Chapter 8 | Aster Classes

Chapter 8, Geography, Nature and Scope, geography, hsc, ebalbharathi, solution,

Chapter 8: Geography : Nature and Scope

1.Identify the correct group:

AВСD
GeomorphologyCartographyTourismPolitical Geography
ClimatologySurveyForest ConservationPhysical Geography
BiogeographyData collectionWildlife ConservationPopulation Geography
Historical GeographyGIS/GPSCulture ConservationEconomic Geography

OPTIONS

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

Give geographical reasons:

1.Human Geography is multidisciplinary in nature.

SOLUTION

Human geography is the branch of geography dealing with human activities and their influence on culture, communities and economies. In human geography every social science studies separately has interface with branch of human geography: because of their spatial attributes. Social sciences like sociology, political science, economics, history and demography are very closely related with branches of human geography, such as social geography, political geography, economic geography and historical geography, respectively. Since, we study varied branches of geography in human geography, it is said to be multidisciplinary in nature.

2.Geography is dynamic in nature.

SOLUTION

Most geographical phenomena whether physical or human are not static and can change overtime. In economic geography, we study economic activities as well as factors affecting their distribution and changes. In climatology we study changes in temperature and rainfall due to global warming. Depending upon the changes in climate, changes are made in cropping patterns. Geographers study relationship between production, distribution and geographical factors. For example, tea is grown on a large scale in the State of Assam due to high temperature, heavy rainfall, red soil, hilly relief, cheaper water transportation due to the Brahmaputra River and cheap and skilled labour supply from nearby States of Bihar and Orissa. We study weather over a period of about 30 years and decide climate of that place or population of a country or the world over a period of time. Since, changes occur time to time. Thus, geography is dynamic in nature.

3.Geography is dualistic in nature.

SOLUTION

There are two contrasting approaches to study the subject of geography. They are possibilism and environmental determinism. This contrast in approaches is called as dualism in geography. Some geographers are of the view that nature is more dominant than man. It is called environmental determinism. According to them, when we study geography, we study the earth. We study how natural resources have influence on economic activities, as well as food habits of people. For example, in coastal areas fishing activity is more developed and fish is the main food the people. Some geographers are of opinion that man dominates the nature. It is called possibilism. According to them man can make changes in nature due to his intelligence. the people. For example, there are polyhouses even in polar areas, in which temperature is controlled artificially and vegetables are grown. There are many other thinkers who have different approaches in geography. Thus, the study of geography is dualistic in nature.

Write short notes on:

1.Physical Geography is related to various branches of Science.

SOLUTION

Almost every discipline, under natural and social sciences is linked with geography. Geomorphology, Climatology, Oceanography and Biogeography are the branches of physical geography. Geomorphology studies landforms, rock types, processes of formation of rocks, landforms, etc. Therefore, it is related to geology. Climatology studies elements of atmosphere such as temperature, winds, rainfall, humidity, natural disasters like cyclones, anticyclones, storms, etc. Therefore, it is related to meteorology Oceanography studies oceans and seas on the surface of the earth, ocean currents, ocean routes, etc. Therefore, it is related to Hydrology. Biogeography studies the distribution of plants and animals, their species, ecosystems, etc. Therefore, it is related to biology. Knowledge of mathematics is important for cartographic techniques, such as drawing of maps and diagrams. Similarly, knowledge of statistics is useful to do data analysis since various statistical techniques and hypotheses testing are used in data analysis. Thus, physical geography is related to various branches of sciences.

2.Branches of Geography,

SOLUTION

There are three major branches of Geography – Physical Geography, Human Geography and Geographic Techniques. Geography has various sub-branches; however, the four major sub-branches of Physical Geography are Geomorphology, Climatology, Biogeography and Oceanography. Human geography comprises of six sub-branches, Historical Geography, Political Geography, Economic Geography, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography. Geographic Techniques have four branches, namely, remote sensing, quantification methods in geography, cartography and Geographic Information System (GIS).

