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Balbharati, solutions, for, Social, Science History, and, Civics, 10th, Standard, SSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, chapter, 3, political party, Latest edition,

Choose the correct option from the given options and complete the sentence. 

When people come together and participate in electoral process, to acquire political power, such organisations are called ____________

OPTIONS

Government 

Society 

Political parties   

Social organisations

National Conference is a party in _________ State. 

OPTIONS

Orissa 

Assam 

Bihar 

Jammu and Kashmir

Justice Party – a non-Brahmin movement was transformed into ___________ Political Party. 

OPTIONS

Assam Gan Parishad 

Shivsena 

Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam 

Jammu and Kashmir National Conference


State whether following statement is true or false. Give reason for your answer. 

Political parties act as a link between government and people.

True.

Reason: Political parties act as a link between government and people. They communicate the demands and the complaints of the people to their elected representatives in the government. The government, on the other hand, tries to get support of the people for its policies through the political parties.

Political parties are social organisations.

True.

Reason: Political parties are social organizations which the objective to attaining power, winning elections and forming the government. Political parties have an ideology and agenda towards achieving their social goals through electoral politics.

Coalition politics leads to instability.

False.

Reason: Coalition politics has lead to stability in India after long years of dominant rule of the Congress party. Since there are many stakeholders to the power, coalitions governments have proved to be success stories of democratic political process in our country.

Shiromani Akali Dal is a national party.

False

Reason: Shiromani Akali Dal is a regional party in Punjab. It was established in 1920 and has enjoyed power in the state of Punjab for many years. It has the current government in Punjab under the leadership of Prakash Singh Badal.


Explain the following concept. 

Regionalism.

Solution

Regionalism can be simply put as the feeling of affinity among people of a particular region, unified with a common language. It’s an identity consciousness associated with language, literature, traditions and cultural movements and gave rise to the development of linguistic identities in modern India. Over the years, regionalism has become problematic vis-� -vis development of a region and the feeling that only people belonging to that particular region have the sole claim resources and employment opportunities. In such a divided political environment, many regional political parties have mushroomed in various parts of the country to voice the concerns of the people in their region.

E.g. Shiv Sena (Maharastra), Shiromani Akali Dal (Punjab), Assam Gan Parishad (Assam) etc.

National Parties – Nationalist Congress Party

Solution

The political parties that secure a minimum of 6% valid votes in four (or more) States in the Loksabha or State Assembly elections and have a minimum of its 4 elected members in the Loksabha are recognized as National Parties. E.g. Indian National Congress (INC), Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP), Communist Party of India (CPI).

Another criteria for recognition as a National Parties mandates that the candidates of a party should be elected from a minimum of 2% of total Loksabha constituency and a minimum of 3 states.


Answer the following question in brief. 

What are the major characteristics of political parties

Solution

The major characteristics of political parties are:

1. To attain power

It is the main objective of all political parties. They compete with each other for the same; there is nothing wrong with the objective of gaining power as long as the competition is fair.

2. To pursue an ideology

A party’s stand on certain social issues defines its ideology. In modern times, most political parties have similar ideologies which make it difficult for the common voter to decide whom to support.

3. To have a common agenda

On the basis of their ideologies, parties prepare their agendas. They aim to garner public support for their agenda in order to win elections and implement them.

4. To establish a government

The political party which gets the majority of votes in the elections forms the government; the parties with lesser votes form the opposition.

5. To act as a link between people & the government.

Political parties are the connecting link between people and the government. They communicate the demands and the complaints of the people to the elected leaders and on the other hand, the government tries to get the support of the people for its policies and programs through the channel of political parties.

What changes have taken place in the nature of political parties in India?

Solution

Three major phases that have marked the changing nature of political parties in India are:

1. The single dominant party system

After independence, Congress was the single most powerful political party in the country. It had government both the center and most regional states for a long time.

2. The challenge to the Single dominant party system

In 1977, in the spirit of democracy, the non-Congress parties come together to challenge the single-party dominance. Congress lost elections at the center owing to the anti-decentralization policies of Indira Gandhi followed during the emergency years (1975-77) and various regional parties took this opportunity to mark their foothold in regional politics.

3. The Coalition Government

After the 1989 General Elections, no single party could achieve a defining major to form the government at the centre. Hence, different parties came together to form coalition governments. Contrary to popular belief, the coalition system of government has been a successful practice in India. Owing to the multiple stakeholders in the government, the decision-making process has been gradual but it is important to note that various regional concerns have found a voice at the national stage, thus strengthening the democracy.


In a map of Maharashtra, point out the Loksabha constituency that includes the names of your parents.

Tamilnadu, Samacheer, Kalvi, 10th, Tamil, Solutions, Chapter, 4.3, பரிபாடல்,

Question 1.
பரிபாடல் இசைப்பாடல் ஆகும். பாடப்பகுதியின் பாடலை இசையுடன் பாடி மகிழ்க.
Answer:
(மாணவர் செயல்பாடு)

Question 2.
பரிபாடல் காட்டும் பெருவெடிப்புக் காட்சியைப் படங்களாக வரைந்து பொருத்தமான செய்திகளுடன் வழங்குக.
Answer:
இந்த அண்டப் பெருவெளியில் நம் பால்வீதி போன்று எண்ணற்ற பால்வீதிகள் உள்ளன. இப்பால் வீதிகள் தூசுகள் போன்று தோன்றும் இப்பிரபஞ்சம் உருவாக பெருவெடிப்புக் கொள்கையே காரணம். இந்த பெருவெடிப்புக் கொள்கைக்கு முன் எதுவுமே இல்லா பெருவெளி மட்டுமே இருந்தது.

இன்றைய அறிவியல் கொள்கைகளின்படி இந்த பிரபஞ்சமானது கிட்டத்தட்ட பதினான்கு பில்லியன் ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன் நிகழ்ந்த பெருவெடிப்பும் என்ற ஒரு சம்பவத்துடனே தோற்றம் பெற்றதாக நம்பப்படுகிறது. இவ்வாறு பெருவெடிப்பு சம்பவத்தினை அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்டு பிரபஞ்சத்தின் தோற்றத்தினை விளக்கும் முறையினைப் பெருவெடிப்புக் கொள்கை என்கிறோம். இதைப் பரிபாடல் எதுவுமே இல்லாத பெருவெளியில் அண்டத் தோற்றத்துக்கு காரணமான கரு பேரொலியுடன் தோன்றியது என்கிறது.

பெருவெடிப்பிற்குப் பின் உருவமில்லாத காற்று முதலான பூதங்களின் அணுக்களுடன் வளர்கின்ற வானம் முதலிய பூதங்கள் உருவாகின. அந்த அணுக்களின் ஆற்றலால் பருப்பொருள் சிதறின. இதனால் நெருப்புப் பந்து போல பூமி உருவாகியது. தொடர்ந்து பெய்த மழை வெள்ளத்தால் பூமி மூழ்கியது. பின்னர் இப்புவி உயிர்கள் வாழ்வதற்கு ஏற்ற சூழ்நிலையை உருவாக்கித் தந்ததாலும், சூழல் மாற்றத்தாலும் உயிர்கள் தோன்றி நிலைபெற்றன எனப் பரிபாடல் குறிப்பிட்டுள்ளது. இப்பிரபஞ்சமானது விரிவடைந்து கொண்டே செல்கின்றது என்பதனை 1929ஆம் ஆண்டு அமெரிக்க விண்வெளி ஆராய்ச்சியாளரான எட்வின் ஹப்பிள் கண்டறிந்துள்ளார்.

பாடநூல் வினாக்கள்

பலவுள் தெரிக

Question 1.
பரிபாடல் அடியில் ‘விசும்பும் இசையும்’ என்னும் தொடர் எதனைக் குறிக்கிறது?
அ) வானத்தையும் பாட்டையும்
ஆ) வானத்தையும் புகழையும்
இ) வானத்தையும் பூமியையும்
ஈ) வானத்தையும் பேரொலியையும்
Answer:
ஈ) வானத்தையும் பேரொலியையும்

குறுவினா

Question 1.
உயிர்கள் உருவாகி வளர ஏற்ற சூழல் பூமியில் எவை எவையெனப் பரிபாடல் வழி அறிந்தவற்றைக் குறிப்பிடுக.
Answer:
நிலம், நீர், காற்று, வானம், நெருப்பு.

நெடுவினா

Question 1.
நம் முன்னோர் அறிவியல் கருத்துகளை இயற்கையுடன் இணைத்துக் கூறுவதாகத் தொடங்குகின்ற பின்வரும் சொற்பொழிவைத் தொடர்ந்து நிறைவு செய்க.
பேரன்பிற்குரிய அவையோர் அனைவருக்கும் வணக்கம்! இன்று இயல், இசை, நாடகம் என்னும் முத்தமிழுடன் அறிவியலை நான்காம் தமிழாகக் கூறுகின்றனர். ஆதிகாலந்தொட்டு இயங்கி வரும் தமிழ் மொழியில் அறிவியல் என்பது தமிழர் வாழ்வியலோடு கலந்து கரைந்து வந்துள்ளதை இலக்கியங்கள் மூலம் அறிகிறோம். அண்டத்தை அளந்தும், புவியின் தோற்றத்தை ஊகித்தும் கூறும் அறிவியல் செய்திகள் இலக்கியங்களில் உள்ளன.
சங்க இலக்கியமான பரிபாடலில்……. பூமியின் தோற்றம் குறித்து சொல்லப்பட்டுள்ளது.
Answer:

  •  எதுவுமே இல்லாத பெருவெளியில் அண்டத் தோற்றத்துக்குக் காரணமான கரு பேரொலியுடன் தோன்றியது.
  • உருவமில்லாத காற்று முதலான பூதங்களின் அணுக்களுடன் வளர்கின்ற வானம் என்னும் முதல் பூதங்கள் உருவாகின.
  • அந்த அணுக்களின் ஆற்றல் கிளர்ந்து பருப்பொருள்கள் சிதறும்படியாகப் பல காலங்கள் கடந்தது.
  • பின்னர் பூமி குளிரும்படியாகத் தொடர்ந்து பெய்த மழையால் பூமி வெள்ளத்தில் மூழ்கியது.
  • மீண்டும் மீண்டும் நிறை வெள்ளத்தில் இப்பெரிய புவி மூழ்கி உயிர்கள் உருவாகி வாழ்வதற்கு ஏற்ற சூழல் தோன்றியது.
  • இச்சூழல் மாற்றத்தினால் உயிர்கள் தோன்றி நிலை பெற்று வாழ்கின்றன.
  • புவி உருவாகிய நிகழ்வை அறிவியல் அறிஞர்கள் கண்டறியும் முன்பே நம் தமிழர் கண்டறிந்தனர் என்பது தமிழருக்குக் கிடைத்த மிகப்பெரிய வெற்றியும் பெருமைக்குரிய செயலுமாகும்.

இலக்கணக் குறிப்பு.

ஊழ்ஊழ் – அடுக்குத் தொடர்
வளர் வானம் – வினைத்தொகை
செந்தீ – பண்புத்தொகை
வாரா (ஒன்றன்) – ஈறுகெட்ட எதிர்மறைப் பெயரெச்சம்
தோன்றி, மூழ்கி – வினையெச்சங்கள்
கிளர்ந்த – பெயரெச்சம்

பகுபத உறுப்பிலக்கணம்.


கூடுதல் வினாக்கள்

Question 1.
பொருத்தமான விடை வரிசையைத் தேர்ந்தெடு.
1. தண்பெயல் – வெள்ளத்தில் மூழ்கிக் கிடந்த
2. ஆர் தருபு – செறிந்து திரண்டு
3. பீடு – குளிர்ந்த மழை
4. ஈண்டி – சிறப்பு
அ) 1, 3, 2, 4
ஆ) 3, 2, 4, 1
இ) 4, 2, 1, 3
ஈ) 3, 1, 4, 2
Answer:
ஈ) 3, 1, 4, 2

Question 2.
இதுவரைக்கும் நமக்குக் கிடைத்துள்ள பரிபாடல் நூலில் உள்ள பாடல்களின் எண்ணிக்கை எத்தனை?
அ) 24
ஆ) 34
இ) 44
ஈ) 54
Answer:
அ) 241

Question 3.
எட்டுத்தொகை நூல்களுள் ஒன்று
அ) பரிபாடல்
ஆ) முல்லைப் பாட்டு
இ) நாலடியார்
ஈ) மூதுரை
Answer:
அ) பரிபாடல்

Question 4.
‘விசும்பில் ஊழி’ எனத் தொடங்கும் பரிபாடலை எழுதியவர்.
அ) நக்கீரர்
ஆ) மருதனார்
இ) கீரந்தையார்
ஈ) ஓதலாந்தையார்
Answer:
இ) கீரந்தையார்

Question 5.
பரிபாடல் “ ……………….. ” என்னும் புகழுடையது.
அ) நற்பரிபாடல்
ஆ) புகழ் பரிபாடல்
இ) ஓங்கு பரிபாடல்
ஈ) உயர் பரிபாடல்
Answer:
இ) ஓங்கு பரிபாடல்

Question 6.
சங்க நூல்களுள் பண்ணோடு பாடப்பட்ட நூல் …………………
அ) நற்றிணை
ஆ) முல்லைப்பாட்டு
இ) பட்டினப் பாலை
ஈ) பரிபாடல்
Answer:
ஈ) பரிபாடல்

Question 7.
பரிபாடலில் எழுபது பாடல்கள் இருப்பதாகக் கூறியுள்ளவர்கள் ………………………
அ) புலவர்கள்
ஆ) வரலாற்று ஆய்வாளர்கள்
இ) இலக்கிய ஆய்வாளர்கள்
ஈ) உரையாசிரியர்கள்
Answer:
ஈ) உரையாசிரியர்கள்

Question 8.
எட்வின் ஹப்பிள் என்பவர்………………….
அ) அமெரிக்க மருத்துவர்
ஆ) பிரெஞ்சு ஆளுநர்
இ) அமெரிக்க வானியல் அறிஞர்
ஈ) போர்ச்சுக்கீசிய மாலுமி
Answer:
இ) அமெரிக்க வானியல் அறிஞர்

