are greater than imports. It is always good for a country to maintain a favourable BOT.

Unfavourable balance/Deficit: It is the situation where imports are greater than exports. For every developing country, the BOT would be largely unfavourable with imports greater than exports.

Equilibrium balance: It is the situation where imports are equal to exports. It is very difficult for any country to maintain equilibrium in BOT.


c. Exports exceed imports in all the years in Brazil.

Brazil is always maintaining a favourable BOT where exports are greater than imports.

It is always good for a country to maintain a favourable BOT.


d. Brazil’s BOT belongs to the favourable balance/surplus BOT category.

It is the situation where exports are greater than imports.

It is always good for a country to maintain a favourable BOT.


e. India’s BOT belongs to the unfavourable balance/deficit category.

It is the situation where imports are greater than exports.

For every developing country, the BOT would be largely unfavourable with imports greater than exports.


Fill in the blank with appropriate word.

1. India’s per capita income is less than Brazil due to ____________.

  1. Low national income
  2. Massive Population
  3. Big family size
  4. Low foodgrain production

2.The economy of Brazil is mainly dependent on the ——————–activities there.

  1. Primary
  2. Secondary
  3. Tertiary
  4. Quaternary

3.The economies of India and Brazil are of the —————— type.

  1. Undeveloped
  2. Developed
  3. Developing
  4. Highly developed 

Answer the following question.

1.Why has mining not developed in the western part of Brazil?

SOLUTION

Brazil is rich in many natural resources like manganese, bauxite, iron ore and coal that contributes largely to its national income.

Majority of mining activities is carried out in the eastern part of Brazil.

It is highly limited in the western and interior parts because of the dense, impenetrable forests in the Amazon basin.

The resources in these parts are highly inaccessible, and knowledge about them is limited.

Thus, inaccessibility and lack of knowledge due to forest cover and river basins are the main reasons why resources in the western parts are not highly exploited.

2.What are the similarities and differences in the fishing activities in Brazil and India.

SOLUTION

Fishing is one of the important economic activities carried out by people both in India and Brazil. The technique and the geographical features have both similarities and differences.

Similarities:

BASISINDIABRAZIL
Coastline India has 7500 km of coastline and has a very productive fishing ground.Brazil has 7400 km of coastline and fishing ground very productive.
Nature of fishingFishing is done in both inland waters and the coastal sea.Both fresh water fishing in the amazon river and oceanic fishing is practiced.
DietFish is an important diet of the people especially in kerela,west bengal and goa.Most of the people consume fresh fish in their diet.

Differences:

BASISINDIABRAZIL
Types of catchSardines, Bombay duck, mackerel, prawns and elupieds are some of the common types of fish found.swordfish, shrimps, lobsters and  pirarucu are some of the main fishes found.
Types of fishing pracrticesMostly commercialised fishing is practiced with some degree of traditional methods.Mostly primitive and traditional methods are used.
ExploitationThe fsisheries are one of the highly exploited ares and lead to endangering of many species.The fish resources are not much exploited.

Give reason.

1.Per capita land availability is more in Brazil as compared to India.

SOLUTION

Per capita land availability is the total land available per person in the country.

It can be calculated as total land area/total population.

The per capita land availability in Brazil is higher than that of India.

It is because of two reasons.

The total land area of Brazil is larger than the total land area of India.

Brazil is the fifth largest county in the world while India is the seventh largest country.

But the population in India is much higher than that of Brazil.

India is the second most populous country in the world while Brazil is in the fifth most populous country.

The higher land area and the lesser population is the reason why the per capita land availability is more in Brazil.

2.There is mixed economy in Brazil and India.

SOLUTION

A mixed economy is characterised by the co-existence of both private sector and public sector.

Government and the private sector work together in the economy.

In such systems, the government controls the working of the economy, but private sectors can function freely under these restrictions.

The mixed economic system is the most popular economic model in current times.

Study the following graph and analyse in short.

SOLUTION

The graph depicts the contribution of each sector to the national income and the percentage of the population engaged in the respective sectors.

The contribution of the primary sector to national income in both India and Brazil is very less.

It is nearly 10% in Brazil and 20% in India.

But the percentage of population engaged depicts stark differences.

In India, nearly 60% of the population is engaged in the primary sector while only 10% of Brazil’s population work in the primary sector.

The contribution of the 60% is limited only to nearly 20%.

This is an important reason for the backwardness of the Indian economy.

The contribution of the industrial sector is relatively the same in both the counties.

It is nearly 20% in both the economies.

The percentage of population engaged is also similar.

The tertiary sector is the main contributor to growth in both countries.

It contributes to nearly 60% to the national income in India and 70% in Brazil.

But the percentage of the population engaged in this sector is different in both countries.

In India, only 30% of the population is engaged in the sector while it is nearly 70% in Brazil.

Thus tertiary sector is the leader of growth in both countries.

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