3.Latest trends in Geography.

SOLUTION

Currently, the explanation of all geographic phenomena depends upon the cause and effect relationship. Geographers developed number of disciplines within its boundaries.

– Number of techniques for analysis and prediction through data collection and modelling are also developed by geographers. Due to the dynamic nature of geography, new things are added in the subject. Use of audio-visual media and information technology has enriched the database. The latest technology of software has brought about better opportunities in data collection, interpretation, analysis and presentation. Presently, the use of GIS and GPS has become essential. Therefore, maps are made by using GIS software and have proved to be more accurate. Nowadays the use of mathematical modelling and computer models in applied geography has increased. They are used for prediction of weather changes or natural calamities. The above mentioned are all the latest trends in Geography.

4.Skills required for studying geography.

SOLUTION

The skills required to study the methods and techniques used in geography have made the study of geography empirical and practical in nature. The study of geography is based on theory and observation. It is supported by the scientific study like data collection and data analysis through number of tools and techniques. The geographers developed skills for conducting surveys with the help of advanced technology. They have also acquired the skills to make use of satellite images for data collection. The geographers have attained the skills for experiments, data collection, data organisation, observation patterns, data analysis, research findings, etc. The geographers have learnt analytical techniques of data with the help of statistical techniques and representation of statistical data using graphs and maps.

Answer in detail:

1.Explain how the knowledge of Geography is important in our day-to-day life. Give examples.

SOLUTION

The knowledge of geography is important in our day-to-day life because with geographical knowledge we can understand the basic physical systems that affect our everyday life. For example, the earth-sun relationship, water cycle, wind, ocean currents, etc. For the effective functioning of different places, we learn the physical and cultural characteristics of places. With the help of geography, we can understand the geography of the past, how geography had played an important role in the evolution of people, their ideas, places and environment. We can prepare a map of a province or territory, country and the world, so that one can understand the location of various countries. For example, the political map of the Asian continent gives idea about location of Asian countries. With the help of various distribution maps, we can understand distribution of minerals, crops, population, etc., in the world. For example, with the help of dot map we can understand spatial distribution of population in the world. With the help of economic geography, we can understand the development of economic activities in different countries of the world and their correlation with physical and economic factors. For example, we can study the world’s leading areas in fishing activities and their reasons. With the help of climatology, we understand atmospheric phenomenon, such as cyclones, global warming, etc.

2.Discuss the relationship between Geography and other subjects.

SOLUTION

Geography is related to almost every discipline under natural and social sciences. There are three major branches of Geography, namely, Physical Geography, Human Geography and Geographic Techniques. Geography has various sub-branches; however, the four major sub-branches of Physical Geography are Geomorphology. Climatology, Biogeography and Oceanography. In Geomorphology we study the formation and types of landforms, gradient, rock structure, ete. This is related to the subject of geology. In Climatology we study the atmospheric elements such as temperature winds, rainfall, humidity, natural disasters like cyclones, anticyclones, storms, ete. This it is related to the subject of meteorology. In Oceanography we study the ocean currents, ocean routes, coastal features, etc., of oceans and seas. This it is related to the subject of hydrology. submarine relief,. In geography of soil, we study the components, layers, texture, and fertility of the soil, etc. This is related to the subject of pedology. Human geography comprises of six sub-branches, Historical Geography, Political Geography, Economic Geography, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography. In historical geography, we study the correlation of historical events with geographical factors. This is related to the subject of history. In Political Geography, we study the effect of geographical factors on political events. This is related to the subject of political science. In Economic Geography, we study the correlation of geographical factors and economic activities. This is related to the subject of economics. Similarly, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography are related to the subjects of psychology, sociology and demography respectively. Thus, it can be concluded by saying that geography has a strong relationship with other subjects in natural as well as human or social sciences.

3.Explain the nature of Geography in detail.

