Climate | Aster Classes

Tamilnadu, Samacheer Kalvi, 10th, Social Science, Solutions, Geography, Chapter 2, Climate, and, Natural Vegetation of India,

Question 1.
Meteorology is the science of:
(a) Weather
(b) Social
(c) Political
(d) Human
Answer:
(a) Weather

Question 2.
We wear cotton during ……….
(a) Summer
(b) Winter
(c) Rainy
(d) Northeast monsoon
Answer:
(a) Summer

Question 3.
Western disturbances cause rainfall in:
(a) Tamilnadu
(b) Kerala
(c) Punjab
(d) Madhya Pradesh
Answer:
(c) Punjab

Question 4.
………. helps in quick ripening of mangoes along the coast of Kerala and Karnataka.
(a) Loo
(b) Norwester
(c) Mango showers
(d) Jet stream
Answer:
(c) Mango showers

Question 5.
……………. is a line joining the places of equal rainfall.
(a) Isohyets
(b) Isobar
(c) Isotherm
(d) Latitudes
Answer:
(a) Isohyets

Question 6.
The climate of India is labelled as ………
(a) Tropical humid
(b) Equatorial Climate
(c) Tropical Monsoon Climate
(d) Temperate Climate
Answer:
(c) Tropical Monsoon Climate

Question 7.
The monsoon forests are otherwise called as
(a) Tropical evergreen forest
(b) Deciduous forest
(c) Mangrove forest
(d) Mountain forest
Answer:
(b) Deciduous forest

Question 8.
……. forests are found above 2400 m Himalayas.
(a) Deciduous forests
(b) Alpine forests
(c) Mangrove forests
(d) Tidal forests
Answer:
(b) Alpine forests

Question 9.
Sesahachalam hills, a Biosphere reserve is situated in
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Andhra Pradesh
(c) Madhya Pradesh
(d) Karnataka
Answer:
(b) Andhra Pradesh

Question 10.
………… is a part of the world network biosphere reserves of UNESCO .
(a) Nilgiri
(b) Agasthiyamalai
(c) Great Nicobar
(d) Kachch
Answer:
(a) Nilgiri


II. Match the following


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Geography Chapter 2 Climate and Natural Vegetation of India 1

Answer:
A. (iv)
B. (v)
C. (ii)
D. (i)
E. (iii)


III. Consider the given statements and choose the correct option from the given below ones.

Question 1.
Assertion(A): Monsoons are a complex meteorological phenomenon. Reason(R): Meteorologists have developed a number of concepts about the origin of monsoons.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true: R explains A
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true: R does not explain A.
(c) (A) is correct (R) is false
(d) (A) is false (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true: R explains A

Question 2.
Assertion(A): The Himalayas acts as a climatic barrier.
Reason(R): The Himalayas prevents cold winds from central Asia and keep the Indian Sub-continent warm.(Give option for this questions)
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true: R explains A
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true: R does not explain A.
(c) (A) is correct (R) is false
(d) (A) is false (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true: R explains A


IV. Choose the inappropriate answer

Question 1.
Tidal forests are found in and around ……..
(a) Desert
(b) The deltas of Ganga and Brahmaputra
(c) The delta of Godavari
(d) The delta of Mahanadhi
Answer:
(a) Desert

Question 2.
Climate of India is affected by:
(a) Latitudinal extent
(b) Altitude
(c) Distance from the sea
(d) Soil
Answer:
(d) Soil


V. Answer briefly

Question 1.
Define ‘Meteorology’.
Answer:
The branch of science concerned with the processes and phenomena of the atmosphere, especially as a means of forecasting the weather.

Question 2.
What is meant by ‘normal lapse rate’?
Answer:
Temperature decreases when the altitude increases .Normal Lapse rate is a phenomenon in which temperature decreases at the rate of 6.5°C for every 1000mts of ascent. Hence places in the mountains are cooler than the places on the plain.

Question 3.
What are ‘jet streams’?
Answer:
In the upper layers of the atmosphere, there are strong westerly winds concentrated in a relatively narrow and shallow stream known as “Jet streams” They cause heavy rainfall in North-west India.

Question 4.
Write a short note on ‘Monsoon wind’.
Answer:

  1. The Word ‘Monsoon’ is derived from the Arabic word “Mausim” which means season.
  2. Monsoons are a complex meteorological phenomenon .
  3. These winds originates due to the seasonal migration of planetary winds and pressure belts following the position of the sun.
  4. During summer they blow from South west to North east ( South West monsoon) June-September and from the North east to South west (North East monsoon) October and November.

Question 5.
Name the four distinct seasons of India.
Answer:

  1. Winter or cold weather season (Jan-Feb)
  2. Pre Monsoon or Summer (March-May)
  3. Southwest Monsoon or rainy season (June-September)
  4. Northeast Monsoon season (October-December)

Question 6.
What is ‘burst of monsoon’?
Answer:

  1. Prior to the onset of the Southwest monsoon the temperature in North India reaches up to 46°C.
  2. The sudden approach of monsoon wind over South India with lightning and thunder is termed as the “break or burst of monsoon”.

Question 7.
Name the areas which receive heavy rainfall.
Answer:

  1. Middle Ganga Valley
  2. Western Ghats
  3. Eastern Maharashtra
  4. Madhya Pradesh and Odisha

Question 8.
State places of mangrove forest in India.
Answer:

  1. Mangrove forests occur in and around the deltas, estuaries and creeks prone to tidal influences.
  2. In India they are found in deltas of Ganga, Brahmaputra (largest), the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna rivers.