Question 9.
எட்வின் ஹப்பிள் ………………..இல் நம் பால்வீதி போன்று எண்ணற்ற பால்வீதிகள் உள்ளன என்று நிரூபித்தார்.
அ) 1921
ஆ) 1821
இ) 1924
ஈ) 1934
Answer:
இ) 19241

Question 10.
“அண்டப் பகுதியின் உண்டைப் பிறக்கும்.
சிறிய ஆகப் பெரியோன் தெரியின்” – என்று குறிப்பிடும் நூல்?
அ) பரிபாடல்
ஆ) கலித்தொகை
இ) பெருமாள் திருமொழி
ஈ) திருவாசகம்
Answer:
ஈ) திருவாசகம்

Question 11.
பொருத்திக் காட்டுக.
i) ஊழ் ஊழ் – 1. ஈறுகெட்ட எதிர்மறைப் பெயரெச்சம்
iii) வளர் வானம் – 2. பண்புத்தொகை
iii) செந்தீ – 3. வினைத்தொகை
iv) வாரா – 4. அடுக்குத் தொடர்
அ) 4, 3, 2, 1
ஆ) 3, 4, 2, 1
இ) 2, 4, 1, 3
ஈ) 4, 2, 1, 3
Answer:
அ) 4, 3, 2, 1

Question 12.
பொருத்திக் காட்டுக.
i) விசும்பு – 1. சிறப்பு
ii) ஊழி – 2. யுகம்
iii) ஊழ் – 3. வானம்
iv) பீடு – 4. முறை
அ) 3, 2, 4, 1
ஆ) 4, 3, 2, 1
இ) 1, 2, 3, 4
ஈ) 3, 4, 1, 2
Answer:
அ) 3, 2, 4, 1

Question 13.
‘கிளர்ந்த’ என்னும் சொல்லைப் பிரிக்கும் முறை ………………
அ) கிளர்ந்து + அ
ஆ) கிளர் + த் + த் + அ
இ) கிளர் + ந் + த் + அ
ஈ) கிளர் + த்(ந்) + த் + அ
Answer:
ஈ) கிளர்+த்(ந்)+த்+அ

Question 14.
முதல் பூதம் எனப்படுவது ………………..
அ) வானம்
ஆ) நிலம்
இ) காற்று
ஈ) நீர்
Answer:
அ) வானம்

Question 15.
“கரு வளர் வானத்து இசையில் தோன்றி,
உரு அறிவாரா ஒன்றன் ஊழியும்”
– இவ்வடிகளில் இடம்பெற்றுள்ள இலக்கிய நயம்?
அ) எதுகை
ஆ) மோனை
இ) இயைபு
ஈ) அந்தாதி
Answer:
அ) எதுகை

Question 16.
முதல் பூதம் …………..
அ) வானம்
ஆ) நிலம்
இ) நீர்
ஈ) காற்று
Answer:
அ) வானம்

Question 17.
பரிபாடலில் புவிக்குக் கூறப்பட்ட உவமை ……………………..
அ) நெருப்புப் பந்து
ஆ) உருவம் இல்லாத காற்று
இ) வெள்ளம்
ஈ) ஊழி
Answer:
அ) நெருப்புப் பந்து

Question 18.
“விசும்பில் ஊழி ஊழ் ஊழ் செல்ல” – இவ்வடியில் அமைந்துள்ள பெரும்பான்மை நயம் ……………….
அ) எதுகை
ஆ) மோனை
இ) முரண்
ஈ) இயைபு
Answer:
ஆ) மோனை

Question 19.
நெருப்புப்பந்தாய் வந்து குளிர்ந்தது ……………
அ) பூமி
ஆ) காற்று
ஈ) நீர்
Answer:
அ) பூமி

Question 20.
“விசும்பில் ஊழி ஊழ் ஊழ் செல்ல” – இவ்வடியில் ‘விசும்பு’ என்னும் சொல்லின் பொருள் ………………….
அ) வானம்
ஆ) காற்று
இ) யுகம்
ஈ) முறை
Answer:
அ) வானம்

Question 21.
“விசும்பில் ஊழி ஊழ் ஊழ் செல்ல” – இவ்வடியில் ‘ஊழி’ என்னும் சொல்லின் பொருள் ………………….
அ) வானம்
ஆ) காற்று
இ) யுகம்
ஈ) முறை
Answer:
இ) யுகம்

Question 22.
“விசும்பில் ஊழி ஊழ் ஊழ் செல்ல” – இவ்வடியில் ‘ஊழ்’ என்னும் சொல்லின் பொருள் ……………………
அ) வானம்
ஆ) காற்று
இ) யுகம்
ஈ) முறை
Answer:
ஈ) முறை

Question 23.
1300ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன் திருஅண்டப்பகுதி பற்றிக் கூறியவர் ……………………
அ) மாணிக்கவாசகர்
ஆ) கீரந்தையார்
இ) பெருஞ்சித்திரனார்
ஈ) கபிலர்
Answer:
அ) மாணிக்கவாசகர்

Question 24.
“தண்பெயல் தலைஇய ஊழியும்” இதில் ‘குளிர்ந்த மழை’ என்னும் பொருள் தரும் சொல் ……………………
அ) தண்பெயல்
ஆ) தலை
இ) இய
ஈ) ஊழி
Answer:
அ) தண்பெயல்


குறுவினா

Question 1.
சங்க இலக்கிய நூல்கள் மூலம் நீவீர் அறிந்து கொள்ளும் செய்தி யாது?
Answer:

  • ஈராயிரம் ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் வாழ்ந்த தமிழ் மக்களின் வாழ்க்கை முறை,
  • அறிவாற்றல்,
  • சமூக உறவு,
  • இயற்கையைப் புரிந்து கொள்ளும் திறன்.

Question 2.
பரிபாடல் நூல் குறிப்பு வரைக.
Answer:

  • எட்டுத்தொகை நூல்களுள் ஒன்று பரிபாடல் – அகம் புறம் சார்ந்த நூல்.
  • இந்நூல் “ஓங்கு பரிபாடல்” என்னும் புகழுடையது.
  • சங்க நூல்களுள் பண்ணோடு பாடப்பட்ட நூல்.
  • உரையாசிரியர்கள் எழுபது பாடல்கள் இருப்பதாகக் கூறியுள்ளனர்.
  • 24 பாடல்களே கிடைத்துள்ளன.

Question 3.
அண்டப்பகுதி குறித்து மாணிக்கவாசகர் குறிப்பிடும் செய்தி யாது?
Answer:

  • அண்டப்பகுதியின் உருண்டை வடிவம் ஒப்பற்ற வளமான காட்சியும் ஒன்றுடன் ஒன்று ஈர்ப்புடன் நூறுகோடிக்கும் மேல் விரிந்து நின்றன.
  • கதிரவனின் ஒளிக்கற்றையில் தெரியும் தூசுத்துகள் போல அவை நுண்மையாக இருக்கின்றன.

Question 4.
பால்வீதி குறித்து எட்வின் ஹப்பிள் நிரூபித்துக் கூறிய செய்தியை எழுது.
Answer:

  • அண்டப் பெருவெளியில் நம் பால்வீதி போன்று எண்ணற்ற பால் வீதிகள் உள்ளன.
  • வெளியே எண்ணற்ற பால்வீதிகள் உள்ளன.
  • வெளியே நின்று அதைப் பார்த்தோமெனில் சிறுதூசி போலக் கோடிக்கணக்கான பால்வீதிகள் தூ சுகளாகத் தெரியும்.

Question 5.
பூமி வெள்ளத்தில் மூழ்கக் காரணம் என்ன?
Answer:
தொடர்ந்து பெய்த மழையால் பூமி வெள்ளத்தில் மூழ்கியது.

Question 6.
“மீண்டும் பீடு உயர்பு ஈண்டி , அவற்றிற்கும்
உள்ளீடு ஆகிய இருநிலத்து ஊழியும்” – தொடர் பொருள் விளக்குக.
Answer:
மீண்டும் மீண்டும் நிறைவெள்ளத்தில் மூழ்குதல் நடந்த இப்பெரிய உலகத்தில், உயிர்கள் உருவாகி வாழ்வதற்கு ஏற்ற சூழல் தோன்றியது, அச்சூழலில் உயிர்கள் தோன்றி நிலை பெறும்படியான ஊழிக்காலம் வந்தது.

Question 7.
“விசும்பில் ஊழி ஊழ்” என்பதில் விசும்பு, ஊழி, ஊழ் ஆகிய சொற்களின் பொருள் யாது?
Answer:

  • விசும்பு – வானம்
  • ஊழி – யுகம்
  • ஊழ் – முறை

சிறுவினா

Question 1.
அண்டப் பெருவெளி குறித்து மாணிக்கவாசகர் மற்றும் எட்வின் ஹப்பிள் ஆகியோர் மூலம் அறியப்படும் செய்தி யாது?
Answer:
மாணிக்கவாசகர் கூற்று :

  • அண்டப் பகுதியின் உருண்டை வடிவம், ஒப்பற்ற வளமான காட்சியும் ஒன்றுடன் ஒன்று ஈர்ப்புடன் நூறு கோடிக்கும் மேல் விரிந்து நின்றன.
  • “அண்டப் பகுதியின் உண்டைப் பிறக்கம்” என்னும் திருவாசகப் பாடலில் மேற்கண்ட செய்தியை 1300 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன் மாணிக்கவாசகர் குறிப்பிட்டுள்ளார்.

எட்வின் ஹப்பிள் கூற்று :

  • அண்டப் பெருவெளியில் நம் பால்வீதி போன்று எண்ணற்ற பால்வீதிகள் உள்ளன.
  • வெளியே நின்று அதைப் பார்த்தோமெனில் சிறு தூசி போலக் கோடிக்கணக்கான பால்வீதிகள் தூசுகளாகத் தெரியும்.
  • மேற்கண்ட செய்தியை அமெரிக்க வானியல் வல்லுநர் எட்வின் ஹப்பிள் 1924 இல் நிரூபித்தார்.

Question 2.
“மீண்டும் பீடு உயர்பு ஈண்டி , அவற்றிற்கும்
உள்ளீடு ஆகிய இருநிலத்து ஊழியும்” – இடஞ்சுட்டிப் பொருள் விளக்குக.
Answer:
இடம் :
இவ்வடிகள் பரிபாடலில் கீரந்தையார் பாடலில் இடம்பெறுகின்றது.

பொருள்:
உயிர்கள் தோன்றி நிலைபெறுதல்.

விளக்கம் :
மீண்டும் மீண்டும் நிறைவெள்ளத்தில் மூழ்குதல் நடந்த இப்பெரிய உலகத்தில், உயிர்கள் உருவாகி வாழ்வதற்கு ஏற்ற சூழல் தோன்றியது, அச்சூழலில் உயிர்கள் தோன்றி நிலைபெறும்படியான
ஊழிக்காலம் வந்தது.

Question 3.
பால்வீதிகள் கண்டுபிடிப்பில், “எட்வின் ஹப்பிளுக்கு முன்னோடி மாணிக்கவாசகர்” என்பதை நிரூபிக்க.
Answer:
எட்வின் ஹப்பிள்:
நம் பால்வீதி போன்று எண்ணற்ற பால்வீதிகள் உள்ளன. வெளியில் நின்று பார்த்தால் , சிறு தூசி போல கோடிக்கணக்கில் பால்வீதிகள் தூசுகளாகத் தெரியும். இதனை 1924 இல் அமெரிக்க வானியல் வல்லுநர் எட்வின் ஹப்பிள் நிரூபித்தார்.

மாணிக்கவாசகர்:
1300 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன் திருவாசகத்தில் மாணிக்கவாசகர் திரு அண்டப்பகுதியில்,

“அண்டப் பகுதியின் உண்டைப் பிறக்கம்
…………………. ………………….
சிறிய ஆகப் பெரியோன் தெரியின்”

– என்ற அடிகள் பால்வீதிகள் பற்றிய கருத்துகளைக் கூறுகின்றது. இல்லத்துள் நுழையும் கதிரவனின் ஒளிக் கற்றையில் தெரியும் தூசுத் துகள்போல பால்வீதிகள் நுண்மையாக இருக்கின்றன.

பால்வீதிகள் கண்டுபிடிப்பில், “எட்வின் ஹப்பிளுக்கு முன்னோடி மாணிக்கவாசகர்” என்பதை அறியமுடிகின்றது.


Chapter-8- Introduction-to-Management-fyjc-11th std-oc-maharashtra-board-full solution-

Select the correct option and rewrite the sentence

1.Management is …………
Options
  • dynamic
  • static
  • selective
2.Management uses ………. method of observation.
Options
  • unscientific
  • artificial
  • scientific
3.To help top level management in co-ordinating the activities is the function of ……….. level management.
Options
  • middle
  • lower
  • top
4.To look after maintenance of machinery is the function of …………. level management.
Options
  • top
  • middle
  • lower
5.Management is…………. oriented action.
Options
  • policy
  • profit
  • goal

Match the pairs.

Group AGroup B
A)Management1)Need of creativity
B)Management as a profession2)Can be seen
C)Top level management3)Administration
D)Management as an art4)Intangible
E)Lower level management5)Formal education
  6)Policy framing
  7)Implementation of policies
  8)Selective
  9)Directing subordinates to complete the task
  10)Cause effect relationship

SOLUTION

Group AGroup B
A)Management4)Intangible
B)Management as a profession5)Formal education
C)Top level management6)Policy framing
D)Management as an art1)Need of creativity
E)Lower level management9)Directing subordinates to complete the task
  2)Can be seen
  3)Administration
  7)Implementation of policies
  8)Selective
  10)Cause effect relationship

Give one word/phrase/term for the following sentence

1.The art of getting things done through others.

SOLUTION

Management
2.The second level of Management.

SOLUTION

Middle level

3.Systematic body of knowledge.

SOLUTION

Science

4.The level of management related to Managing Director.