SOLUTION

Geography is the study of the earth as a home of man, and various phenomena related to it. Therefore, geography is the study of the physical environment in relation to man. The physical environment has direct effect on cultural and social environments. The earth is dynamic in nature. Hence, we find variations in its physical and cultural/social environments. In geography we study the relation between the physical environment and production, distributions and their patterns and variations. Geographers study the location, geographical phenomena, whether physical or human, which are highly dynamic and its causes. Since geography is the study of space and time it makes geography dynamic in nature. In geographical study, the geographer tries to answer questions like what, why, where and when.

Differentiate between:

1.Physical Geography and Human Geography.

SOLUTION

Physical GeographyHuman Geography
(i) Physical Geography is the branch of geography dealing with natural features.(i) Human Geography is the branch of geography dealing with how human activities influence the culture, communities, economies, etc.
(ii) Geomorphology, Climatology, Oceanography, Biogeography, Geography of soils, are the branches of Physical Geography.(ii) Historical Geography, Political Geography, Economic Geography, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography are the branches of Human Geography.
(iii) Physical geography is natural science.(iii) Human geography is a social science.

2.Possibilism and Determinism.

SOLUTION

PossibilismDeterminism
(i) When man dominates nature, it is called possibilism.(i) When nature dominates man, it is called determinism.
(ii) Due to intelligence, man makes changes in the natural environment.(ii) Determinism asserts that development of human history, culture, society, lifestyle, etc., are shaped by their physical environment.
(iii) There are limitations to changes made by man in nature.(iii) There are no limitations on impact of physical environment on human activities.

Draw a neat and well-labeled diagram:

1.Relationship between Geography and other subjects.

SOLUTION

2.Draw a neat and well-labeled diagram:

Skills required to study Geography.

SOLUTION

MH 12th std GEOGRAPHY FULL CHAPTER COMPLETED


Chapter 8, Voyaging Towards Excellence, english, hsc, maharashtra board, latest edition, full solution,

Chapter 8: Voyaging Towards Excellence

1.There are different ways to travel from one place to another for different purposes. Discuss with your partner and match the words given in table A with their meanings in table B.

AB
(a) Cruise(i) a long journey on a ship
(b) Expedition(ii) a short visit to an outdoor place where people celebrate, enjoy and eat meals
(c) Camp(iii) a brief pleasure outdoor visit
(d) Trip(iv) a short journey to a place with a particular purpose
(e) Excursion(v) a place usually away from urban areas where tents are erected for shelter
(f) Picnic(vi) a journey especially by a group of people for a specific purpose
(g) Voyage(vii) a journey on a boat or ship to a number of places

SOLUTION

(a) Cruise – a journey on a boat or ship to a number of places

(b) Expedition – a journey especially by a group of people for a specific purpose

(c) Camp – a place usually away from urban areas where tents are erected for shelter

(d) Trip – a brief pleasure outdoor visit

(e) Excursion – a short journey to a place with a particular purpose

(f) Picnic – a short visit to an outdoor place where people celebrate, enjoy and eat meals

(g) Voyage – a long journey on a ship

2.Discuss the following with your partner and complete the web.

SOLUTION

1.Upbringing plays a very important role in shaping one’s life. The teacher will form two groups in the class. One group will speak in favour of the above topic while the other will speak against it. Debate brings out different perspectives, it does not mean one is right and other is wrong. You can take help of the following points and have a debate on it.

In favour of the topicAgainst the topic
1. Provides a healthy atmosphere1. Achievers can be successful in any atmosphere
2. Makes you confident2. They are self-confident, reliant and dependent
3. Helps in finding the role model3. They become role models for others
4. Helps to follow the footsteps of successful people4. They set an example for others

SOLUTION

The students can elaborate their points in favour and against the topic on the following lines.

In favour of the topicAgainst the topic
1. It breeds healthy thinking and imagination1. Examples of those who have risen from humble backgrounds such as Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar or Cristiano Ronaldo
2. Offers better exposure2. Confidence is an intrinsic quality
3. Easier to finds one’s strength if upbringing is good3. They lead by example
4. A good upbringing brings one closer to the rich and the famous, so it’s easier to find motivation in them and be like them.4. After all, someone has to take the lead, so they become an example for others when they shine through their adversities. 