Question 9.
Name the trees of tropical evergreen forest.
Answer:
The most important trees are rubber, mahogany, ebony, rosewood, coconut, bamboo, cinchona, candes, palm, iron wood and cedar.

Question 10.
Write any five Biosphere Reserves in India.
Answer:

  1. Biosphere Reserves are the protected areas of land coastal environments where in people are an integral component of the system.
  2. The Indian Government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves. Gulf of Mannar Nilgiris, Agasthiamalai, Kanjanjunga, Great Nicobar etc.

Question 11.
What is ‘Project Tiger’?
Answer:
Project Tiger was launched in April 1973 with the aim to conserve tiger population in specifically constituted “Tiger Reserves” in India. This project is benefited tremendously, with an increase of over 60% – the 1979 consensus put the population at 3,015.


VI. Distinguish between

Question 1.
Weather and Climate.
Answer:
Weather:

  1. State of the atmosphere of a place at a given point of time.
  2. Weather changes occur daily.
  3. Temperature, wind pressure, humidity duration of sunlight and rainfall decides the weather.

Climate:

  1. Accumulation of daily and seasonal weather events of a given location over a period of time.
  2. It is an average of weather condition over a period of 30-35 years.
  3. Climate of a place is determined by Latitude, altitude, distance from the seas, relief features etc.

Question 2.
Tropical Evergreen Forest and Deciduous Forest.
Answer:
Tropical Evergreen forest:

  1. These forests are found in the areas where the annual rainfall is 200 cm and more.
  2. The tress of these forests do not shed their leaves.
  3. Rubber, iron wood, Mahogony are some of the main trees.

Deciduous Forest:

  1. These forests are found in the areas with 100 to 200cm annual rainfall.
  2. The trees of these forests shed their leaves in spring and early summer.
  3. Sandalwood, teak, sal, padak are some of the main trees.

Question 3.
North East Monsoon and South West Monsoon.
Answer:
North East Monsoon:

  1. These monsoon winds blow from North-east to South west.
  2. They blow during the month of October-November.
  3. TamilNadu and Andhra Pradesh gets rainfall from this monsoon.

South West Monsoon:

  1. These monsoon winds blow from South west towards North east.
  2. They blow during the month of June-September.
  3. 75% of India’s rainfall is from this monsoon winds.

VII. Give reasons for the following topics

Question 1.
Western Coastal plain is narrow.
Answer:
It lies between the Western Ghats and Arabian Sea.
It is a narrow plain, which stretches from Gujarat to Kerala with an average width of 50 – 80 km. It is mainly characterised by sandy beaches, coastal sand, dunes, mud flats, lagoons, estuary, laterite platforms and residual hills.

Question 2.
India has a tropical monsoon climate.
Answer:
Latitudinally India lies between 8°4′ N and 37°6’N latitudes. Tropic of Cancer (23° 30’N) divides the country into two equal halves . Most parts of the country’ lie in the Tropical Zone and receives rainfall from monsoon winds which is the dominating climatic factor. Hence India has Tropical monsoon climate.

Question 3.
Mountains are cooler than the plains.
Answer:
When the altitude increases, the temperature decreases. Temperature decreases at the rate of 6.5°C for every 1000 metres of ascent. Hence, places in the mountains are cooler than the places on the plains. That is why the places located at higher altitudes even in South India have cool climate. Ooty and several other hill stations of South India and of the Himalayan ranges like Mussoorie, Shimla, etc., are much cooler than the places located on the Great Plains.


VIII. Write in detail

Question 1.
Write about South West Monsoon.
Answer:

  1. Southwest monsoon season is also known as the rainy season in India.
  2. The onset of Southwest monsoon season takes place over the southern tip of the country’ by the first week of June, advances along the Konkon coast in early June and covers the whole country by 15th July.
  3. Jet stream and ELNino are the two factors that determine the occurrence of Southwest monsoon.
  4. Due to the high temperature over north India creates a low-pressure trough which draws the moisture-laden winds from the Indian Ocean towards the Indian landmass.
  5. The sudden approach of monsoon wind over south India with ‘ lightning and the thunder indicates the onset of south-west monsoon.
    This is also known as “break or burst of monsoon”.
  6. The monsoon winds strike against the southern tip of the Indian landmass and get divided into two branches.
    • (a) Arabian sea branch (of Southwest monsoon)
    • (b) The Bay of Bengal branch (of Southwest monsoon)

(a) Arabian sea branch of South west monsoon:

  • The Arabian sea branch of south west monsoon gives heavy rainfall to the west coast of India as it is located in the wind wards side of the Western Ghats.
  • The other part which advances towards north strikes against the Himalayan mountains results in heavy rainfall in north.

As Aravalli mountains lie parallel to the wind direction. Rajasthan and the western parts do not get much rainfall.

(b) Bay of Bengal branch of south west monsoon:

  • The Wind from Bay of Bengal moves towards north east India and Myanmar.
  • This wind is trapped by Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills and gives the heaviest rainfall to Meghalaya (at Mawsynram).
  • This wind gets deflected towards west.
  • When the wind moves from east to west rainfall decreases as it looses its moisture.
  • Tamil Nadu receives only a meager rainfall as the state is located on the leeward side.

About 75% of India’s rainfall is from the south west monsoon.

Question 2.
Describe the forests of India.
Answer:
Natural Vegetation refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid
and has been left undisturbed by human for a long time.

Tropical Evergreen Forest:
These forests are found in areas with 200 cm or more annual rainfall.The annual temperature is about more than 22°C and the average annual humidity exceeds 70 percent in this region. Western Ghats in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Assam, West Bengal, Nagaland, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur and Meghalaya states have this type of forests. The most important trees are rubber, mahogany, ebony, rosewood, coconut, bamboo, cinchona, candes, palm, iron wood and cedar.