SOLUTION

Top level Management

5.Level of management that link top level and lower level management.

SOLUTION

Middle level management


State True or False

1.Management is an ancient activity.
Options
  • True
  • False
2.Management is not objective oriented.
Options
  • True
  • False
3.In small organization also management is required.
Options
  • True
  • False
4.Middle level management forms policy of an k.
Options
  • True
  • False
5.Various principles and techniques are used in management.
Options
  • True
  • False

1.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Management is an art
  • Management is a science
  • Management is commerce
  • Management is a profession

2.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Singer
  • Actor
  • Dancer
  • Doctor

3.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Doctor
  • Chartered Accountant
  • Lawyer
  • Singer

4.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Lower level
  • Middle level
  • Top level
  • High level

5.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Board of Directors
  • President
  • Purchase Manager
  • Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

6.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Departmental Head
  • Finance Manager
  • Production Manager
  • Supervisor

7.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Supervisor
  • Foreman
  • Finance Manager
  • Office Supertendent

Complete the sentence

1.The English verb ‘manage’ came from the Indian word …………….

SOLUTION

The English verb ‘manage’ came from the Indian word managgiare.
2.To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to …………….

SOLUTION

To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.
3.Organization is a group of person who work together to achieve a …………….

SOLUTION

Organization is a group of person who work together to achieve a common goal.
4.Link between the top level and lower level of management is called as …………….

SOLUTION

Link between the top level and lower level of management is called as middle level management.
5.Lower level management works under …………….

SOLUTION

Lower level management works under middle level management.
6.Art is the bringing about a desired result through the application of …………….

SOLUTION

Art is the bringing about a desired result through the application of skills.
7.Any knowledge which is scientifically developed and consists of universally accepted principles is known as a …………….

SOLUTION

Any knowledge which is scientifically developed and consists of universally accepted principles is known as a science.
8.Science is based on systematic experiments, on certain rules and on …………….

SOLUTION

Science is based on systematic experiments, on certain rules and on principles.
9.Teacher, Doctor, C. A., Lawyer comes under the term …………….

SOLUTION

Teacher, Doctor, C. A., Lawyer comes under the term profession.

1.Complete the following table

A B
Top level_____________
Options
  • Fiance Manager
  • Art
  • CEO
  • Profession
  • Supervisors

2.Complete the following table

A B
_____________Lower level
Options
  • Fiance Manager
  • Art
  • CEO
  • Profession
  • Supervisors

3.Complete the following table

A B
Middle level_____________
Options
  • Fiance Manager
  • Art
  • CEO
  • Profession
  • Supervisors

4.Complete the following table

A B
_____________Doctor
Options
  • Fiance Manager
  • Art
  • CEO
  • Profession
  • Supervisors

5.Complete the following table

A B
Singer____________
Options
  • Fiance Manager
  • Art
  • CEO
  • Profession
  • Supervisors

1.What is called as management?

SOLUTION

Getting work done through others is called as management.
2.Name the levels of management?

SOLUTION

Top level, middle level and lower level are the three levels of management.
3.What is Top level management?

SOLUTION

The level of management that decides the long term objectives of organization and frame the plans and policies and take decisions is called as top level management.
4.What do you mean by Middle level management?

SOLUTION

The level of management which is concerned with implementation of plans and policies in the organization with the help of lower level management is known as middle level management.
5.What is lower level management?

SOLUTION

The level of management which is considered to do actual execution of plan is called as lower. Level management. 
6.What do you mean by an art?

SOLUTION

An art means skill of individual, creativity, regular practice, personal abilities and Innovativeness.
7.What is seience?

SOLUTION

Science is a systematic body of knowledge and scientific methods.
8.What is the meaning of a profession?

SOLUTION

A profession means an individual having adequate knowledge and abilities which is helpful to handle different situation. They are trained people having formal education in management school and have a code of conduct.

1.Arrange in proper order.

  1. Middle level management
  2. Top level management
  3. Lower level management

SOLUTION

  1. Top level management
  2. Middle level management
  3. Lower level management

2.Arrange in proper order.

  1. Departmental Head
  2. CEO
  3. Supervisor
  4. Managing Director

SOLUTION

  1. CEO
  2. Managing Director
  3. Departmental Head
  4. Supervisor

3.Arrange in proper order.

  1. Office clerk
  2. Shareholders
  3. Managing Director
  4. Board of Directors

SOLUTION

  1. Shareholders
  2. Board of Directors
  3. Managing Director
  4. Office clerk

Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentence.

1.Management is only an art.

SOLUTION

Management is science and a profession.
2.There are five levels of management.

SOLUTION

There are three levels of management.
3.Lower level management works under top level management.

SOLUTION

Middle level management Works under top level management.
4.Middle level management works under lower level management.

SOLUTION

Middle level management works under top level management.
5.Management is a pure science.

SOLUTION

Management is a social science.
6.The entry in any profession is not restricted.

SOLUTION

The entry in any profession is restricted.
7.Profesionals need informal education.

SOLUTION

Profesionals need formal education.

Explain the following term/concept.

1.Top level management

SOLUTION

The top level management decides the long term objectives of organization, frames plans and policies and take decisions.
It consists of Board of Directors, Managing Director, CEO, President, etc.
2.Middle level management

SOLUTION

The middle level management is a link between top level and lower level management.It works under top level management. This level is considered with implementation of plans and policies in the organization with the help of lower level management. It consists of Head of Departments / Branch managers / In charge, etc.
3.Lower level management

SOLUTION

This is the last level of management. It is a supervisory level of management. It consists of superintendents, supervisors foremen and junior executives. Lower level management receives instructions from the authorities i. e. middle level management and direct subordinates wherever necessary.

1.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

While working in a company, Pranav used to give order to his subordinates about what is to be done and which work is to be done? In this organization, various employees like Pratap are doing their work assigned by Pravin. In this company, Pravin submit his report of work completion to Pranav after completing the work done by the employees like Pratap.
  1. Identify different levels of management in above mentioned company.
  2. Find the level of Pranav in management of company.
  3. Explain the functions and role of Pratap in his company.

SOLUTION

  1. There are two levels of management i.e. middle and lower level of management in above mentioned company.
  2. Pranav works in the middle level management of company.
  3. Pratap is an employee in a company. He works at the lower level. He executes the work assigned by Pravin.

2.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

Shankar Patil is an advocate and he is running his profession in a very good manner. His younger brother Prashant Patil has done very beautiful and artistic decoration of his brother’s office with seating arrangement and symbol of Justice as his hobby. Vishwas Patil, older brother of Shankar Patil is a science graduate and doing farming in best way. He exports the farm production. On the basis of above information:
  1. Identify the source of income of Shankar Patil.
  2. What is the qualification of Prashant Patil as a decorator?
  3. Mention two features of profession.

SOLUTION

  1. Shankar Patil is a lawyer by profession. He is practicing as a Lawyer / an advocate. He render his services to his clients and against that charges fee from them. So, ‘fee’ is the income source of Shankar Patil.
  2. Prashant Patil may be or may not be a professional interior decorator. His hobby 1s decorating the office / houses. He may be an artist and an art does not require any formal education.
  3. Following are the features of profession:
    (a) Formal Education: Profession needs formal education. Today managers are qualified with management diploma or degrees. They take formal training from management schools which help them to work with perfection.
    (b)Restricted Entry: The entry in any profession is restricted. It needs a formal education. For example Lawyer, Doctor, Interior designs, Architect, Chartered Accountant, etc. Such compulsion is not there for becoming a manager.

Distinguish between

1.Top level management and middle level management.

SOLUTION

No.PointsTop Level ManagementMiddle Level Management
(1)MeaningTop level management refers to top position in the organization such as Board of Directors, CEO, President, Managing Director, etc.Middle level management refers to middle positions in the organization such as Departmental head, Managers like Finance manager, Production manager, Sales manager, Marketing manager, etc.
(2)Nature of workIt is concerned with framing plans and policies of the entire organization.It is concerned withimplementation of policies framed by top level management with the help of lower level management.
(3)SkillsIt requires conceptual or decision making skills than technical skills.It requires combination of conceptual and decision making skills than technical skills.
(4)Promotion policyAt this level promotion is given on merit.At this level promotion is based on merit as well as seniority basis.
(5)Time frameIt considers longer period of time i. e. 5 to 20 years.It considers medium period of time i. e. 1 to 5 years.
(6)ResponsibilityTop level is responsible to shareholders, government and society.Middle level is responsible to top level management.
(7)Flow of orderOrders and instructions are passed to middle level.Orders and instruction arepassed to lower level and report of the work is submitted to top level.

2.Middle level management and lower level management.

SOLUTION

No.PointsMiddle Level ManagementLower Level management
(1)MeaningMiddle level management refers to middle positions in the organization such as Departmental head, Managers like Finance manager, Production manager, Sales manager, Marketing manager, etc.Lower level management refers to lower/ last positions in the organization. E.g. superintendents, supervisors, etc.
(2)Nature of workIt is concerned withimplementation of policies framed by top level management with the help of lower level management.It is considered with actual execution of planning.
(3)SkillsIt requires combination of conceptual and decision making skills than technical skills.It requires more technical skills than other skills.
(4)Promotion policyAt this level promotion is based on merit as well as seniority basis.Promotion is based on seniority basis.
(5)Time frameIt considers medium period of time i. e. 1 to 5 years.It considers very short period of time i.e. upto one year.
(6)ResponsibilityMiddle level is responsible to top level management.It is responsible to both top and middle level management.
(7)Flow of orderOrders and instruction arepassed to lower level and report of the work is submitted to top level.Implementation is done as per the orders of middle level and reports are submitted to middle level.

3.Top level management and lower level management.

SOLUTION

No.PointsTop Level ManagementLower Level Management
(1)MeaningTop level management refers to top position in the organization such as Board of Directors, CEO, President, Managing Director, etc.Lower level management refers to lower/ last positions in the organization. E.g. superintendents, supervisors, etc.
(2)Nature of workIt is concerned with framing plans and policies of the entire organization.It is considered with actual execution of planning.
(3)SkillsIt requires conceptual or decision making skills than technical skills.It requires more technical skills than other skills.
(4)Promotion policyAt this level promotion is given on merit.Promotion is based on seniority basis.
(5)Time frameIt considers longer period of time i. e. 5 to 20 years.It considers very short period of time i.e. upto one year.
(6)ResponsibilityTop level is responsible to shareholders, government and society.It is responsible to both top and middle level management.
(7)Flow of orderOrders and instructions are passed to middle level.Implementation is done as per the orders of middle level and reports are submitted to middle level.

Answer in brief.

1.State any four features of mangement

SOLUTION

  1. Management is Goal Oriented:
    Management activity is done to achieve pre-decided goals. The success of organization is calculated on the basis of achievement of desired goals. The success depends on proper management of all available resources. Management decides the goals before conducting the activity. The manager takes efforts achieve these goals. So management is goal oriented.
  2. Management is a Group Activity:
    “Management is an art of getting things done through others.” The above definition explains that management is done through / with the people. It is done by co-ordinating all resources effectively and efficiently. The activities are done under the guidance of manager by its team members. Also in organisation decisions are taken by the group of people such as Board of Directors, Shareholders, etc.
  3. Management is Intangible:
    Management is the collective efforts of manager. It is a process of planning, organizing, decision making, directing and controlling. These cannot be seen physically. However, the results of best management can be experienced in the form of increased profits, attainments of pre-decided so management is tangible in nature.
  4. Management is a Continuous Process:
    Management is essential throughout the life of organisation. It is necessary to start the activity, to run the activity in smooth manner and also to control the activity. It is endless process. It is required for survival of the organization continuously.
2.Write any four functions of Top Level Management

SOLUTION

Following are the functions of Top Level Management:
         To decide long term objectives of the organisation.
To frame plans and policies to achieve the set objectives.
To observe that policies are properly implemented.
To create various department and positions.

3.State any four functions of Middle Level Management.

SOLUTION

Following are the functions of Middle Level Management:
  1. To link the top level management and lower level management.
  2. To understand plans and policies framed by top level management and prepare plan of action according to the nature of department.
  3. To assign duties and responsibilities to the staff of the concerned department to achieve pre-defined goals.
  4. To appoint lower level staff.

4.State any four functions of Lower Level Management.

SOLUTION

Following are the function of Lower Level Management:
  1. Do work under Middle Level Management.
  2. To assign under Middle Level Management.
  3. To give instruction to Subordinates.
  4. To direct the subordinates wherever necessary.

5.State any two point of relationship about management as an Art.

SOLUTION

The relationship between art and management are:
  1. Personal Skills: In organization, every manager has to handle different situations, has to solve various problems, has to handle human resource, etc. with his own style. This style varies from manager to manager and so the result. This is because of the different skills and abilities of each person.
  2.  Creativity: Creativity refers to the ability to find something new and innovative. Manager finds out new ways to conduct organizational activities and to achieve desired goals. Manager develops new ideas according to the changes in business situation and in the business environment.

6.Explain any two points of relationship about management as a Science.

SOLUTION

The following points shows there is a relationship in management as a science:
  1. Systematic Body of Knowledge: Pure science is based on systematic experiments, certain rules and principles. Management principles and functions are also based on the experiments which can be studied through various different management theories, techniques and approaches given by different management thinkers.
  2. Universal Applicability of Principles: Scientific principles can be applied in all over the world in similar situation. Therefore, the same result can be drawn. Management principles are universal in nature. They can be applied everywhere, anytime and in any condition.

7.State any two points of relationship about management as a Profession.

SOLUTION

The relationship between profession and management can be seen with the help of following points:
  1. Expertise: A professional is an expert in his field. He has acquired specific knowledge through formal education. Also he has particular skill in practicing as a professional. Manager also becomes an expert by practicing regularly in the specific field and can acquire certain knowledge and skill.
  2. Registration: Professionals need to register themselves with their associations. For example, a Chartered Accountant should register himself with Institute of Chartered Accountant of India i.e. ICAI. Without registration certificate he cannot practice. In case of managers, there is no such body to register themselves. However, managers can take the membership of ‘Chambers of Commerce’ which gives them benefits.