[Students are expected to take cue from the pointers given in the question along with the ones given in the answer to attempt the above activity]

2.Go through the text again and describe the second innings of the writer in your own words.

SOLUTION

The author became a writer in Marathi in his second innings. He wrote 34 books in Marathi, most of which became bestsellers. He could change the lives of thousands of his readers after they read his autobiography ‘Musafir’ and his book on Psychology ‘Manat’. He even helped his readers understand complex concepts with hi book on Science, ‘Kimayagar’, and Maths, ‘Ganiti’. He has also helped create at least 20 entrepreneurs and so on. He has essentially touched the hearts of thousands of his readers in his second innings.

1.Read the text again and make a list of great Indian and foreign

personalities who had a great impact on Achyut Godbole during his childhood. One is done for you.

PoetsVinda Karandikar
Writers 
Musicians 
Dramatists 
Painters 

SOLUTION

PoetsVinda Karandikar, Mangesh Padgaonkar, Vasant Bapat
WritersKeshavsut, Mardhekar, Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy
MusiciansPt. Bhimsen Joshi, Pt. Jasraj, Pt. Kumar Gandharv, Mozart
DramatistsShakespeare
PaintersVan Gogh, Michael Angelo

2.Find different techniques used by the writer to learn Science and Mathematics. One is done for you.

  1. The writer used to appreciate the inherent beauty of these subjects.
  2. ________________
  3. ________________
  4. ________________

SOLUTION

  1. The writer used to appreciate the inherent beauty of these subjects.
  2. The writer used to solve the Physics and Mathematics problems of 9th standard when he was in 7th standard.
  3. The writer tried to find the most elegant way of solving a problem.
  4. The writer looked beyond marks and developed a problem-solving attitude.

3.The writer faced numerous problems while communicating in English because – 

  1. He had his entire education in Marathi.
  2. _________________________
  3. _________________________
  4. _________________________
  5. _________________________

SOLUTION

  1. He had his entire education in Marathi.
  2. He would think in Marathi and translate awkwardly into English.
  3. His vocabulary was very weak.
  4. His pronunciation was terrible.
  5. His construction of English sentences was very awkward.

The writer was completely stumped because his –

1.vocabulary was _______.

SOLUTION

vocabulary was weak.

2.Spoken English was _______

SOLUTION

Spoken English was quite pathetic.

3.Pronunciation was _______

SOLUTION

Pronunciation was terrible.

4.construction of sentences was _______

SOLUTION

construction of sentences was awkward.

1.Read the text again and complete the sentence:

Due to the writer’s pathetic English speaking style, he___________

  1. _________________________
  2. _________________________
  3. _________________________

SOLUTION

Due to the writer’s pathetic English speaking style, he______

  1. was feeling quite lonely in Mumbai in general and IIT in particular
  2. developed an inferiority complex
  3. wanted to run away from IIT and even Mumbai

Complete the following sentence.

The writer wanted to achieve mastery in 1.English because he wanted to speak _______.

SOLUTION

he wanted to speak excellent, elegant and fluent English.

Complete the following sentence.

The writer wanted to achieve mastery in 2.English because he will be able to ______.

SOLUTION

he will be able to communicate well in English.

Complete the following sentence.

The writer wanted to achieve mastery in 3.English because he need not have to_________

SOLUTION

he need not have to translate from Marathi to English in an awkward manner.

1.Make a list of different steps that the writer undertook to improve his English speaking skills.

  1. ____________________
  2. ____________________
  3. ____________________

SOLUTION

  1. He started reading English newspapers and novels.
  2. He studied etymology (roots of the words) and phonetics (pronunciation of the words).
  3. He would stand in front of the mirror to practice speaking and would realize his mistakes and correct those himself; he improvised as well as improved himself day by day.