Tropical Deciduous Forest:
It covers a large area of the Peninsula and northern India, where the rainfall is from 100 to 200 m. These trees of the forests shed their leaves for a few weeks in early summer. The main trees are teak, Sandalwood, deodars, sisam, sal and redwood.

Tropical Dry Forest:
These are found in the areas with 50 to 100 cm. annual rainfall.They represent a transitional type of forests. These are found in east Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Eastern Maharashtra, Telangana, West Karnataka and East Tamilnadu. The important species are mahua, banyan, amaltas, palas, haldu, kikar, bamboo, babool, khair etc.,

Mountain or Montane Forest:
These forests are classified on the basis of altitude and amount of rainfall. Accordingly two different types of forests namely Eastern Himalayas Forests and Western Himalayas Forests. Eastern Himalayan Forest: These are found on the slopes of the mountains in north-east states. They receive rainfall of more than 200 cm. The vegetation is of evergreen type. Sal, oak, laurel, amura, chestnut, cinnamon are the main trees from 1200 to 2400 m altitude oak, birch, silver, fir, fine, spruce and juniper are the major trees from 2400 to 3600 m height. Western Himalayan Forest: The rainfall of this region is moderate. They are found n the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. In altitude from 900 to 1800 m, chir tree is the most common tree. The other important trees of this region are sal, semal, dhak, jamun and jujube.

Alpine Forest:
It occurs all along the Himalayas with above 2400 m altitude. These are purely having coniferous trees. Oak, silver fir, pine and juniper are the main trees of these forests. The eastern parts of Himalayas has large extent of these forests.

Tidel Forest:
These forests occur in and around the deltas, estuaries and creeks prone to tidal influences and as such are also known as delta or swamp forests. The delta of the Ganga-Brahmaputra has the largest tidal forest. The deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna rivers are also known for tidal forests. These are also known as mangrove forest.

Coastal Forest:
These are littoral forests. Generally, coastal areas have these types of forests. Casurina, palm and coconut are the dominant trees. Both the eastern and western coasts have this type of forests.

Riverine Forest:
These forests are found along the rivers on Khadar areas. These are known for tamarisk and tamarind trees. The rivers of Great Plains are more prominent for this type of natural vegetation.

Question 3.
Write the names of biosphere reserves and their location in India.
Answer:
The Indian Government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves which protect larger areas of natural habitat and often include one or more national parks along with the buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.

Biosphere ReservesState
Achanakmar-AmarkantakMadhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh
AgasthyamalaiKerala
Dibru SaikhowaAssam
Dihang DibangArunachal Pradesh
Great NicobarAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Gulf of MannarTamil Nadu
KachchGujarat
KanchenjungaSikkim
ManasAssam
Nanda DeviUttarakhand
The NilgirisTamil Nadu
NokrekMeghalaya
PachmarhiMadhya Pradesh
SimlipalOdisha
SundarbansWest Bengal
Cold desertHimachal Pradesh
Sesahachalam hillsAndhra Pradesh
PannaMadhya Pradesh

IX. Map

Mark the following on the outline map of India.

Question 1.
Direction of South West Monsoon wind.
Answer:

Question 2.
Direction of North East Monsoon wind.
Answer:

Question 5.
Panna biosphere reserve
Answer:

Question 6.
Agasthiyamalai biosphere reserve
Answer:


TB. PNo: 99 

Find Out

Question 1.
Find out the temperature of Ooty (2240m). If it is 35°C in Chennai (6.7 m).
Answer:
For every 1000 mt altitude temperature decreases by 6.5°C . So the temperature of Ooty is nearly 15°C.

TB. PNo: 102
HOTS

Question 1.
Why is Mawsynram, the wettest place in the world?
Answer:
Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the highest rainfall (1141 cm) in the world. Almost daily it rains. Thus make this place a swampy and the wettest due to very dense vegetation.



Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Climate and Natural Vegetation of India Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
The most dominant factor which affects the climate of India is:
(a) Relief
(b) Monsoon winds
(c) Temperature
(d) Soil
Answer:
(b) Monsoon winds

Question 2.
The Local storms in the north eastern part of India during the weather seasons are called
(a) Loo
(b) Norwesters
(c) Mangoshowers
Answer:
(a) Loo

Question 3.
Seventy-five percentage of Indian rainfall is from this wind:
(a) Western Disturbance
(b) North East monsoon
(c) Norwesters
(d) South West monsoon
Answer:
(d) South West monsoon

Question 4.
The mountain which stands parallel to the direction of the south-west monsoon wind ….
(a) Vindhya
(b) Aravalli
(c) Satpura
Answer:
(b) Aravalli

Question 5.
The ……………. forests are found in the region where the rainfall is 200 cm and above.
(a) Tropical evergreen
(b) Tidal
(c) Tropical deciduous
(d) Alpine
Answer:
(a) Tropical evergreen

Question 6.
……… experience continental climate.
(a) Chennai
(b) Mumbai
(c) Delhi
Answer:
(c) Delhi

Question 7.
The term ……………. includes animals of any habitat in nature.
(a) Mammals
(b) Forests
(c) Insects
(d) Wild life
Answer:
(d) Wild life

Question 8.
In India, 85% of the rain is received from the ……….
(a) North-east
(b) South-west
(c) South-east
Answer:
(b) South-west

Question 9.
In the year ……………. United nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognizes the sovereign rights of the states to use their own Biological Resources.
(a) 1992
(b) 1982
(c) 1979
(d) 1929
Answer:
(a) 1992