Justify the following statement

1.Management is essential in professional and non-professional activities.

SOLUTION

As management is universal in nature it is applicable everywhere, either it is a professional activity or non-professional activity.
Every person performs certain activity to achieve pre-decided goals. E.g. earning of profit, winning games competitions, to increase goodwill, etc.
Organisations either large, medium or small, profit making or non-profit making, government or non-government organisation, etc. to get success, to attain goals every time management plays a vital role It’s application ensures smooth functioning of business.
A professional acquires certain specific formal education. He has specific skill to achieve his goals. He performs management functions like planning, organizing, controlling, etc. Similarly, while performing nonprofessional activities, like plantation of tree, blood donation campaign, a person also requires to perform certain management functions.
Thus, management is essential in performing professional as well as non-professional activities.

2.Levels of Management depends on the size of organization.

SOLUTION

Making different parts for the smooth functioning of business and to “achieve decided goals is called levels of management.
The size of business is small, medium or large. Every business needs to manage the activities efficiently and effectively.
The levels of management depends on size of organization. If the size of organization is small the classification of levels becomes easy and simple. Whereas in large organization, it becomes difficult and complicated. The levels of management in such organisation may be classified into three parts i.e. Top level, Middle level and Lower level.
These levels of management are important in organization. These levels have their own functions. As per that they have to perform their duties and responsibilities to attain their set goals and objectives.
Thus, levels of management depends on size of organisation.

3.Management is a group oriented action.

SOLUTION

In the words of Mary Parker Follet, “management is an art of getting things done through others”. Management focuses on completing the work through human resource.
It is co-ordinating of all available resources effectively and efficiently. In organisation, the activities are done by the subordinates, employees under the guidance of a manager.
A manager, though he is competent, able, has capacity, skills to perform the organizational task, ‘it is not possible for a single manager to perform all the activities related to the said task alone.
To fulfill or accomplish the objectives and goals, he needs the help of other people, as it should be divided among all the employees, as per their skill, qualification, interest, knowledge and experience.
Thus, management is a group oriented activity.

4.Management is an art.

SOLUTION

 An art is the bringing about a desired result through the application of skills. It is an innovativeness and creativeness of a person. This is a natural and inborn quality of a person. But with the help of proper education and practice one can developed the quality or qualities. E. g. acting, dancing, cycling, magician, singing, drawing, skating, musician, sports etc. comes under art.
Art does not require any specific educational qualification or it not any compulsion. It is inborn quality or a skill.
As a manager, in organisation he has to handle various kinds of situations, employees, other resources effectively and efficiently with his own style. So he uses his skills which are either inborn or developed by practice and formal education.
A manger must be innovative. He should handle the conditions. He should not use same methods all the time. Like an artist, he has to develop his skills by regular practice. He should use different techniques and skills to get perfect result. This is possible due to regular practice.
Every managers has different abilities and skills. They have to use their own abilities and skills to guide the people to achieve their goals.
Thus, manager need to be creative and skilled like an artist. Hence, management is an art.

5.There is no need of registration for managers.

SOLUTION

Every professional is registered with the concerned body or organisation. A professional is formally educated and also a skilled person.
A manager, now-a-days, possess a diploma or degree in management studies like Indian Institute of Management (IIM), PUMBA (Savitribai Phule Pune University, MBA) etc. A person who wants to be a manager acquires the required knowledge of the profession and trains himself/ herself for the managerial job.
As management is a profession, a manager is not practicing independently. He is an employee of the organisation.
Thus, there is no need of registration for managers.

6.Management is a continuos process.

SOLUTION

Management is a continuous process. It is an important feature of management.
A manager of an organisation has to perform managerial work to achieve pre-defined goals of the organisation. To achieve these goals, he as a manager applies various functions of management, principles of management and also techniques of management.
From the beginning till the achievement of success, continuous efforts of every individual is required.
Continuity is an integral part of management. It is necessary through out the life of an organisation.
Therefore, management has become necessary to start the activity and to run the activity at the business smoothly.
Thus, management is a continuous activity. It is not a one time process, but it is never ending process.

7.Planning is a task of top level management.

SOLUTION

Planning means thinking before doing. It is thinking in advance. Before the action, there is a thinking process.
In the large organisation, management levels are divided into three parts i. e. top, middle and lower. At the top level management, very few personnels are involves. They are Board of Directors, Managing Directors, President, Chief Executive Officer, etc.
The main function of top level management is to frame the plans and policies of the Whole organisation to achieve its goals.
It decides the long term objectives of the organisation and also frames particular plans and policies to get them. Further, it also sees that the policies are properly implemented.
Framing of organizational objectives and accordingly plans and policies to achieve them becomes a tough task of top level management.
Thus, Planning is a task of top level management.

Attempt the following.

1.State the features of management.

SOLUTION

Features of Management:
Managements is Dynamic: Management is dynamic and not static in character. It deals with human efforts, different situations and different activities. It adopts changes in the form of technological, socio economical, political, environmental, etc.
Management is Intangible: Management is intangible in nature. It can’t be seen and touched. It is abstract. The principles, theories, techniques, concept are practically invisible. The result of best management can be experienced in the form of increased profit, smooth functioning of the organization and achievement.
Management is a Social Process: Management is a process because it sets objectives and takes steps to achieve them. It is said to be a social process because management is concerned with people. For example employees, shareholders, investors, customers, community, etc.
Management is a Continuous Process: Management is essential through the life of an organization. It is necessary to begin the activity, to run the activity smoothly and to control the activity. This is never ending process.
There are more feature of management:
Management is Different from Ownership
Management is an Inborn Quality
Management is Situational
Management is Goal Orientated
Management is Universal

2.State management is as a science.

SOLUTION

Systematic Body of Knowledge: Management is not a science like physics, chemistry or biology. It is a science which deals with human beings. Management has a theories and concepts. Various principle of management like unity of command, division of labour, unity of direction are all universally accepted principle. Management follows procedures like collecting data, analyzing and drawing inferences from it. This makes management a science.
Use of Scientific Methods of Observation: In science the conclusions are drawn only on the basis of scientific methods of observation. Management also uses systematic methods of data collection, verification and analysis of that collected data and interpretation of data, then a manager takes decisions in the organisation.
Cause and Effect Relationship: Science is based on cause and effect relationship. After using specific formulae or their combination, we get particular result in science. Management theories are also based on relationships. Fair and regular salary along with good working conditions motivates people to work hard and to give best results. Whereas, old machineries, techniques, untrained employees may not give good / excepted output to the organization.
Universal Applicability of Principles: The management principles are universally accepted just like scientific principles are accepted all over the world. For e.g. Newton’s law, Archimedes principle, etc. are all accepted principles, similarly in management also the principle of authority and responsibility, unity of command, direction, etc. are all universally accepted and are used in all organization whether big or small. Management follows these principles in all kind of organizations, at all levels in the same organization.

3.State the relation between the management and art.

SOLUTION

Creativity: Managers must posses the quality of being creative. Every manager should be able to bring innovations in the business. This quality is developed with experience. The more experienced manager can bring about changes according to the situation.
Regular Practice: Practice makes a man perfect. This is the rule applied by a manager. The more the experience, the manager will be able to meet any challenge or difficult situation with ease. He is in a position to make the required changes according to the circumstances.
Personal Skill: Every manager being an individual is different. A good manager must posses good skills in dealing with human beings. He should use his skill in knowing the problem, allotment of work to employees, give judgment and understanding to deal with various situations in business.
Personal Abilities: Every person has different abilities and skills. Manager uses his own abilities to co-ordinate the activities, to guide the people and to achieve their goals.

4.State the importance of management.

SOLUTION

Utilisation of Resources Optimally: Effective management is all about optimum use of available resources in the organization. Proper distribution of resources and work to right person results in higher output. It also reduces wastage and cost. Maximisation of output by reducing cost is the ultimate objective of every organization.
Better Relation: Different groups work at different levels in organization. The employer and the employees have different sets of demands from each other. Effective management ensures that employees fulfill their social responsibilities towards their employers. This helps in establishing good relationship among different groups in an organization.
Achievement of Goals: In an organization group of people performs various activities to achieve common goals of the organization. Effective management brings about harmony (cordial relationship) and good co-ordination in efforts of all group. A manager creates a feeling of team spirit among the members of the group.
Division of Work: Division of Work means the entire work is divided into smaller lots. Each job is given to a particular employee as per his ability and skill to carry out the required activity. Division of work leads to specialization of work and completion of the work in the stipulated period of time.

5.State the similarities between management and profession.

SOLUTION

Formal Education: Professionals need formal education. Today’s managers are qualified with management diploma or degrees from various institutes like IIMS, PUMBA etc. They also take formal training from management schools which helps them to work professionally.
Code of Conduct: Code of conduct means set of rules and regulations to be followed by practicing in their field. Every profession has their own code of conduct to control the activities. It emphasis on ethical practice in that profession. E.g. Chartered Accountants have to work according to ICAI, Lawyers have to follow the code of conduct framed by Bar Council of India, etc. However for managers there is no such association of managers. Generally managers follow the code of conduct based on customs and traditions.
Expertise: A professional is an expert in his field. He has acquired specific knowledge through formal education. He has particular skill of practicing as professional. He becomes an expert due to regular practice in specific field.
Registration: Professionals need to register themselves with their associations. For example, Lawyers must get registered themselves with India Bar Council, Chartered Accountants With Institute of Chartered Accountant of India, where as for managers there is no need of such registration with any body. They can take membership of ‘Chambers of Commerce’ which give them membership benefits.
Restricted Entry: The entry in any profession is restricted. It needs formal education e.g. Lawyers, Architect, Interior designer, Doctors, Chartered Accountant, etc. However, such compulsion is not there for working as a manager.

6.State the functions of lower level management.

SOLUTION

  1. Planning day to day working.
  2. Acting as a link between middle level of management and workers.
  3. Carrying out the instructions given by the middle level management.
  4. Delegating duties to workers, inspecting and supervising their work.
  5. Attending the problems of workers and making arrangements for their training and development.
  6. To maintain discipline and good human relations among the workers.
  7. Image building of the enterprise before workers and creating sense of belongingness.
  8. Ensuring safety of workers, machine, tools, etc.
  9. Making arrangement of materials and tools and preventing the misuse and wastage of such material.
  10. Providing feedback information about the workers problems to the higher authorities.

Answer the following.

1.What is management?

SOLUTION

Meaning: The word management is derived from the Latin word ‘Manus’ which means ‘hands’. It means management is handling some activity. Many thinkers said that management means a fine consideration of co-ordinating and controlling the work either from direct individual or from a group.
Definitions:
Some definitions of management given by different management thinkers as follows:
Mary Parker Follet– “Management is an art of getting things done through others”.
Henry Fayol-“To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control”.
Fredrick Winslow Taylor- “Management is knowing exactly what is to be done and seeing that it is done in the best possible manner.”

2.State the characteristics of management.

SOLUTION

Managements is Dynamic: Management is dynamic and not static in character. It deals with human efforts, different situations and different activities. It adopts changes in the form of technological, socio economical, political, environmental, etc.
Management is Intangible: Management is intangible in nature. It can’t be seen and touched. It is abstract. The principles, theories, techniques, concept are practically invisible. The result of best management can be experienced in the form of increased profit, smooth functioning of the organization and achievement.
Management is a Social Process: Management is a process because it sets objectives and takes steps to achieve them. It is said to be a social process because management is concerned with people. For example employees, shareholders, investors, customers, community, etc.
Management is a Continuous Process: Management is essential through the life of an organization. It is necessary to begin the activity, to run the activity smoothly and to control the activity. This is never ending process.
Management is Different from Ownership: In an organization, management is different from ownership. Owners contribute capital which is taken care of by efficient and paid managers.
Management is an Inborn Quality: Management in the older days, was considered to be an inborn quality. But with the inception of various business schools, management is a quality which can be developed if a person has the interest and perseverance.
Management is Situational: Management helps to take decisions and also to handle specific situation. The decisions are based on the principles, theories and techniques. They are applicable in certain situation only.
Management is Goal Orientated: Every business organization either small, medium or large, profit -making or non-profit making, Governmental or N GOs have their own goals. When the organization achieves its desired goals, it is called success of that organisation. This success depends on proper management of all available resources. A manager takes lots of efforts to achieve these goals. So management is goal oriented.
Management is Universal: Management principles and theories are equally applicable every Where and in every field like business, profession, hospital, education, politics, government administration social activities. These principles are the guidelines to the manager. They are flexible and capable of adaptation to every type of organization.
Management is Group Activity: Management is defined as “getting work done through others” or “With the people in formally organized groups”. The tasks set by the organization is compiled by employees, all levels of managers and even with the help of outside parties.

Answer the following.

1.Discuss whether management is an art, science or profession.