1.Read the text again and describe the writer’s achievements after gaining mastery over the English language.

  • His fear for English disappeared.
  • _________________________________
  • _________________________________

SOLUTION

  • His fear for English disappeared.
  • He started feeling confident of speaking in English at length with anybody.
  • Later in his career, he could make presentations and negotiate deals, all because of his improved English.

1.Go through the text again and complete the table comparing two different phases of life of the writer as an MD or Chief Executive Officer and an activist of Sarvodaya movement.

MD or Chief Executive OfficerActivist of Sarvodaya Movement
Head of the company for 23 yearsParticipated in a peaceful satyagraha
  
  

SOLUTION

MD or Chief Executive OfficerActivist of Sarvodaya Movement
Head of the company for 23 yearsParticipated in a peaceful satyagraha
Travelled all over the globe around 150 times for businessWent to jail for 10 days
Wrote four books of 500-700 pages each on Information TechnologyWas jobless for a while, and then did a lowly paid job

1.Complete the web highlighting the various opportunities you gained due to your good English speaking skills.

SOLUTION

  • Always selected for debate competitions 
  • Made the secretary of school’s literary club 
  • Asked to anchor school functions
  • Sent as the school’s student representative to various inter-school competitions/functions

2.Describe situation or incident when you felt embarrassed for your lack of knowledge of a particular subject or incompetence in speaking English fluently.

SOLUTION

This incident happened when I was in the 8th standard and was chosen as the news-reader for the week during the morning assembly of the school. I was scared because I had just moved to an English-medium school from a vernacular-medium school and didn’t know whether I would be able to read the news in front of so many people. It was also going to be my first stage-appearance, which made me all the more anxious. As expected, I lost confidence while on stage and couldn’t read properly in front of four thousand students, teachers and the principal in the assembly. I felt embarrassed at my incompetence and thought that I was inferior as compared to the other students. I didn’t go back on the stage until I had improved my English.

Fill in the blank selecting the correct phrase from the alternatives given. 

[be completely stumped, be broken, feel out of place, speak at length, feel at home, sea of knowledge, broaden one’s horizon, one’s second innings, touch the hearts, keep one going]

1.By the end of the week she was beginning ________ home in her new job.

SOLUTION

By the end of the week she was beginning to feel at home in her new job.

2.When he lost his mother he was completely ________.

SOLUTION

When he lost his mother he was completely broken.

3.Travelling can help to _______.

SOLUTION

Travelling can help to broaden one’s horizon.

4.After my retirement, I started ________ as a social worker

SOLUTION

After my retirement, I started my second innings as a social worker.

5.Having faith in God _______ in difficult situation.

SOLUTION

Having faith in God keeps one going in difficult situation.

6.To succeed in any competitive examination, one requires a _______.

SOLUTION

To succeed in any competitive examination, one requires a sea of knowledge.

7.The simple village girl _______ in a formal party.

SOLUTION

The simple village girl feels out of place in a formal party.

8.The work done by Sindhutai Sapkal _______ of millions.

SOLUTION

The work done by Sindhutai Sapkal touches the hearts of millions.

9.The teacher _______ explaining the concept.

SOLUTION

The teacher spoke at length explaining the concept.

10.The speaker was ________ by the intelligent questions asked by the audience.

SOLUTION

The speaker was completely stumped by the intelligent questions asked by the audience.

1.Read the text again and find out all the words related to the game of cricket. List two meanings of each. One is done for you.

Words related to the game of cricketMeanings
1. Second inningsGeneralthe second phase of the life of an individual where he/she starts/pursues a new or different career or the post-retirement life
Cricketwhen a team comes to bat for the second time in a test match
2.  
3.  
4.  