Question 10.
The ……… prevents the cold polar winds blowing from Central Asia.
(a) Aravalli Hills
(b) Bay of Bengal
(c) Himalayas
Answer:
(c) Himalayas

Question 11.
The highest rainfall region in India is located in this state:
(a) Assam
(b) Bihar
(c) Meghalaya
(d) Manipur
Answer:
(c) Meghalaya

Question 12.
There is a peculiar uniformity in the climate of India due to its unique ……..
(a) Geography
(b) Physiography
(c) Demography
Answer:
(b) Physiography


II. Match the following

Question 1.
Match the Column I with Column II.
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Geography Chapter 2 Climate and Natural Vegetation of India 9
Answer:
A. (iii)
B. (i)
C. (v)
D. (ii)
E. (iv)

Question 2.
Match the Column I with Column II.
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Geography Chapter 2 Climate and Natural Vegetation of India 10
Answer:
A. (vi)
B. (iii)
C. (v)
D. (ii)
E. (iv)
F. (i)

Question 3.
Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:
A. (v)
B. (i)
C. (ii)
D. (vi)
E. (iv)
F. (iii)


III. Consider the given statements and choose the correct option from the given below ones

Question 1.
Assertion(A): Peninsular India enjoys equable climate.
Reason(R): The peninsular region is surrounded by the seas on three sides, not very far from the sea.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true: R explains A
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true: R does not explain A
(c) (A) is correct (R) is false
(d) (A) is false (R) is true
Answer:
(c) (A) is correct (R) is false

Question 2.
Assertion(A): Two different types-of mountain forests are in India namely Eastern Himalayan forests and Western Himalayan forests.
Reason(R): Mountain forests are classified on the basis of altitude and amount of Rainfall.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true: R explains A
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true: R does not explain A
(c) (A) is correct (R) is false
(d) (A) is false (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true: R does not explain A

Question 3.
Assertion(A): Systematic change in the direction of planetary winds is known as monsoons.
Reason(R): Monsoon winds originates due to the seasonal migration of planetary winds and pressure belts following the position of the Sun.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true: R explains A
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true: R does not explain A
(c) (A) is correct (R) is false
(d) (A) is false (R) is true
Answer:
(c) (A) is correct (R) is false

Question 4.
Assertion(A): Rajasthan remains as desert.
Reason(R): As Aravalli mountain is located parallel to the Arabian Sea branch South west Monsoon winds the western part (Rajasthan) do not receive much rainfall. To the Bay of Bengal Branch of South west Monsoon wind it is located on the leeward side.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true: R explains A
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true: R does not explain A
(c) (A) is correct (R) is false
(d) (A) is false (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true: R explains A


IV. Choose the inappropriate answer

Question 1.
The pre-monsoon showers are known as mango showers in:
(a) Kerala and Karnataka
(b) Punjab and Haryana
(c) Hot weather season
(d) Helps quick ripening of mangoes
Answer:
(b) Punjab and Haryana

Question 2.
Tropical deciduous forests trees are of economic importance:
(a) Have valuable trees like teak, sal.
(b) To make fragnant oil, varnish, perfumes.
(c) Do not shed their leaves.
(d) Found in rainfall areas of 100 to 200 cm.
Answer:
(c) Do not shed their leaves.

Question 3.
Tidal forests are also known as swamp or delta forests.
(a) These forests are not prone to tidal waves.
(b) Known as mangrove forests.
(c) Occur in and around deltas, estuaries.
(d) Prone to tidal influences.
Answer:
(a) These forests are not prone to tidal waves.

Question 4.
Biosphere Reserves are protected areas of coastal and land environment.
(a) Indian Government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves.
(b) Do not protect areas of natural habitat.
(c) People are an integral component of the system.
(d) One or more National parks preserves along with buffer zone.
Answer:
(b) Do not protect areas of natural habitat.


V. Answer briefly

Question 1.
Name the classification of Natural vegetation.
Answer:
Natural Vegetation can be classified as:

  1. Tropical Evergreen forests
  2. Tropical deciduous forests
  3. Tropical dry forests
  4. Desert and semi-desert
  5. Mountain forests
  6. Alpine forests and
  7. Tidal forests

Question 2.
Name the factors affecting the climate of India.
Answer:
Climate of India is affected by the factors of latitude, distance from the seas, Monsoon wind, relief features and jet stream.

Question 3.
The climate and weather conditions in India are governed by the three-atmosphere conditions. Name them.
Answer:

  1. The Pressure and Surface winds.
  2. Upper air Circulation
  3. Western cyclonic disturbances and tropical conditions

Question 4.
What is ElNino? How does it affect the climate of India?
Answer:
ElNino is a complex global phenomena of weather that appears once eveiy five to ten years. It is a cause for the delay of onset of the southwest monsoon in India.

Question 5.
What is the Characteristic features of monsoon rains in India?
Answer:

  1. The Monsoon rains are pulsating in nature
  2. They can cause heavy rainfall in one part and drought in the other.
  3. They are known for their uncertainties.

Question 6.
What is the role of Jet stream regarding the climate of India?
Answer:

  1. The arrival and departure of monsoon winds is determined by Jet stream.
  2. Cause tropical depressions both during South west monsoon and North east monsoon.
  3. Plays a vital role in bringing western disturbances to India there by helping winter wheat cultivation.