SOLUTION

Management is an art:
  1. Creativity: Managers must posses the quality of being creative. Every manager should be able to bring innovations in the business. This quality is developed with experience. The more experienced manager can bring about changes according to the situation.
  2. Regular Practice: Practice makes a man perfect. This is the rule applied by a manager. The more the experience, the manager will be able to meet any challenge or difficult situation with ease. He is in a position to make the required changes according to the circumstances.
  3. Personal Skill: Every manager being an individual is different. A good manager must posses good skills in dealing with human beings. He should use his skill in knowing the problem, allotment of work to employees, give judgment and understanding to deal with various situations in business.
  4. Personal Abilities: Every person has different abilities and skills. Manager uses his own abilities to co-ordinate the activities, to guide the people and to achieve their goals.
Management is an science:
  1. Systematic Body of Knowledge: Management is not a science like physics, chemistry or biology. It is a science which deals with human beings. Management has a theories and concepts. Various principle of management like unity of command, division of labor, unity of direction are all universally accepted principle. Management follows procedures like collecting data, analyzing and drawing inferences from it. This makes management a science.
  2. Use of Scientific Methods of Observation: In science the conclusions are drawn only on the basis of scientific methods of observation. Management also uses systematic methods of data collection, verification and analysis of that collected data and interpretation of data, then a manager takes decisions in the organisation.
  3. Cause and Effect Relationship: Science is based on cause and effect relationship. After using specific formulae or their combination, we get particular result in science. Management theories are also based on relationships. Fair and regular salary along with good working conditions motivates people to work hard and to give best results. Whereas, old machineries, techniques, untrained employees may not give good / excepted output to the organization.
  4. Universal Applicability of Principles: The management principles are universally accepted just like scientific principles are accepted all over the world. For e.g. Newton’s law, Archimedes principle, etc. are all accepted principles, similarly in management also the principle of authority and responsibility, unity of command, direction, etc. are all universally accepted and are used in all organization whether big or small. Management follows these principles in all kind of organizations, at all levels in the same organization.
Management is an profession:
  1. Formal Education: Professionals need formal education. Today’s managers are qualified with management diploma or degrees from various institutes like IIMS, PUMBA etc. They also take formal training from management schools which helps them to work professionally.
  2. Code of Conduct: Code of conduct means set of rules and regulations to be followed by practicing in their field. Every profession has their own code of conduct to control the activities. It emphasis on ethical practice in that profession. E.g. Chartered Accountants have to work according to ICAI, Lawyers have to follow the code of conduct framed by Bar Council of India, etc. However for managers there is no such association of managers. Generally managers follow the code of conduct based on customs and traditions.
  3. Expertise: A professional is an expert in his field. He has acquired specific knowledge through formal education. He has particular skill of practicing as professional. He becomes an expert due to regular practice in specific field.
  4. Registration: Professionals need to register themselves with their associations. For example, Lawyers must get registered themselves with India Bar Council, Chartered Accountants With Institute of Chartered Accountant of India, where as for managers there is no need of such registration with any body. They can take membership of ‘Chambers of Commerce’ which give them membership benefits.
  5. Restricted Entry: The entry in any profession is restricted. It needs formal education e.g. Lawyers, Architect, Interior designer, Doctors, Chartered Accountant, etc. However, such compulsion is not there for working as a manager.

Question 1:

Match the pairs.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a. C2H61. Unsaturated hydrocarbon
b. C2H22. Molecular formula of an alcohol
c. CH4O3. Saturated hydrocarbon
d. C3H64. Triple bond
ANSWER:
Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a. C2H61. Saturated hydrocarbon
b. C2H22. Triple bond
c. CH4O3. Molecular formula of an alcohol
d. C3H64. Unsaturated hydrocarbon 
Question 2:
Draw an electron dot structure of the following molecules. (Without showing the circles)

a. Methane

b. Ethene

c. Methanol

d. Water

ANSWER:

Question 3:
Draw all possible structural formulae of compounds from their molecular formula given below.
a. C3H8  
b. C4H10  
c. C3H
ANSWER:
Question 4:
Explain the following terms with example.

a. Structural isomerism

b. Covalent bond

c. Hetero atom in a carbon compound

d. Functional group

e. Alkane

f. Unsaturated hydrocarbon

g. Homopolymer

h. Monomer

i. Reduction

j. Oxidant

a. Structural isomerism: -Structural isomerism or constitutional isomerism is a form of isomerism in which molecules have same molecular formula but different arrangements of the atoms in space.

Different arrangement may be in bonding patterns and atomic organization.

For example: CH3OCH3 and CH3CH2OH are structural isomers.

b. Covalent bond: -Covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs.

It is also known as molecular bond.

For example: Molecules that have covalent linkages are hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, water, and ammonia (H2, N2, Cl2, H2O, NH3).

A single line indicates a single bond between two atoms (i.e.involving one electron pair), double lines (=) indicate a double bond between two atoms (i.e. involving two electron pairs), and triple lines (≡) represent a triple bond (C≡O).


c. Hetero atom in a carbon compound: It is a compound formed by replacement of carbon and hydrogen by heteroatom in a compound.

A heteroatom is any atom other than carbon or hydrogen.

Typical heteroatoms are nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

Similarly, Nitrogen is the hetero atom in Ethyl amine ( CH3-CH2NH2


d. Functional group: The functional group is defined as an atom or group of atoms joined in a specific manner, which gives the chemical properties of the organic compound and they are the centers for chemical reactivity.

Compounds having a similar functional group undergoes similar reactions.

For example:


1. Alkane: The functional group presence in the alkane is -C-C-. The IUPAC group suffix of an alkane is –ane.

Example: Methane CH4


2. Alkene: The functional group presence in the alkene is -C=C- (double bond). The IUPAC group suffix of an alkene is –ene.

Example: butane


3. Alkynes: The functional group presence in the alkyne is -C ≡ C- (triple bond). The IUPAC group suffix of an alkyne is –yne.

Example: Propyne

4. Arenes: They contain a benzene ring as the functional group.

Example: Benzene


5. Halides: The functional group presence in halides is X(halogen).

Example: Chloromethane


6. Alcohols: The functional group, which is present in alcohol, is -OH. The IUPAC group suffix of alcohol is –ol.

Example: Ethanol

7. Aldehydes: The functional group, which is present in an aldehyde, is -CHO. The IUPAC group suffix of an aldehyde is –al.

Example: Formaldehyde

8. Ketones: The functional group, which is present in a ketone is >C=O. The IUPAC group suffix of a ketone is –one.
Example: Acetone

9. Carboxylic acid: The functional group present in a carboxylic acid is -COOH. The IUPAC group suffix of a carboxylic acid is –oic acid.

Example: Acetic acid

10. Amine: The functional groups present in an amine are -NH2>NH>N- The IUPAC group prefix of an amine is amino– or the suffix is –amine.
Example: Methylamine

11. Ester: The functional group present in an ester is -COOR The IUPAC group suffix of an ester is –ate.
Example: Ethyl acetate

e. Alkane: Alkane is a saturated hydrocarbon.

It is formed when there is sharing of one electron pair between carbon atoms in a compound.

The general formula for alkane is CNH2N+2, where N is equal to no of carbon atoms in a compound.

For example:

C2H6Ethane
C3H8propane
C4H10butane
C5H12pentane
C6H14hexane
C7H16heptane
C8H18octane
C9H20nonane
C10H22decane
C11H24undecane

f. Unsaturated hydrocarbon: An unsaturated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon containing at least one double or triple bond.

For example: Alkenes – These unsaturated hydrocarbons are molecules that contain at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond.

With the chemical formula consisting of CnH2n.

The simplest alkene is ethylene.

Alkynes – These unsaturated hydrocarbons are molecules that contain at least one carbon-to-carbon triple bond. 

Acetylenes are common examples of alkynes.

g. Homopolymer: A homopolymer is a polymer formed from the same type of monomer units.

For examples:

Polyvinylchloride (PVC),

Polyethylene,

Polystyrene are homopolymer.

h. Monomer: A monomer is a molecule that forms the basic unit for polymers.
They may be considered as building blocks from which proteins are made.
Monomers may bind to other monomer unit to form a repeating chain molecule.
Monomers may be either natural or synthetic in origin.

For example:

Ethylene,

vinyl chloride,

styrene etc.

i. Reduction: The addition of hydrogen to a substance is called reduction.
The removal of oxygen from a substance is called reduction.
For example:2Ag2O → 4 Ag + O2
In a reaction, silver oxide is changing to silver.
That is, oxygen is being removed from silver oxide.
Removal of oxygen from a substance is called reduction, so silver oxide undergoes reduction.
NiO + H2 → Ni + H2O
In a reaction, Nickel oxide is changing to nickel.
That is, oxygen is being removed from nickel oxide.
Removal of oxygen from a substance is called reduction, so nickel oxide undergoes reduction.
In a reaction, hydrogen is changing to H2O.
That is, oxygen is being added to hydrogen.
Addition of oxygen to a substance is called oxidation, so hydrogen undergoes oxidation.

j. Oxidant:The substance which gives oxygen for oxidation is called an oxidizing agent or oxidant.
The substance which removes hydrogen is called an oxidizing agent or oxidant.

For example:
CuO + H2 → Cu +  H2O Oxidising agent=CuO Reducing agent= H2 Substance oxidised=H2Substance reduced=CuO
ANSWER:
Question 5:
Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.
a. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3b. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3
c. CH3-CHOH-CH3d. CH3-CHOH-CH3
e. CH3-CH2-COOHf. CH3-CH2-COOH
ANSWER:

a. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 = Butane
b. CH3-CH(OH)-CH3 = Propan-2-ol
c. CH3-CH2-COOH = Propanoic acid
d. CH3-CH2-NH2 = Ethan-1-amine
e. CH3-CHO = Ethanal
f. CH3-CO-CH2-CH3 = Butanone

Question 6:
Identify the type of the following reaction of carbon compounds.

a. CH3 -CH2 -CH2-OH → CH3 -CH2 -COOH

b. CH3 -CH2 -CH3 → 3CO2 + 4H2O

c. CH3 -CH = CH -CH3 + Br2 → CH3 -CHBr – CHBr -CH3

d. CH3 -CH3 + Cl2 → CH3 -CH2 -Cl + HCl

e. CH3 -CH2 -CH2 -CH2 -OH → CH3 -CH2 -CH=CH2 + H2O

f. CH3 -CH2 -COOH + NaOH → CH3 -CH2 -COO – Na+ + H2O

g. CH3 -COOH + CH3 -OH → CH3 -COO- CH3 + H2O

ANSWER:

a. CH3 -CH2 -CH2-OH → CH3 -CH2 -COOH = Oxidation reaction(acidic KMnO4)

b. CH3 -CH2 -CH3 → 3 CO2 + 4H2O = Combustion reaction

d. CH3 -CH3 + Cl2 → CH3 -CH2 -Cl + HCl = Substitution reaction

e. CH3 -CH2 -CH2 -CH2 -OH → CH3 -CH2 -CH=CH2 + H2O = Dehydration reaction

f. CH3 -CH2 -COOH + NaOH → CH3 -CH2 -COO – Na+ + H2O = Neutralization reaction(reaction with base)

g. CH3 -COOH + CH3 -OH → CH3 -COO- CH3 + H2O = Esterification reaction

Question 7:

Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.

a. pent-2-oneb. 2-chlorobutane
c. propan- 2 old. methanal
e. butanoic acidf. 1-bromopropane
g. ethanamineh. butanone

ANSWER:


Question 8:
Write answers as directed.
a. What causes the existence of very large number of carbon compound ?
b. Saturated hydrocarbons are classified into three types. Write these names giving one example each.
c. Give any four functional groups containing oxygen as the heteroatom in it. Write name and structural formula of one example each.
d. Give names of three functional groups containing three different hetero atoms. Write name and structural formula of one example each.
e. Give names of three natural polymers. Write the place of their occurrence and names of monomers from which they are formed.
f. What is meant by vinegar and gasohol? What are their uses ?
g. What is a catalyst ? Write any one reaction which is brought about by the use of catalyst ?
ANSWER:

a. Organic compounds mean carbon compounds.

Carbon is unique element in the periodic table.

It has 4 valence electrons.

That means each individual carbon atom can bind to 4 other atoms of almost any variety and each of those 4 can bind to 4 other atoms.

This leads to the formation of organic compounds having incredible variety and complexity – short chains, long chains, ring structures, branched structures and so on.

This self linking property of carbon atom is called catenation, which leads to the existence of a very large number of carbon compounds.


b. Saturated hydrocarbons are classified into three types:
Saturated hydrocarbonExampleStructure
1) Straight chain hydrocarbonsPropane C3H8
2)Branched chain hydrocarbonisobutane C4H10
3)Cyclic hydrocarbonCyclohexane C6H12
c. Four functional groups containing oxygen as the heteroatom in it are as follows:


1. Alcohols: The functional group, which is present in alcohol, is -OH. The IUPAC group suffix of alcohol is –ol. Example: Ethanol

2. Aldehydes: The functional group, which is present in an aldehyde, is -CHO. The IUPAC group suffix of an aldehyde is –al. Example: Formaldehyde

3. Ketones: The functional group, which is present in a ketone is >C=O. The IUPAC group suffix of a ketone is –one. Example: Acetone

4. Carboxylic acid: The functional group present in a carboxylic acid is -COOH. The IUPAC group suffix of a carboxylic acid is –oic acid. Example: Acetic acid

d. Three functional groups containing three different hetero atoms are as follows: Carboxylic acid:

The functional group present in a carboxylic acid is -COOH.

The IUPAC group suffix of a carboxylic acid is –oic acid.

Here, heteroatom is oxygen.


Example: Acetic acid

Amine: The functional groups present in an amine are -NH2>NH>N- The IUPAC group prefix of an amine is amino– or the suffix is –amine. Here, heteroatom is nitrogen.
Example: Methylamine

Halo: The functional group presence in halides is X (halogen= F,Cl,Br,I). Here, heteroatom is chloride. Example: Chloromethane.

e. Give names of three natural polymers. Write the place of their occurrence and names of monomers from which they are formed.
ANSWER:
Natural polymers     Monomer unitOccurrence
1.PolysaccarideGlucose  Starch
2.Cellulose   Glucose     Wood (cell wall of plant cells)
3.Proteins      Alpha aminoacids   Muscles, hair, Skin, Egg
4.D.N.A       Nucleotide(base-deoxyribose-phosphate) Chromosomes of animals
5.R.N.A      Nucleotide(base-ribose-phosphate )   Chromosomes of plants
6.Rubber    Isoprene(CH2=C(CH3)-CH=CH2 )   Latex of rubber tree

f. Vinegar is the type of liquid which consist of acetic acid ( Ethanoic acid ). It is basically produced by the process of fermentation of ethanol through ethanoic acid in the presence of bacteria


Reaction involved in the formation of Vinegar:

CH₃CH₂OH + O₂→ CH₃COOH + H₂O Fermentation is the process of converting sugar into alcohol.

But if the cork of the bottle open for sometimes then there is the second type of fermentation happened. 

In this process, alcohol is changes into acetic acid, so the main compound which formed is vinegar.

Uses of Vinegar are:

It is used in the preparation of the food .