SOLUTION

Words related to the game of cricketMeanings
1. Second inningsGeneralthe second phase of the life of an individual where he/she starts/pursues a new or different career or the post-retirement life
Cricketwhen a team comes to bat for the second time in a test match
2. ScoringGeneralto secure or obtain, as in scoring marks
Cricketgetting runs
3. RunGeneralthe action of moving fast on one’s feet
Cricketone unit of the score in a game
4. LengthGeneralthe extent
Cricketthe distance that cricket ball travels before bouncing on the pitch

2.Go through the text to find the antonyms of the words given in the grid and fill the boxes. One is done for you.

(1) unlucky                       (2) solution

(3) trust                            (4) confident

(5) advanced                    (6)  blockhead

SOLUTION

Primary Auxiliary Verbs are ‘be’, ‘have’, and ‘do’ which occur most commonly and can also be used as a main verb in a clause.

Go through the sentences given below and say whether the verbs are the main verbs or primary auxiliary verbs.

1.I had a very simple upbringing. __

SOLUTION

had main verb

2.I was immensely impressed.___

SOLUTION

was – main verb

3.I had learnt from my childhood that money did not mean everything in life.___

SOLUTION

had – auxiliary verb

4.He was a convent educated guy.___

SOLUTION

was – main verb

5.They did all the work in time.__

SOLUTION

did – main verb

6. had to achieve a lot in life.___

SOLUTION

had – auxiliary verb

1.Read the given sentences:

  • Does Sam write all his own reports?
  • The secretaries haven’t written all the letters yet.
  • Terry is writing an e-mail to a client at the moment.

The verbs in bold are broadly used to express tense. ‘Do’ can also be used for adding emphasis, as in “I do know the answer.” The verbs “be’, ‘have’ and ‘do’ are called Primary Auxiliaries. When helping verbs are used to express the mode or action, they are called Modals.

  • You shall have a holiday tomorrow. (Simple Future)
  • We should obey our elders. (Obligation)
  • I can play the piano. (Ability) 
  • Could you open the window, please? (Request).

In the above examples, the modals indicate the expressions given in brackets. There are other modals that are used for expressions.

Study the given table carefully and do the activities that follow.

Modals less definite to more definiteExpressions
can, couldability
shouldadvise, obligation
shall, willfuturity, determination
wouldhabitual past, request
may, mightpermission, possibility
must, have tocompulsion
used tohabitual past
ought toobligation
need tonecessity
dare tocourage

(a) Fill in the blanks with appropriate modals according to the situations given in the following sentences.

  1. Take an umbrella. It _______ rain later.
  2. People _______ walk on the grass.
  3. _______ I ask you a question?
  4. The signal has turned red. You _______ wait.
  5. I was a sportsperson in my school days. I ________ play badminton.
  6. I am going to the library. I _______ find my friend there.

(b) Find from the text, the sentences that show past habit.

SOLUTION

(a)

  1. Take an umbrella. It may rain later.
  2. People should not walk on the grass.
  3. May I ask you a question?
  4. The signal has turned red. You must wait.
  5. I was a sportsperson in my school days. I used to play badminton.
  6. I am going to the library. I might find my friend there.

(b) The following lines from the text show past habits.

  • They used to talk about Keshavsut, Mardhekar, Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, and Thomas Hardy.
  • Must of the times, the topics of discussion at home were about music, literature, paintings, sculptures etc.
  • In fact, I loved these subjects.
  • I used to study these, subjects or any subjects for that matter for its inherent beauty.
  • At IT, most of the students and professors used to converse in English whereas my English was very poor.
  • I used to stand in front of the mirror and practice speaking English, realising my mistakes and correcting them myself all the time and improvising and improving day by day.

Do as Directed.

1.I did not fully understand their discussions but I was immensely impressed.  (Remove ‘but’)

SOLUTION

Although I did not fully understand their discussions, I was immensely impressed.

2.I had decided that I would do nothing of this sort. (Remove ‘that’)

SOLUTION

I had decided against doing anything of this sort.

3.My fear had vanished and I started feeling at home in my hostel.  (Use ‘when’)

SOLUTION

When my fear had vanished, I started feeling at home in my hostel.