Question 7.
What values are associated with the monsoon in India?
Answer:

  • Monsoon acts as unifying bond for India.
  • The unifying influence of the monsoon on the Indian Subcontinent is quite perceptible.
  • The Seasonal alteration of the wind systems and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons.
  • The Indian landscape, its animal and plant life, its entire agricultural calender and the life of the people, including their festivities, revolve around this phenomenon.
  • Year after year, people of India from North to South and from east to west, eagerly await the arrival of the monsoon. These monsoon winds binds the whole country by providing water to set the agricultural activities in motion.
  • The rivers valleys which carry this water also unite as a single river valley unit.

Question 8.
Give a brief note on the Indian Board for Wild life:
Answer:

  1. The Indian Board for wild life was constituted in 1952 to suggest means of protection, conservation and management of wild life to the Government of India.
  2. The Government of India enacted wild life (protection) Act in 1972 with the objective of effectively protecting the wild life.

Question 9.
Explain the steps taken to conserve wildlife.
Answer:
The Wild Life Act Of India protects and conserves this grest heritage of nation. The first weak of October is observed as Wild life Week Of India.

Question 10.
Give the Full form of these abbreviations.

  1. IBWL
  2. CBD
  3. ITCZ

Answer:

  1. IBWL : Indian Board for Wild Life.
  2. CBD: Convention on Biological Diversity.
  3. ITCZ : Inter Tropical Convergence Zone.

Question 11.
Why does the coromandal coast face frequent cyclones?
Answer:
The north east monsoon winds by crossing the Bay of Bengal absorbs moisture and gives heavy rain to the coromandal coast. These are frequent cyclones formed in the Bay of Bengal and they cause heavy damage to life and property along the coromandal coast.

Question 12.
Give a brief description of the Mangrove forests.
Answer:

  • The mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides. Hence, mangroves are the common varities with roots of the plants submerged under water. The deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavari and the Kaveri are covered by such vegetation. In the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta sundari trees are found which provides durable hard timber.
  • Palm, coconut, Keora agar also grow in some parts of the delta.
  • Royal Bengal Tiger is the famous animal in these forests. Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found in these forests.

VI. Distinguish between

Question 1.
Winter/Cold weather and Summer/Hot weather season.
Solution:
Winter or Cold weather season:

  1. In India,winter weather period is January-February.
  2. The mean temperature increases from North to South.
  3. Western Disturbances occurs in this season.
  4. Generally fine weather and low tempertaure.

Summer or Hot weather season:

  1. The summer season is from March- May.
  2. The mean tempertaure increases from South to North.
  3. Mango showers, Norwesters or Kalbaisakhi occurs in this season.
  4. Generally hot and dry weather.

Question 2.
Heavy rainfall and less/low rainfall region.
Answer:
Heavy rainfall region:

  1. These areas get annual rainfall of 200 cms and above.
  2. Western coast, Assam, South Meghalaya are heavy rainfall areas.

Less or low rainfall region:

  1. These areas get annual rainfall less than 100 cms.
  2. Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Western and South western parts of Uttar Pradesh, plateau region gets less rainfall.

Question 3.
Windward side and Leeward side.
Answer:
Windward side:

  1. The slope of the mountain that lie on the path of rain bearing winds.
  2. The windward side gets more rainfall.
  3. Western slopes of Western Ghats – West coastal plains.

Leeward side:

  1. The slope of the mountain that do not face the rain bearing winds.
  2. The Leeward side gets less or no rainfall.
  3. Eastern slopes of Western Ghats – Deccan Plateau.

Question 4.
Eastern and Western Himalayan forests.
Answer:
Eastern Himalayan forests:

  1. The vegetation of this forest is’ evergreen as these forests receive more than 200cm rainfall.
  2. Pine, Sal Fir, Oak, Laurel are some of the main trees of these forests.
  3. These forests are found in the North Eastern states.

Western Himlayan forests:

  1. The rainfall of this region is moderate and have varied vegetation regards to altitude.
  2. Upto 900m altitude semi desert vegetation from 900m – 1800m chir tree and sal, at 1800m conifer trees.
  3. These forests are found in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and UttaraKhand.

VII. Give reasons for the following topics

Question 1.
Kolkatta receives more rainfall than Bikaner in Rajasthan.
Answer:
Air near the coast has more moisture and greater potential to produce precipitation. Due to this fact Kolkatta near the coast receives more rainfall (119cm) than Bikaner (24cm) which is located in the interior part.

Question 2.
In India Conservation and management of Biodiversity is necessary why?
Answer:
Hunting, Poaching, deforestation and encroachments in the natural habitats have caused extinction of some species and many are in the danger of extinction. The role of wild life in maintaining the ecological balance made it necessary for conservation and management of Biodiversity.

Question 3.
Relief of India has a great bearing on climate.
Answer:
The elements of climate such as temperature, atmospheric pressure, direction of winds and the amount of rainfall are affected by the presence of relief features as they act as a climatic barrier like the Himalayas and Western Ghats.


VIII. Write in detail

Question 1.
What are the major determinants of climate of a place? Explain them.
Answer:
The major determinants of climate of a place are,

  1. Latitude
  2. Altitude
  3. Distance from the seas
  4. Monsoon winds
  5. Relief features (Mountains)
  6. Jet Streams

1. Latitude:
Latitudinally, India lies between 8°4’N and 37°6’N latitudes. The Tropic of cancer divides the country into two equal halves. The area located to the south of Tropic of cancer experiences high temperature and no severe cold season throughout the year whereas, the areas to the north of this parallel enjoys subtropical climate. Here, summer temperature may rise above 40°C and it is close to freezing point during winter.

2. Altitude:
As one goes from the surface of the earth to higher altitudes, the atmosphere becomes less dense and temperature decreases. The hills are therefore cooler during summer.