It is used in pickling.
It is used as folk medicine material.
It is used as a household cleaning agent.
Gasohol is a mixture of 90% gasoline and 10% of anhydrous Alcohol (Ethyl Alcohol).
It is commonly known as the alternative fuel or a motor fuel.

Benefits of gasohol are :-

It is cheaper.
It is eco-friendly.
It has higher performance.
It is used as a cleaner to the environment.
It doesn’t freeze in typical conditions.

Uses of gasohol are:

It is used in a fuel or petroleum Industry.
It is used in an automobile industry.
It is used as common gasoline or hydrous around the world.
It is used as a flexible fuel vehicle, because it does not freeze in typical conditions.

g. Catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.
For example:
E.g.Name of processEquations (in words or formulae)Catalyst
1Fermentation of glucose to form ethanolGlucose → Ethanol + Carbon dioxideSpecific enzymes (in yeast)
2Hydration of ethene to form ethanolEthene + Water (Steam) Heat → EthanolPhosphoric Acid
3Hydrogenation of unsaturated fats(to harden oils in the manufacture of margarine)Hydrogen + Unsaturated Fats → Saturated Fats
Nickel (Ni)
4Haber’s processNitrogen +Hydrogen → AmmoniaIron

Question 1:

Write names.

a. Alloy of sodium with mercury.

b. Molecular formula of the common ore of aluminium.

c. The oxide that forms salt and water by reacting with both acid and base.

d. The device used for grinding an ore.

e. The nonmetal having electrical conductivity.

f. The reagent that dissolves noble metals.

ANSWER:

a. Sodium amalgam, commonly denoted as Na(Hg), it is an alloy of mercury and sodium.

b. Bauxite(Al2O3.2H2O) is the common ore of aluminium.

c. Metal oxides which react with both acids as well as bases to produce salts and water are also known as amphoteric oxides. For example: Al2O3 is an amphoteric oxide. An amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both an acid as well as a base to produce salt and water.

d. The device used for grinding an ore is grinding mill.

e. Graphite an allotrope of carbon is a good conductor of electricity.

f. Aqua Regia is 1:3 mixture of concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids. It dissolves noble metals such as gold, palladium, and platinum.

Question 2:

Substance  Property 
a. Potassium bromide1. Combustible
b. Gold2. Soluble in water
c. Sulphur3. No chemical reaction
d. Neon4. High ductility.

ANSWER:

Substance  Property 
a. Potassium bromideSoluble in water
b. GoldHigh ductility.
c. SulphurCombustible
d. NeonNo chemical reaction


Question 3:

Identify the pairs of metals and their ores from the following.

ANSWER:

Group AGroup B
a. Bauxitei. Aluminium
b. Cassiteriteii. Tin
c. Cinnabariii. Mercury

Question 4:

Explain the terms.

a. Metallurgy

b. Ores

c. Minerals

d. Gangue

ANSWER:

a. Metallurgy: The various processes involved in the extraction of metals from its ores and refining is called metallurgy.

The major steps involved for the extraction of a metal from its ore are:

(i) Concentration of ores (or enrichment of ore)

(ii) Conversion of concentrated ore into metal

(iii) Refining (purification) of impure metal

b. Ores: Those minerals from which metals can be extracted conveniently and profitably.

c. Minerals:” A mineral is an element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline and that has been formed as a result of geological processes” (Nickel, E. H., 1995).


 “Minerals are naturally-occurring inorganic substances with a definite and predictable chemical composition and physical properties.” (O’ Donoghue,1990).


 “A mineral is a naturally occurring homogeneous solid, inorganically formed, with a definite chemical composition and an ordered atomic arrangement” (Mason, et al,1968).


 “These… minerals …can be distinguished from one another by individual characteristics that arise directly from the kinds of atoms they contain and the arrangements these atoms make inside them” (Sinkankas, 1966).


 “A mineral is a body produced by the processes of inorganic nature, having usually a definite chemical composition and, if formed under favorable conditions, a certain characteristic atomic structure which is expressed in its crystalline form and other physical properties” (Dana & Ford,1932).


 “Every distinct chemical k occurring in inorganic nature, having a definite molecular structure or system of crystallization and well-defined physical properties, constitutes a mineral species” (Brush & Penfield


d. Gangue: – is the unwanted impurities like rock material, dust, soil, sand, earthy particles, limestone, mica etc. present in an ore.

Question 5:

Write scientific reasons.

a. Lemon or tamarind is used for cleaning copper vessels turned greenish.
b. Generally the ionic compounds have high melting points.
c. Sodium is always kept in kerosene.
d. Pine oil is used in froth flotation.
e. Anodes need to be replaced from time to time during the electrolysis of alumina.

ANSWER:


a. Copper vessels turned greenish due to the formation of copper carbonate layer.
The citric acid present in the lemon or tamarind neutralizes the basic copper carbonate and dissolves the layer.
That is why, tarnished copper vessels are cleaned with lemon or tamarind juice to give the surface of the copper vessel its characteristic lustre.

b. In an ionic compound there is strong electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions.
To overcome these forces a considerable amount of energy is needed.
Therefore, ionic compounds have high melting points.

c. Sodium is a very reactive metal. It is kept in kerosene to prevent it from coming in contact with oxygen and moisture.
If this happens, it will react with the moisture present in air and form sodium hydroxide.
This is a strongly exothermic reaction and lot of heat is generated.

d. Pine oil is added in the froth flotation method to create froth or bubble so that metal can be purify easily because pine oil prevents the ore from gangue for further mixing.
Pine oil also acts as the best substance for forming froth for the minerals.
It also increases the non wettability of mineral particles.

e. In the electrolysis of alumina, graphite rod is used as anode.
During the electrolytic reduction of alumina, aluminium is produced at the cathode and oxygen gas is evolved at the anode.
This gas reacts with the graphite rods (anode) and forms carbon dioxide.
Thus, the graphite rods are continuously eroded.
Hence, the graphite rods i.e. anodes be replaced from time to time during the electrolysis of fused alumina. 

Question 6:

When a copper coin is dipped in silver nitrate solution, a glitter appears on the coin after some time. Why does this happen? Write the chemical equation.

ANSWER:


Copper is more reactive than silver. Hence, displacement reaction occurs.
When copper coin is dipped in silver nitrate solution, it forms copper nitrate and silver metal.
A shining white deposit of silver metal is formed on copper coin.
The grey solid crystal(glitters) of Ag metal appears on the copper coin and solution turns blue in colour.
Balanced equation: 
2AgNO3(aq) + Cu(s) → Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)

Question 7:

The electronic configuration of metal ‘A’ is 2,8,1 and that of metal ‘B’ is 2,8,2. Which of the two metals is more reactive? Write their reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid.

ANSWER:


On moving from left to right in a period of periodic table, the chemical reactivity of elements first decreases from sodium to silicon and then increases from phosphorus to chlorine.
The electronic configuration of metal ‘A’ is 2,8,1. This is electronic configuration of sodium metal.
The electronic configuration of metal ‘B’ is 2,8,2.
This is electronic configuration of magnesium metal.
In the first element of third period, sodium, there is 1 valence electron which it can lose easily to react with other substances, so it is very reactive metal.
The second element magnesium has 2 valence electrons.
It is not easy for an atom to lose 2 electrons, so magnesium is less reactive than sodium.
Reaction with dil hydrochloric acid:

Question 8:

Draw a neat labelled diagram.

a. Magnetic separation method.

ANSWER:

b. Froth floatation method.

ANSWER:

c. Electrolytic reduction of alumina.

ANSWER:

d. Hydraulic separation method.

ANSWER:

Question 9:

Write the chemical equation for the following events.

a. Aluminium came in contact with air.

b. Iron filings are dropped in aqueous solution of copper sulphate.

c. A reaction was brought about between ferric oxide and Aluminium.

d. Electrolysis of alumina is done.

e. Zinc oxide is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid.

ANSWER:

a. Aluminium came in contact with air.

Aluminum is a very reactive metal.

The outer surface of the metal is actually covered by a very thin layer of the oxide which keeps the metal protected from the air.

But when the oxide layer is damaged, aluminum comes in contact with the air.

It is easily attacked by air.

Then aluminium starts reacting with the oxygen.

It will burn as bright white flame to change into aluminum(III) oxide.

Chemical Equation: 

  

b. Iron filings are dropped in aqueous solution of copper sulphate.

Iron is more reactive than copper.

It can displace Copper (Cu) from its salt Copper sulphate (CuSO4) and its colour changes from blue to green.

Chemical Equation: 

c. A reaction was brought about between ferric oxide and aluminium.

Aluminium is more reactive than iron.

Aluminium metal replaces iron from ferric oxide to form aluminium oxide and iron

Chemical Equation:

d. Electrolysis of alumina is done.

The electrolysis of alumina is carried out in a steel tank lined inside with graphite.

The graphite lining serves as cathode.

Anode is also made up of graphite rods hanging in the molten mass.

The electrolyte consists of alumina dissolved in fused Cryolite(Na3AlF6) and Fluorspar(CaF2).

Cryolite lowers the melting point of alumina and fluorspar increases the fluidity of the mass so that the liberated aluminum metal may sink at the bottom of the cell.

When electric current is passed through this mixture, the aluminum is collected at the cathode in molten state and sinks at the bottom.

e. Zinc oxide is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid.

Zinc Oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.

It is insoluble in water.

When Zinc oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid it forms zinc chloride and water.

It also leads in the formation of small bubbles of hydrogen.

This is a double displacement reaction.

Chemical Equation: 

Question 10:

Complete the following statement using every given options.

During the extraction of aluminium…………..

a. Ingredients and gangue in bauxite.

b. Use of leaching during the concentration of ore.

c. Chemical reaction of transformation of bauxite into alumina by Hall’s process.

d. Heating the aluminium ore with concentrated caustic soda.

ANSWER:

a. Bauxite is the main ore of aluminium.

Silica (SiO2), ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and titanium oxide (TiO2) are the impurities present in bauxite.

Ingredient in bauxite are molten cryolite (Na3AIF6), fluorspar (CaF2).


b. The separation of impurities(silica (SiO2), ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and titanium oxide (TiO2)) in bauxite ore is done by leaching process using either Bayer’s method or Hall’s method.


c. In the Hall’s process the bauxite is in powdered form and then leached by heating with aqueous sodium carbonate in the digester to form water soluble sodium aluminate.

Then the insoluble impurities are filtered out.

The filtrate is warmed and neutralised by passing carbon dioxide gas through it.

This results in the precipitation of aluminium hydroxide.

The precipitate of Al(OH)3 obtained in both, Bayer’s and Hall’s processes is filtered, washed, dried and then calcined by heating at 10000C to obtain alumina.

d. When Aluminium ore is heated with caustic soda  (NaOH) solution under high pressure for 2-8 hours at 1400-1500C, water soluble sodium aluminate is formed.

Question 11:

Divide the metals Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, Li into three groups, namely reactive metals, moderately reactive metals and less reactive metals.

ANSWER:

Highly reactive metals
moderately reactive metalsless reactive metals.
CaFeAu
MgZnAg
NaCuPt
Li

Question 1:

Match the columns in the following table and explain them.
Column 1–Column 2—Column 3

answer:

Column 1Column 2Column 3
Farsightedness

Far away object can be seen clearlyConvex lens
Presbyopia

Problem of old ageBifocal lens
Nearsightedness

Nearby object can be seen clearly Concave lens

Farsightedness

Hypermetropia

This defect is also known as Hypermetropia. It is an eye defect in which a person is unable to see nearby objects clearly but can see the far away objects clearly.

It is caused due to

1. reduction in the curvature of the lens
2. decrease in the size of the eyeball
Since a convex lens has the ability to converge incoming rays, it can be used to correct this defect of vision, as you already have seen in the animation.


Nearsightedness:

Myopia

This defect is also known as Myopia.
It is a defect of vision in which a person clearly sees all the nearby objects, but is unable to see distant objects comfortably and his eye is known as a myopic eye.
A myopic eye has its far point nearer than infinity.
It forms the image of a distant object in front of the retina as shown in the figure.

It is caused by

1. increase in curvature of the lens
2. increase in length of the eyeball.
Since a concave lens has an ability to diverge incoming rays, it is used to correct this defect of vision. The image is allowed to form at the retina by using a concave lens of suitable power.

Presbyopia

Presbyopia: This is a common defect of vision, which generally occurs at old age.
A person suffering from this type of defect of vision cannot see nearby objects clearly and distinctly.
A presbyopic eye has its near point greater than 25 cm and it gradually increases as the eye becomes older.

Presbyopia is caused by the1. weakening of the ciliary muscles2. reduction in the flexibility of the eye lensIt can be corrected using bifocal lens.


Question 2:

Draw a figure explaining various terms related to a lens.

ANSWER:

Terms Associated with Lenses:

Optical centre:-
Optical centre is a point at the centre of the lens. It always lies inside the lens and not on the surface. It is denoted by ‘O’.

Centre of curvature:-
It is the centre point of arcs of the two spheres from which the given spherical lens (concave or convex) is made. Since a lens constitutes two spherical surfaces, it has two centers of curvature.

Radius of curvature:
The distance of the optical centre from either of the centres of curvatures is termed as the radius of curvature.

Principal axis:
The imaginary straight line joining the two centers of curvature and the optical centre (O) is called the principal axis of the lens.
Focus:
The focus (F) is the point on the principal axis of a lens where all incident parallel rays after refraction from the lens meet or appear to diverge from. For lenses there are two foci (F1 and F2) depending on the direction of incident rays.

Focal length:
The distance between the focus (F1 or F2) and the optical centre (O) is known as the focal length of the lens.    

Question 3:

At which position will you keep an object in front of a convex lens so as to get a real image of the same size as the object? Draw a figure.

Answer:

When an object is placed at the centre of curvature 2F1 of a convex lens, we will get a real image of the same size as the object.

Question 4:

Give scientific reasons:

a. Simple microscope is used for watch repairs.