4.It was only my self-esteem which stopped me.  (Remove ‘which’)

SOLUTION

Only my self-esteem stopped me.

5.I plunged into all these branches of knowledge. It was a period of renaissance.    (Join with ‘which’)

SOLUTION

It was the period of renaissance during which I plunged into these branches of knowledge.

6.When I look back, there are a number of lessons that I cherish.  (Remove ‘When’)

SOLUTION

On looking back, there are a number of lessons that I cherish.

7.There are hundreds who tell me that they understood the theory of relativity.      (Remove ‘who’)

SOLUTION

There are hundreds telling me that they understood the theory of relativity.

1.Flyer is a small piece of paper intended for wide distribution at a public place, handed out to individuals or sent through mail or post it is used for advertising, an event, programme, drive or product.

Admissions Open New Arts, Science and Commerce College,
New Delhi (Mission Statement: Changing Lives Through Quality Education)
DetailsFeaturesWhy To Choose Us
Courses availableJunior College, Undergraduate and Post graduateCertificate courses and diplomasRegualr and Distance modesBig, spacious and smart classroomsHighly experienced teaching staffAdvanced courses and programmesModern and digital technologyOur student shine in all walks of life.Our teachers’ passion and dedicationBeautiful campus and ambienceRecord-breaking resultsOur name itself is a sign of trust
For more details or any query:
Contact: Principal Supervisor/Heads of different Depart
ments or visit the
website: www.newartsscienceandcommercecollegenewdelhi.in
Time: 10 am to 5.30 pm

Go through the sample of the flyer given above and prepare flyers on the following topics.

Use the following points:

  • Details
  • Special Features
  • Why to choose us / Need of drive/ Purpose of the mission
  • Anything special
  • Add your own points

Topics:

  1. Yoga Class / Summer Hobby Class
  2. Tree Plantation Drive
  3. Cleanliness Drive
  4. Help us to end Child Labour
  5. Let’s get rid of the monsters – tobacco and alcohol

SOLUTION

(1) Yoga Class / Summer Hobby Class

Join Today!                                     Join Today!
Prehub Yoga ClubWhere fitness is a way of life
135/21, M.G.Road, Dadar(W), Mumbai
DetailsFeaturesWhy to choose usAnything Special
Batches starting from next weekWeekday and Weekend batches availableSuitable timings (10 a.m. to 7 p.m.)Hourly batches focusing on strength training, gaining flexibility, improving posture, weight management, strengthening core, and increasing energyGet trained by yoga gurus practising the form for two decadesAccess the stateof-the-art, airconditioned rooms built specifically for yogaAvailability of outdoor podium for practising yoga in the fresh airAvailability of spacious changing rooms and shower roomsGet private instructors for specialised training Tarunya Yoga Club is a multicity franchiseWe are spread over 54 cities across IndiaRenowned yoga gurus acclaimed for this form are associated with usOur focus is to help you build a healthy and balanced lifestyle through strengthening your coreTerrific discounts for early enrollers!Only yoga club in the city with additional amenitiesAdditional discounts for each referralBecome a part of our multi-city yoga club and stand a chance to participate in our amazing workshops
For additional deatils:call 965472xxxxFor enrolling:call 823622xxxx or visite our website www.hubyoga .com


Note :Do the rest of the topics yourself
1.Achyut Godbole has written many bestsellers that are famous far and wide. Read at least two books of your choice, make summary of those books and submit. SOLUTIONDo it yourself.         completed

1.Achyut Godbole has written many bestsellers that are famous far and wide. Read at least two books of your choice, make summary of those books and submit.

SOLUTION

Do it yourself.


         completed

Chapter 8, Correspondence with Depositors, sp, secretarial practice, maharashtra board, fyjc, 11th std,

Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statement.

1.Depositors are ______ of a company.

Options
  • Members
  • Creditors
  • Debtors

2.Depositors provide ______ Capital to the company.