3. Distance from the seas:
Distance from the sea does not cause only temperature and pressure variations but also affects the amount of rainfall. As the distance from the sea increased its moderating influence decreases and the people experience extreme weather conditions. This condition is known as continentality.(i.e.) Very hot during summers and very cold during winter.

4. Monsoon winds:
The most dominant factor which affects the climate of India is the monsoon winds. These are seasonal reversal winds and India remains in the influence of these winds for a considerable part of a year. Though, the sun’s rays are vertical over the central part of India during the mid-June, the summer season ends in India by the end of May. It is because the onset of southwest monsoon brings down the temperature of the entire India and causes moderate to heavy rainfall in many parts of the country. Similarly, the climate of southeast India is also influenced by northeast monsoon.

5. Relief features (Mountains):
Relief of India has a great bearing on major elements of climate such as temperature, atmospheric pressure, direction of winds and the amount of rainfall. High mountains act as barriers for cold or hot winds; they may also cause precipitation if they are high enough and lie in the path of rain-bearing winds. The leeward side of mountains remains dry.

6. Jet Streams:
Jet streams are the fast moving winds blowing in a narrow zone in the upper atmosphere. According to the Jet stream theory, the onset of southwest monsoon is driven by the shift of the sub tropical westerly jet from the plains of India towards the Tibetan plateau. The easterly jet streams cause tropical depressions both during southwest monsoon and retreating monsoon.

Question 2.
Write about the factors that affect the climate of India.
Answer:
Climate of India is affected by the factors of latitude, altitude, distance from the seas, monsoon winds and jet streams.

Latitude:

  1. Latitudinally India is located in the Tropical belt between 8°4’N and 37°6’N latitudes.
  2. The tropic of cancer divides the country into two equal halves.
  3. This enables the places south of Tropic of cancer (23°30’N) to experience high temperature and no severe cold.
  4. The places north of Tropic of cancer enjoy sub tropical climate.

Altitude:

  1. When the altitude increases, temperature decreases as per the phenomena. “Normal Lapse rate”. For every 1000 mts of ascent the temperature decreases at the rate of 6.5°C.
  2. Hence the places in the mountains are cooler than the places on the plains.
  3. Even in South India places at higher altitude have cool climate.

Distance from the sea:

  1. Distance from the sea not only causes temperature and pressure variations but also affects the amount of rainfall.
  2. The entire area of peninsular region as it is surrounded by seas on three sides having the temperature equable throughout the year.
  3. Areas of central and north India experiences much seasonal variation in temperature due to the absence of seas.

Monsoon winds:

  1. The most dominant factor which affects the climate of India is the. monsoon winds.
  2. India is influenced by the South west monsoon and North east monsoon from June to September and October, November respectively.
  3. Indian agriculture is at the mercy of monsoons.
  4. India experiences Tropical monsoon climate.

Relief:

  1. Relief of India has a great bearing on major elements of climate such as temperature, atmospheric pressure direction of wind and amount of rainfall.
  2. The mighty Himalayas in the north act as a climatic barrier preventing the freezing cold winds from central Asia away from India.
  3. The Western ghats act as the barrier for south west monsoon winds causing rainfall to the western slopes, and the eastern slopes remain as rain shadow region.

Jet Stream:

  1. Jet streams are the fast moving winds blowing in the narrow zone of upper layers of atmosphere.
  2. These air currents play a dominant role in bringing the onset of South west monsoon and withdrawal of monsoon winds.
  3. More over they are the main reason in bringing the Western Disturbances to the North Western part of Punjab and Haryana causing rainfall and enable the cultivation of winter wheat.
  4. It causes snow fall in Jammu and Kashmir region.

Thus the Tropical monsoon = climate of India revolve around these factors


IX. Map Work

Mark the following on the outline map of India.

Question 1.
Areas of low rainfall
Answer:

Question 2.
Any 4 Biosphere Reserve
Answer:

Question 3.
Any 5 National parks
Answer:

Question 4.
Any 3 Wild animal sanctuary
Answer:

Question 5.
Any 2 Bird Sanctuary
Answer:

Question 6.
Top 5 states having maximum forest cover
Answer:

Question 7.
Top 5 states where forest cover is decreased
Answer:


1.Study the graphs given in Figure and answer the following questions.

(I)  In which month is the highest temperature found in all the four cities?

(ii)  In which month does it rain the most in the given cities ?

(iii)  When does Brazil have its rainy season ?

(iv)  Which city has the maximum range of temperature? How much is it?

(v) What type of climate will be found in Rio De Janerio ?

SOLUTION

(i) The highest temperature in:

a. Manaus: August-October

b. Belem: June- December

c. Porto Alegre: January- February

d. Rio de Janeiro: February

(ii) The highest rainfall in:

a. Manaus: March

b. Belem: March

c. Porto Alegre: August- September

d. Rio de Janeiro: January, February, December

(iii) Brazil has its rainy season during the months of December to April.

(iv) Porto Alegre has the highest range of temperature, ranging from 30 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit.

(v) Rio de Janeiro has a tropical savannah climate.

2.Considering the various factors affecting Brazil’s climate, complete the adjoin table.
RegionsClimatic characteristics
Amazon Valley 
Highlands 
Pantanal 
Northern Coastal region 
Southern Coastal region 
Southernmost region of Brazil 

SOLUTION

Considering the various factors affecting Brazil’s climate, complete the adjoin table.