ANSWER:

Simple microscope has convex lens which has the ability to produce 20 times larger as well as erect image of an object. This means the magnifying power of the microscope is very high. Thus, simple microscopes are used by watchmakers to see the small parts and screws of the watch while repairing it.

b. One can sense colours only in bright light.

ANSWER:

The cells present on the retina and responsible for colour vision are known as cone cells.
These cells become active only under bright light and remain inactive under dark.
Thus, we are able to sense only in bright light.


c. We cannot clearly see an object kept at a distance less than 25 cm from the eye.

ANSWER:

We cannot clearly see an object kept at a distance less than 25 cm from the eye.
This is because the ciliary muscles of our eyes are unable to contract beyond certain limit.
If the object is placed at a distance less than 25 cm from the eye, then the object appears blurred because light rays coming from the object meet behind the retina.

Question 5:

Explain the workings of an astronomical telescope using refraction of light.

ANSWER:

The astronomical telescope consists of two lenses: objective and eyepiece.
Objective has larger focal length and diameter to accommodate the maximum amount of light coming from the far away (astronomical) objects.
A parallel beam of rays from an astronomical object is made to fall on the objective lens of the telescope.
It forms a real, inverted and diminished image A’B’ of the object.
The eyepiece is so adjusted that A’B’ lies just at the focus of the eye piece.
Therefore, a highly magnified image of the object is formed at infinity.
The same has been shown in the figure below.

Question 6:

Distinguish between:

a. Farsightedness and Nearsightedness
b. Concave lens and Convex lens
ANSWER:

a.


b.

Question 7:

What is the function of the iris and the muscles connected to the lens in human eye?

ANSWER:

Function of Iris:

The iris is a muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil, which, in turn, controls the amount of light entering the eye. It also gives colour to the eye.

Function of ciliary muscles:

The eye lens is held in position by the ciliary muscles. The focal length of the eye lens is adjusted by the expansion and contraction of the ciliary muscles.

Question 8:

Solve the following examples.

i. Doctor has prescribed a lens having power +1.5 D. What will be the focal length of the lens? What is the type of the lens and what must be the defect of vision?

ANSWER:

ii. 5 cm high object is placed at a distance of 25 cm from a converging lens of focal length of 10 cm. Determine the position, size and type of the image. 

ANSWER:

iii. Three lenses having power 2, 2.5 and 1.7 D are kept touching in a row. What is the total power of the lens combination? 

ANSWER:

iv. An object kept 60 cm from a lens gives a virtual image 20 cm in front of the lens. What is the focal length of the lens? Is it a converging lens or diverging lens?

ANSWER:


Chapter 10: ओजोन विघटन का संकट

Balbharati solutions for Hindi – Yuvakbharati 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board chapter 10 – ओजोन विघटन का संकट [Latest edition]

आकलन | Q 1 | Page 55

लिखिए :

ओजोन गैस की विशेषताएँ :

(१) __________________

(२) __________________

Solution: 

(१) ओजोन गैस नीले रंग की होती है।

(२) यह प्रकृति में तीक्ष्ण और विषैली होती है और मानव स्वास्थ्य के लिए हानिकारक होती है।

 शब्द संपदा | Q 1 | Page 55

कृदंत बनाइए :

कहना – ______

Solution: 

कहना – कथन

शब्द संपदा | Q 2 | Page 55

कृदंत बनाइए :

बैठना – ______

Solution

बैठना – बैठक

शब्द संपदा | Q 3 | Page 55

कृदंत बनाइए :

लगना – ______

Solution: 

लगना – लगाव

अभिव्यक्त | Q 2 | Page 55

‘पर्यावरण रक्षा मेंहमारा योगदान’, इस विषय पर लिखिए ।

Solution: 

आज पूरी दुनिया पर्यावरण प्रदूषण से पीड़ित है। पर्यावरण प्रदूषण अर्थात हवा में ऐसी अवांछित गैसों, धूल के कणों आदि की उपस्थिति, जो लोगों तथा प्रकृति दोनों के लिए खतरे का कारण बन जाए। वायु प्रदूषण का एक बड़ा कारण है औद्योगिक इकाइयों से निकलने वाला धुआँ तथा रसायन। पर्यावरण की रक्षा में अपना योगदान देते हुए हमें प्लास्टिक का प्रयोग कम-से-कम करना चाहिए। रिसाइकल किए जा सकने वाली चीजों को फेंक नहीं देना चाहिए। जैसे अखबार, कागज, गत्ते, काँच आदि। पेट्रोल, डीजल आदि के उपयोग में कमी करनी चाहिए। पर्यावरण की रक्षा करना हम सबका कर्तव्य है। पर्यावरण है तो हमारा जीवन है।

पाठ पर आधारित लघूत्तरी प्रश् | Q 1 | Page 55

ओजोन विघटन संकट सेबचनेके लिए किए गए अंतर्राष्ट्रीय प्रयासों को संक्षेप में लिखिए।

Solution

ओजोन विघटन संकट पर विचार करने के लिए अनेक देशों की पहली बैठक 1985 में विमान में हुई। बाद में सितंबर 1987 में कनाडा के मांट्रियल शहर में बैठक हुई, जिसमें दुनिया के 48 देशों ने भाग लिया था। इसके तहत यह प्रावधान रखा गया कि 1995 तक सभी देश सी एफ सी की खपत में 50 प्रतिशत की कटौती तथा 1997 तक 85 प्रतिशत की कटौती करेंगे। सन 2010 तक सभी देश सी एफ सी का इस्तेमाल एकदम बंद कर देंगे। इस दौरान विकसित देश नए प्रशीतकों की खोज में विकासशील देशों की आर्थिक मदद करेंगे।

पाठ पर आधारित लघूत्तरी प्रश् | Q 2 | Page 55

‘क्लोरो फ्लोरो कार्बन (सी.एफ.सी.) नामक याैगिक की खोज प्रशीतन केक्षेत्र में क्रांतिकारी उपलब्धि रही ।’ स्पष्ट कीजिए।

Solution

सन 1930 से पहले प्रशीतन के लिए अमोनिया और सल्फर डाइऑक्साइड गैसों का इस्तेमाल किया जाता था, जो अत्यंत तीक्ष्ण होने के कारण मानव स्वास्थ्य के लिए हानिकारक थीं। तीस के दशक में क्लोरो फ्लोरो कार्बन (सी. एफ. सी.) नामक यौगिक की खोज प्रशीतन के क्षेत्र में क्रांतिकारी उपलब्धि रही। ये रसायन रंगहीन, गंधहीन, अक्रियाशील होने के साथ ही ज्वलनशील होने के कारण आदर्श प्रशीतक माने गए। परिणामस्वरूप बड़े पैमाने पर सी एफ सी यौगिकों का उत्पादन होने लगा और घरेलू कीटनाशक, प्रसाधन सामग्री, दवाएँ, रंग-रोगन, यहाँ तक कि रेफ्रीजिरेटर और एयरकंडिशनर में इनका खूब इस्तेमाल होने लगा।

Q.1 / pg no 56

Solution: 

(१) एकांकी :

(अ) रीढ़ की हड्डी

(ब) महाभारत की साँझ

(२) नाटक :

(अ) ध्रुवस्वामिनी

(ब) अंधेर नगरी

(३) आत्मकथा :

(अ) सत्य के प्रयोग

(ब) तरुण के स्वप्न

(४) खंडकाव्य :

(अ) उर्वशी

(ब) राम की शक्तिपूजा

(५) महाकाव्य :

(अ) रामचरित मानस

(ब) कामायनी

(६) उपन्यास :

(अ) गोदान

(ब) सुनीता

(७) कविता संग्रह :

(अ) यामा

(ब) कितनी नावों में कितनी बार

(८) यात्रा वर्णन :

(अ) मेरी तिब्बत यात्रा

(ब) पैरों में पंख बाँधकर

Question 1:

Fill in the blanks and rewrite the sentence.

a. The amount of water vapour in air is determined in terms of its ……….. .

b. If objects of equal masses are given equal heat, their final temperature will be different. This is due to difference in their …………….. .

c. During transformation of liquid phase to solid phase, the latent heat is ………… .

ANSWER:

a. The amount of water vapour in air is determined in terms of its absolute humidity.
b. If objects of equal masses are given equal heat, their final temperature will be different. This is due to differences in their different specific heat capacity.
c. During transformation of liquid phase to solid phase, the latent heat is latent heat of fusion.

Question 2:

Observe the following graph. Considering the change in volume of water as its temperature is raised from 0°C, discuss the difference in the behaviour of water and other substances. What is this behaviour of water called?

ANSWER:

Most of the substances expand on heating and contract on cooling. Whereas, from the graph, it is clearly visible that water shows a distinct and peculiar behavior between 0oC to 4oC.
Water, instead of expanding, contracts between 0oC to 4oC. After 4oC, it shows the normal behavior of expansion as is shown by other substances.
Thus, at 4oC, water posses maximum density and minimum volume. 
This behavior of water between 0oC to 4oC is known as anomalous behavior of water.

Question 3:

What is meant by specific heat capacity? How will you prove experimentally that different substances have different specific heat capacities?

Take three balls of iron, copper and lead of equal mass and put them in boiling water for some time.
Then, take them out of the water and measure their temperature.
All of them will be at temperature 100oC. Now, put them immediately on the thick slab of wax.
Note the depth that each of the ball goes into the wax.
The ball which absorbs more heat from the water will give more heat to wax.
More wax will thus melt and the ball will go deeper in the wax. It will be observed that the iron ball goes deepest into the wax.
Lead ball goes the least and copper ball goes to intermediate depth.
This shows that for equal rise in temperature, the three balls have absorbed different amounts of heat.
This means that the property which determines the amount of heat absorbed by a ball is different for the three balls.
This property is called the specific heat capacity.

Question 4:

While deciding the unit for heat, which temperature interval is chosen? Why?

ANSWER:

While deciding the unit for heat (which is calorie), the temperature interval chosen is 14.5oC-15.5oC.
We know that the amount of heat released or absorbed by a body is given as∆Q =ms ∆T
Now, we also know that one calorie is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water through 1oC.
Thus, for 1 calorie of heat energy, the specific heat capacity of water should be 1 cal g-1 oC-1.
It is found experimentally that the specific heat capacity of water is 1 cal g-1 oC-1 when the temperature range is 14.5oC-15.5oC.

Question 5:

Explain the following temperature vs time graph.

ANSWER:

In the given graph, line AB represents conversion of ice into water at constant temperature.
When ice is heated, it melts at 0oC and converts into water maintaining constant temperature of 0oC.
This constant temperature, at which the ice converts into water is called the melting point of ice.
Also, during this transition, the ice absorbs heat energy.
This heat energy is utilized for weakening the bonds between the atoms or molecules in the ice to transform itself into liquid.
This heat energy absorbed by ice, at constant temperature, to convert it into liquid is called the latent heat of fusion.
Once all the ice is transformed into water, the temperature of the water starts rising. It increases upto 100oC.
Line BC in the graph represents rise in temperature of water from 0oC to 100oC.
Thereafter, even though heat energy is supplied to water, its temperature does not rise.
The heat energy is absorbed by water at this temperature and is used to break the bonds between molecules of the liquid and convert the liquid into gaseous state.
Thus, during transformation from liquid phase to gas phase, heat energy is absorbed by the liquid, but its temperature does not change.
The constant temperature at which the liquid transforms into gaseous state is called the boiling point of the liquid.
The heat energy absorbed at constant temperature during transformation of liquid into gas is called the latent heat of vaporization.

Question 6:

Explain the following:

a. What is the role of anomalous behaviour of water in preserving aquatic life in regions of cold climate?

ANSWER:

The anomalous behaviour of water is that it contracts from 0oC to 4oC and beyond 4oC it expands.
Thus, the density of water is maximum at 4oC.
When the surrounding temperature falls, the water in oceans and rivers cools down and say the temperature of water reaches 4oC.
Thus, the water reaches its maximum density at this temperature. 
Below this temperature (4oC), the water layer on the surface expands due to anomalous behaviour of water because of which its density decreases.
Thus, this colder layer remains on top  and converts into ice which acts as an insulator and does not allow the temperature of water layer below it to fall below 4oC.
In this way, a livable temperature is maintained for the aquatic life under the oceans and rivers due to the anomalous behaviour of water.
b. How can you relate the formation of water droplets on the outer surface of a bottle taken out of refrigerator with formation of dew?

ANSWER:

In both the given processes, the temperature of the air near the surface of bottle or the leaves (in case of dew formation) decreases to dew point.
Thus, the air becomes saturated with water vapour.
As a result, water vapour converts or condenses into tiny water droplets which appears on the surface of bottle or leaves.

c. In cold regions in winter, the rocks crack due to anomalous expansion of water.

ANSWER:

Water has the property of expanding below 4oC.
Thus, in cold regions when the temperature falls below 4oC, the water content present in rocks expands.
Due to this expansion of water or increase in volume of water, the rocks cracks.

Question 7:

Answer the following:

a. What is meant by latent heat? How will the state of matter transform if latent heat is given off?

ANSWER:

Latent heat of a body is the amount of heat required to change the state of unit mass of the body from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas without any change in temperature.
If latent heat is given off, then the body in liquid state will transform to solid state and the body in vapour state will transform to liquid state.

This means the internal energy of the matter decreases when latent heat is given off.

b Which principle is used to measure the specific heat capacity of a substance?

ANSWER:

Principle of heat exchange is used in the calorimetry method to determine the specific heat capacity of a substance.
c. Explain the role of latent heat in the change of state of a substance?

ANSWER:

According to the kinetic model, the total energy of a molecule is the sum of kinetic energy due to its motion (which depends on temperature) and its potential energy (which depends on the force of attraction between the molecules and the separation between them.
During the phase change of a substance, its temperature does not increase and hence its kinetic energy.
But the potential energy increases or decreases depending on the type of phase transformation (for example, while melting of ice, the separation between the molecules of ice increases and hence its potential energy). 
Thus, some energy is required in increases or decreasing the separation between the molecules.
Thus, the heat supplied during phase transformation is used up in increasing or decreasing the potential energy and this heat energy is known as latent heat.
d. On what basis and how will you determine whether air is saturated with vapour or not?

ANSWER:

On the basis of amount of water vapour present in the air, it can be either saturated or unsaturated.
If the amount of water vapours exceeds the amount that the air can contain, then it is called saturated.
If the amount of water vapour is less than the limit of the amount that air can contain then it is called unsaturated.
We can determine whether the air is saturated with vapour or not in terms of relative humidity.
If the relative humidity is 100%, the air will be saturated otherwise not.

Question 8:

Read the following paragraph and answer the questions.

If heat is exchanged between a hot and cold object, the temperature of the cold object goes on increasing due to gain of energy and the temperature of the hot object goes on decreasing due to loss of energy.
The change in temperature continues till the temperatures of both the objects attain the same value. In this process, the cold object gains heat energy and the hot object loses heat energy.
If the system of both the objects is isolated from the environment by keeping it inside a heat resistant box (meaning that the energy exchange takes place between the two objects only), then no energy can flow from inside the box or come into the box.
i. Heat is transferred from where to where?
ii. Which principle do we learn about from this process?iii. How will you state the principle briefly?
iv. Which property of the substance is measured using this principle?

ANSWER:

(i) Heat is transferred from the object at higher temperature to the object at lower temperature.
(ii) We learn the principle of heat exchange from this process.
(iii) Principle of heat exchange states that the heat energy lost by hot object is always equal to heat gained by cold object provided that the system of both the objects is isolated.
(iv) Specific heat of an object can be measured using this principle.

Question 9:

Solve the following problems:

a. Equal heat is given to two objects A and B of mass 1 g. Temperature of A increases by 3°C and B by 5°C. Which object has more specific heat? And by what factor?

b. Liquid ammonia is used in ice factory for making ice from water. If water at 20°C is to be converted into 2 kg of ice at 0°C, how many grams of ammonia are to be evaporated? (Given: The latent heat of vaporization of ammonia= 341 cal/g)

c. A thermally insulated pot has 150 g ice at temperature 0°C. How much steam of 100°C has to be mixed to it, so that water of temperature 50°C will be obtained? (Given : latent heat of melting of ice = 80 cal/g, latent heat of vaporization of water = 540 cal/g, specific heat of water = 1 cal/g °C)

d. A calorimeter has mass 100 g and specific heat 0.1 kcal/ kg °C. It contains 250 gm of liquid at 30°C having specific heat of 0.4 kcal/kg °C. If we drop a piece of ice of mass 10 g at 0°C, What will be the temperature of the mixture?

Science Chapter 4 – Effects Of Electric Current

SSC, SCIENCE PART I, NEW SYLLABUS, FOR BOARD EXAM 2020,

Question 1:

Tell the odd one out. Give proper explanation.

a. Fuse wire, bad conductor, rubber gloves, generator.

b. Voltmeter, Ammeter, galvanometer, thermometer.

c. Loud speaker, microphone, electric motor, magnet.

ANSWER:

a. The odd one out is generator. It is an electrical device for producing electricity. Fuse wire, bad conductor and rubber gloves have high resistance and are used for blocking electricity. Thus, they can be used as a safety measure against heavy electricity. 
b. The odd one out is thermometer. It is an instrument for measuring the temperature of a body. Rest of the three are electrical instruments based on the phenomenon of electromagnetism and are used for measuring some electrical parameters such as current and voltage. 
c. The odd one out is magnet. Loud speaker, microphone and electric motor are based on the phenomenon of electromagnetism.

Question 2:

Explain the construction and working of the following. Draw a neat diagram and label it.

a. Electric motor

b. Electric Generator (AC)

ANSWER:

a. Motor principle:

The basic principles on which the electric motor works is the magnetic effect of current. A current carrying rectangular coil starts rotating when placed in a magnetic field. 


Construction: The given figure illustrates the internal parts of a simple electric motor.

A motor consists of a rectangular coil ABCD of insulated copper wire.

The coil is placed between two magnetic poles such that the magnetic field acts normal on lengths AB and CD.

The coil is connected with two carbon brushes at points B1 and B2 respectively.

The inner sides of these carbon brushes are in contact with half rings R1 and R2, which are insulated and in contact with an axle (not shown in the figure).


Working:

When a current is allowed to flow through the coil ABCD by closing the switch, the coil starts rotating anti-clockwise.

This happens because a downward force acts on length B1 B2 and at the same time, an upward force acts on length R1 R2.

As a result, the coil rotates anti-clockwise.
The current in length B1 B2 flows from B1 to B2, and magnetic field acts from left to right normal to length B1 B2.

Hence, according to Fleming’s left hand rule, a downward force acts on length AB.

Similarly, the current in length CD flows from C to D, and magnetic field acts from left to right normal to its length.

Hence, an upward force acts on length R1 R2. These two forces cause the coil B1 B2 R1 R2 and the axle to rotate anti-clockwise.

After half-rotation, the position of length B1 B2 and R1 R2 get interchanged.

Simultaneously, half ring R2 comes in contact with brush B1 and half ring R1 comes in contact with brush B2 respectively.

Hence, the direction of current in coil ABCD gets reversed and flows through DCBA.

An electric device that reverses the direction of current in a circuit is called a commutator.

Thus, the split ring acts as a commutator of the electric motor.

Now, due to the reverse direction of current in lengths AB and CD, an upward force acts on length AB, which pushes it up and a downward force acts on length CD,

which pushes it down. As a result, the coil ABCD further rotates anti-clockwise.

The reversal of the current through the coil ABCD repeats at each half-rotation, while its anti-clockwise rotation continues.

b. Electric Generator principle : An electric generator is a machine that generates electricity by rotating its rotor in a magnetic field. Thus, it converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Construction: A generator consists of a rectangular coil MNST of insulated copper wire placed between two strong magnetic poles.

The two ends of the coil MNST are connected with brushes A and B of rings C and D respectively.

The inner sides of the rings are insulated. They are attached with an axle X, which can be rotated mechanically.

Brushes A and B are connected with a galvanometer that can measure the flow of current in coil MNST.

Working: When the axle is rotated, lengths MN and ST move up and down respectively.

Since lengths MN and ST are moving in a magnetic field, a current is induced in these lengths caused by electromagnetic induction.

The direction of the induced current in both the lengths is given by Fleming’s right hand rule.

Since length MN is moving upwards in the magnetic field that acts from left to right, the direction of the induced current will be from M to N.

Similarly, the direction of the induced current in length ST will be from S to T.

Hence, an induced current will set up in the coil in the direction MNST, which produces deflection in the galvanometer.

After half-rotation, length MN starts moving down, whereas length ST starts moving up.

The direction of the induced current in the coil gets reversed i.e., the induced current will now flow from T to M via S and N i.e., TSNM.

Therefore, we can conclude that after each half-rotation, the direction of the induced current is reversed.

This current is called an alternating current (AC). An AC reverses its direction after equal time intervals. 

Question 3:

Electromagnetic induction means-

a. Charging of an electric conductor.

b. Production of magnetic field due to a current flowing through a coil.

c. Generation of a current in a coil due to relative motion between the coil and the magnet.

d. Motion of the coil around the axle in an electric motor.

ANSWER:

Electromagnetic induction means generation of a current in a coil due to relative motion between the coil and the magnet.

Question 4:

Differentiating PropertyAC GeneratorDC Generator
1.DefinitionAC generator is a mechanical device which converts mechanical energy into AC electrical power.DC generator is a mechanical device which converts mechanical energy into DC electrical power.
2Direction of CurrentIn an AC generator, the electrical current reverses direction periodically.In a DC generator, the electrical current flows only in one direction.
3Basic DesignIn an AC generator, the coil through which the current flows is fixed while the magnet moves. The construction is simple and costs are less.In a DC generator, the coil through which the current flows rotates in a fixed field. The overall design is very simple but construction is complex due commutators and slip rings.
4CommutatorsAC generator does not have commutators.DC generators have commutators to make the current flow in one direction only.
5RingsAC generators have slip-rings.DC generators have split-ring commutators.

Question 5:

Which device is used to produce electricity? Describe with a neat diagram.

a. Electric motor

b. Galvanometer

c. Electric Generator (DC)

d. Voltmeter

ANSWER:

The device used for producing electricity is Electric generator (DC). It is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction.

Working:  When the axle is rotated, lengths MN and ST move up and down, respectively.

Since lengths MN and ST are moving in a magnetic field, a current gets induced in these lengths caused by an electromagnetic induction.

The direction of the induced current in both the lengths is given by Fleming’s right hand rule.

In this arrangement, brush A always remains in contact with the length moving up, whereas brush B always remains in contact with the length moving down.

Here, split rings C and D act as a commutator. In this case, the direction of the current induced in the coil will be from M to T via N and S for the first half-rotation, and from T to M via S and N for the second half-rotation of coil MNST.

Hence, we get a unidirectional current called direct current (DC).

Question 6:

How does the short circuit form? What is its effect?

ANSWER:

Short circuit occurs when naked live and neutral wires touch each other.

In such situations, the resistance of the circuit becomes very less. Now, according to Ohm’s law, current is inversely proportional to resistance.

Thus, the decrease in value of resistance of the circuit raises the current to a significant amount.

As a result, the wires become hot and sparks are caused by Joule’s heating effect of current.

Question 7:

Give Scientific reasons.

a. Tungsten metal is used to make a solenoid type coil in an electric bulb.

b. In the electric equipment producing heat e.g. iron, electric heater, boiler, toaster etc, an alloy such as Nichrome is used, not pure metals.

c. For electric power transmission, copper or aluminium wire is used.

d. In practice the unit kWh is used for the measurement of electrical energy, rather than joules.

ANSWER:

a. Tungsten metal is used to make a solenoid type coil in an electric bulb because its melting point is very high. Thus, when a high amount of current is passed through it, it becomes red hot and emit lights without getting burnt.



b. In the electric equipment producing heat, such as iron, electric heater, boiler, toaster etc., an alloy such as Nichrome is used, not pure metals because of the following reasons:

(i) Resistivity of Nichrome is more compared to pure metal.

(ii) Melting point of Nichrome is high as compared to pure metal.

(iii) Nichrome does not get oxidized when heated in air whereas metal does.



c. ​For electric power transmission, Copper or Aluminium wire is used because they provide a low resistance path to the flow of current.

Thus, the power loss in the low resistance transmission wire will be less.



d. In practice, the unit kWh is used for the measurement of electrical energy, rather than joules. This is because the joule is a very small unit and the energy consumption in day to day life is very large i.e.

it comes in figures of 106 to 108. Thus, to reduce the complexity of handling such large figures, a bigger unit was required.

This bigger unit used for the measurement of electrical energy is kWh and is related to joule as1 kWh = 3.6 × 106 J

Hence, the energy reading commercially became simpler by using this bigger unit instead of joule.

Question 8:

Which of the statement given below correctly describes the magnetic field near a long, straight current carrying conductor?

a. The magnetic lines of force are in a plane, perpendicular to the conductor in the form of straight lines.

b. The magnetic lines of force are parallel to the conductor on all the sides of the conductor.

c. The magnetic lines of force are perpendicular to the conductor going radially outward.

d. The magnetic lines of force are in concentric circles with the wire as the center, in a plane perpendicular to the conductor.

ANSWER:

The correct statement describing the magnetic field near a long, straight current carrying conductor is :The magnetic lines of force are in concentric circles with the wire as the center, in a plane perpendicular to the conductor

Question 9:

What is a solenoid? Compare the magnetic field produced by a solenoid with the magnetic field of a bar magnet. Draw neat figures and name various components.

ANSWER:

A solenoid is a long straight insulated wire, such as a copper coil, often wrapped around a cylinder-shaped body. The diameter of the solenoid is lesser than its length. It produces a magnetic field when electric current is passed through it.


Magnetic field produced by a solenoid is shown below:

Magnetic field produced by a bar magnet is shown below:

On comparing field lines produced by a solenoid with that produced by a bar magnet, we observe that they are very much identical. Thus, a solenoid acts as a bar magnet when a current is passed through it.

Question 10:

Name the following diagrams and explain the concept behind them.

ANSWER:

a. It represents Fleming’s right hand rule used for finding the direction of induced current with respect to the directions of the magnetic field and motion of the conductor.

The direction of current induced in a conductor can be obtained by holding the thumb, index finger, and the middle finger of your right hand mutually perpendicular to each other.

In this situation, the thumb indicates the direction of the motion of the conductor, the index finger points along the magnetic field, and the middle finger points along the current induced in the conductor.


b. It represents Fleming’s left hand rule used for finding the direction of magnetic force when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field.

This rule states that if you stretch the thumb, index finger, and middle finger of your left hand such that they are mutually perpendicular to each other, then your index finger represents the direction of the field, the middle finger represents the direction of the current, and the thumb represents the direction of the force experienced by the conductor.

Question 11:

Identify the figures and explain their use.

ANSWER:

(a) Figure represents a fuse. An electric fuse is a safety device that protects the wiring against excessive heating caused by an excess supply of current. It melts when heavy current flows through the circuit, thereby causing the circuit to become open
(b) Figure represents an MCB. An MCB is a device which functions as a fuse, but does not require replacement. MCB falls down to break the circuit when heavy amount of current flows through it. Once the fault is rectified, the MCB is reset.
(c) Figure (c) represents a DC generator. It is a device that generates electricity by rotating its rotor in a magnetic field. Thus, it converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Question 12:

Solve the following example.

a. Heat energy is being produced in a resistance in a circuit at the rate of 100 W. The current of 3 A is flowing in the circuit. What must be the value of the resistance?

b. Two tungsten bulbs of wattage 100 W and 60 W power work on 220 V potential difference. If they are connected in parallel, how much current will flow in the main conductor? 

CONTINUE

c. Who will spend more electrical energy? 500 W TV Set in 30 mins, or 600 W heater in 20 mins?

d. An electric iron of 1100 W is operated for 2 hrs daily. What will be the electrical consumption expenses for that in the month of April? (The electric company charges Rs 5 per unit of energy).

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