RegionsClimatic characteristics
Amazon ValleyEquatorial, Hot and humid
HighlandsSub tropical
PantanalTropical – summers are hot and rainy,winters are dry and sunny, days are warm and nights are cool
Northern Coastal regionTropical – Humid and dry
Southern Coastal regionHumid sub tropical
Southernmost region of Brazilsun tropical or temperate
3.Study the graphs given in figure and answer the following questions:

(i)  What difference do you find in the rainy seasons of Chennai and other cities of India? Why?

(ii)  What similarity do you see in the temperature curves of Delhi and Kolkata ?

(iii) Calculate the average range of minimum and maximum temperatures of all the four cities.

(iv)  In which city is the range minimum? What can you infer from this?

(v)  In which city is the range maximum? What can you infer from this about its climate?

(vi) Based on the temperature and rainfall of Mumbai, comment upon its climate.

(vii)  In which month does India experience the highest rainfall?

(viii)  Classify the cities as cities with equableand extreme climates.

SOLUTION

(i) Chennai ranks second in terms of the amount of rainfall. It receives winter rainfall which is not seen in other cities.

(ii) From the temperature curves, Delhi and Kolkata seem to have extreme temperatures.

(iii) Delhi min: 31.3 Max: 16.08

Kolkata min: 32.1 Max: 21.08

Mumbai min: 31.83 Max: 22.16

Chennai min: 33.1 Max: 24.41

(iv) The range is minimum in Delhi. The climate of Delhi is an overlap between monsoon-influenced Humid sub tropical and semi- arid with high variation between summer and winter temperatures and precipitation.

(v) The range is maximum in Chennai. Chennai has a Tropical wet and dry climate. The city lies on the thermal equator  and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature.

(vi) The Climate of Mumbai is a Troical wet and dry climate . Mumbai’s climate can be best described as moderately hot with high level of humidity.

(vii) India experiences the highest rainfall in the month of July.

(viii) Extreme: Delhi, Kolkata

Equable: Mumbai, Chennai

4.Considering the location, extent of Brazil and India, look for the differences in the elements of climate like temperature and rainfall as per direction.

Write a short note on it.

SOLUTION

The climatic conditions of India and Brazil are greatly influenced by their coastline.

1. India receives its rainfall from Southwest monsoon winds whereas Brazil gets its rainfall from Southeast and Northeast trade winds.

2. India experiences tropical and subtropical climate. This is because the Tropic of Cancer passes through the centre of India.

3. Northern Brazil has hot and humid climate while the Southern Brazil experiences temperate climate.

4. Equator passes through the north of Brazil and the Tropic of Capricon passes through the southern Brazil.

5.In which part of India are three crops grown in a year? How is this related to the rainfall over there?

SOLUTION

Three types of crops such as Kharif, Rabi and Zaid are grown in a year in the northern and interior parts of India.

Write the names of the States/Regions in appropriate columns :

Bihar, Tocantins, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Eastern Maharastra, Western part of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Rio Grande Do Norte, Paraiba, Western Ghats, Eastern Himalayas, Western Andhra Pradesh, Roroima,

Amazonas, West Bengal, Roraima, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Goa.

State IndiaBrazil
High rainfall  
Moderate rainfall  
Low rainfall  

SOLUTION

State IndiaBrazil
High rainfallGoa , Eastern Mharashtra, Western Andra PradeshTocantins, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Rio Grande Do Narte, Roroima, Amazon, Rio Grande Do Sul
Moderate rainfallBihar, Western Ghats, West BengalPrabai
Low rainfallEastern Himalayas, Western part of Rajasthan,Santa Catarina
State whether right or wrong. Rewrite the wrong sentence.
1.The fact that Brazil lies on the equator affects its climate in a big way.

SOLUTION

 The fact that Brazil lies on the equator affects its climate in a big way – Right

The temperature in Brazil is generally high due to this and rainforests are also present because of the equatorial line passing through it.

2.India and Brazil have the same seasons at the same time.

SOLUTION

India and Brazil have the same seasons at the same time – Wrong.

India lies in the northern hemisphere and Brazil in the southern hemisphere. The seasons in the Northern Hemisphere are the opposite of those in the Southern Hemisphere.

3.India faces tropical cyclones frequently.

SOLUTION

India faces tropical cyclones frequently – Right

The eastern coast is more prone to cyclones, and about 80 percent of the total cyclones generated in the Indian Ocean strike the east coast of India.

There are two probable reasons for it:

The Western Disturbances and the tropical cyclones originating in the Andaman Sea travelling N.W. and reaching the Indian Coromandel Coast.

4.Brazil gets a lot of rainfall because of the southwest monsoon winds.

SOLUTION

 Brazil gets a lot of rainfall because of the southwest monsoon winds – Wrong

 Brazil gets rainfall because of the South East trade winds and the North East trade winds.

Give geographical reason:

 1.The northeastern part of Brazilian Highlands receives very less rainfall.

SOLUTION

Parts of the Brazilian highlands extend upto the northern coast and forms an escarpment.

The escarpments act as an obstruction to the winds coming from the sea and cause the orographic type of rainfall in the coastal region.

Beyond the highlands, the effect of these winds gets reduced.

As a result, the rainfall is minimal.

2.Snowfall doesn’t always occur in Brazil.

SOLUTION

Most of the part of Brazil lies in the tropical zone.

The equator passes through the northern part of the country, and the temperature is high in this region.

The average temperature in the Amazon valley is 25 ° – 28° C.

The climate is cooler in the Highlands.

Because of the proximity to the sea, the coasts experience mild and humid climate.

3.Convectional type of rainfall is not prominent in India.

SOLUTION

Convectional type of rainfall is the type of rainfall in which the warm air rises up and expands then, reaches a cooler layer and saturates, then condenses mainly in the form of cumulus or cumulonimbus clouds.

It mostly occurs in the equatorial regions. Rainfall in India is mostly brought by the southwest monsoon winds.

4.Tropical cyclones occur rarely in Brazil.

SOLUTION

Tropical cyclones are localized, very intense low-pressure wind system, forming over tropical cyclones.

In the coastal regions near the equator in Brazil, differences in temperatures are negligible.

The winds move in the vertical direction in this region.

Similarly, the convergence zone of the trade winds is weak here.

These are a few conditions which need to be fulfilled for the formation of tropical cyclones, and since they are not fulfilled, tropical cyclones rarely visit the coasts of Brazil.

5.There is not much difference in the range of temperature in Manaus.

SOLUTION

Manaus lies in the northern region of Brazil.

The equator passes through this part of the country.

Regions near the equator experience a small range of temperatures.

The average temperature in the Amazon valley is 25 ° – 28° C.

The summer tends to be a little cooler due to the precipitation.

q.no. 6

SOLUTION

Very cold winds blowing from the north are obstructed by the Himalayas.

Similarly, the South–West Monsoons retreat from the Shiwalik and Himachal ranges of the Himalayas.

Because of the obstruction caused by the Eastern and Western Ghats, it rains more in the coastal areas.

The rainfall reduces in the leeward side of the hills.

Orographic type of rainfall occurs because of the natural obstruction of the Himalayas.

These winds return from the Himalayan ranges, and their retreating journey starts.

While blowing from the north-east towards the Indian Ocean, these winds bring rainfall again to some parts of the Peninsula.

This is the Retreating Monsoon season in India.

Answer the following question.

1.Describe in brief the changes occurring in the climatic conditions of India while going from south to north.

SOLUTION

Very cold winds blowing from the north are obstructed by the Himalayas.

Similarly, the South–West Monsoons retreat from the Shiwalik and Himachal ranges of the Himalayas.

Because of high temperatures in summers, low-pressure areas develop in Punjab plains and the Thar desert of Rajasthan.

This attracts winds coming from the high-pressure region in the Indian Ocean which starts blowing towards the mainland of India.

These moisture-laden winds bring rainfall.

Because of the obstruction caused by the Eastern and Western Ghats, it rains more in the coastal areas.

2.Explain the importance of the Himalayas and the Indian Ocean with respect to the climate of India.

SOLUTION

Importance of Himalayas:

  1. The Himalayas acts as a barrier protecting the great Plains of India from the cold winds of Central Asia during the severe winter season.
  2. The Himalayas are the reason for summer rains and monsoon type of climate in the regions that are beyond the Western ghats of India.
  3. Himalaya is responsible for the origin of perennial rivers which bring a lot of silt making the northern plains very fertile.

Importance of the Indian ocean:

The Indian Ocean is one of the greatest oceans that brings more moisture that is accountable for very moderate climatic conditions in South India. The role of the Himalayas on Indian agriculture and climate is that it not only increase the fertility level of soil but also causes rainfall.

3.Discuss the factors affecting climate of Brazil.

SOLUTION

Considering the temperatures in Brazil, the northern part of Brazil is hot while the temperatures in the southern part are comparatively lower.

Seasonal variations are found in this pattern.

The factors affecting Brazil are temperature, rainfall, winds, atmospheric pressure, etc.

Altitude, latitude, relief characteristics, vegetation, and continentality also affect the climate of Brazil.

Near the equator on the Brazilian coast, temperature does not vary much.

The average temperature in the Amazon valley is 25 ° – 28° C.

The climate is cooler in the Highlands.

Because of the proximity to the sea, the coasts experience mild and humid climate.

4.Compare the climates of Brazil and India.

SOLUTION

Because of the vast latitudinal extent of Brazil, it experiences a wide range of climatic variations in climate.

For example, near the equator, it is hot while the temperate type of climate is found near Tropic of Capricorn.

The average temperature in the Amazon valley is 25 ° – 28° C.

The climate is cooler in the Highlands.

Because of the proximity to the sea, the coasts experience mild and humid climate.

India’s climate is ‘monsoon’ type.

The sunrays are perpendicular upto the Tropic of Cancer, which passes through the middle of the country.

As a result, average temperatures are higher throughout the year.

Also, temperatures increase towards the south.

In winters, the temperatures drop to – 40° Celsius in Jammu and Kashmir and parts of mountainous regions of Himalayas.

The diversity in climatic conditions of India is due to the latitudinal location and altitude of the place.

The Indian Ocean and the Himalayan ranges exert a great influence on the climate of India and the origin of Monsoons.


With the help of the internet, obtain information regarding annual average temperatures of the continental location of Brasilia and Bhopal and explain it with the help of a graph.

SOLUTION

The following is the average monthly temperature for Brasilia and Bhopal.

Months Brasilia Bhopal 
January28° / 18°1425° / 11°
February28° / 18°28° / 13°
March28° / 18°34° / 18°
April28° / 17°38° / 22°
May27° / 15°41° / 26°
June26° / 12°37° / 26°
July26° / 12°30° / 24°
August28° / 13°29° / 23°
September30° / 16°31° / 22°
October29° / 18°32° / 19°
November28° / 18°29° / 15°
December28° / 18°26° / 12°

The above-mentioned data mentions high/low temperatures for both the places.

Bhopal:

* Tropical climate

* Driest month – April

* Most precipitation – August

* Warmest month – May

* Average temperature – around 25 degree Celsius

Brasilia:

* Tropical climate

* Driest month – June

* Most precipitation – January

* Warmest month – September

* Average temperature – around 25 degree Celsius


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