Options
  • Short Term
  • Long Term
  • Medium term

3.A Company cannot accept deposit for more than ______ months.

Options
  • 24
  • 36
  • 45

4.A company cannot accept deposit for less than ______ months.

Options
  • 6
  • 3
  • 5

5.Deposits are ______ loans of the company.

Options
  • fixed
  • short term
  • long term

6.Public Deposits are accepted to meet the requirement of ______ Capital.

Options
  • fixed
  • working
  • owned

7.______ has the power to invite deposits from Public.

Options
  • Shareholders
  • Auditors
  • Board of Directors

8.Rate of interest on deposits is ______.

Options
  • fixed
  • fluctuating
  • moderate

9.The return or income for the investment of money on deposits is called ______.

Options
  • Dividend
  • Interest
  • Discount

Match the pairs.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Depositors1) Fixed
b) Rate of Interest on Deposits2) Evidence of ownership
c) Deposit Receipt3) Debtors
 4) Creditors
 5) Evidence of deposit
 6) Fluctuating

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Depositors4) Creditors
b) Rate of Interest on Deposits1) Fixed
c) Deposit Receipt5) Evidence of deposit

Write a word or a term or a phrase which can substitute the following statement.

1.Return on investment on deposit.

SOLUTION

Return on investment on deposit. – Interest

2.Instrument for payment of interest on deposit.

SOLUTION

Instrument for payment of interest on deposit. – Interest Warrant

3.An acknowledgement of the fixed deposit accepted by a company.

SOLUTION

An acknowledgement of the fixed deposit accepted by a company. – Deposit Receipt

4.Return of deposits on maturity date.

SOLUTION

Return of deposits on maturity date. – Repayment of Deposit

5.Maximum period of deposits.

SOLUTION

Maximum period of deposits. – 36 months


State whether the following statement is true or false.

1.Fixed deposit is a short term source of finance for the company.

Options
  • True
  • False

2.Fixed Deposit holder is creditor of the company.

Options
  • True
  • False

3.Deposits are invited by the company without issuing statutory advertisement.

Options
  • True
  • False

4.Fixed Deposit holders are entitled to receive dividend.

Options
  • True
  • False

5.A Private Company cannot accept the deposits from the general public.

Options
  • True
  • False

6.Depositors are given voting rights.

Options
  • True
  • False

1.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Dividend
  • Depositor
  • Deposit Receipt

2.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Trust Deed
  • Depository
  • Deposit Receipt

Complete the sentence.

1.Depositors are the ______ of the company.

SOLUTION

Depositors are the creditors of the company.

2.The ______ must be cautious and careful while writing letters to the depositors.

SOLUTION

The secretary must be cautious and careful while writing letters to the depositors.

3.Deposit is a ______ term source of finance of the company.

SOLUTION

Deposit is a short term source of finance of the company.

4.A company can accept deposits for the minimum period of ______ months.

SOLUTION

A company can accept deposits for the minimum period of six months.

5.Depositors are entitled to receive ______ at fixed rate.

SOLUTION

Depositors are entitled to receive interest at fixed rate.


Select the correct option from the bracket.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Depositor1) ____________
b) Return on Deposits2) ____________
c) ______________3) Maximum Period of Deposits
d) Minimum Period of Deposits4) ____________

(Interest, Creditor of the company, 36 months, 6 months)

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Depositor1) ____________
b) Return on Deposits2) ____________
c) ______________3) Maximum Period of Deposits
d) Minimum Period of Deposits4) ____________

Answer in one sentence.

1.Who is depositor?

SOLUTION

A depositor is a person who subscribes to the deposits of a company.

2.What is the return on deposit?

SOLUTION

A fixed rate of interest is the return on deposit.

3.What is Interest Warrant?

SOLUTION

Interest Warrant is an instrument issued by the company for payment of interest on a deposit.

4.What is renewal of deposit?

SOLUTION

A process whereby the deposit holder continues with the deposit for an additional time period after the completion of the initial time period of investment (deposit) is called as ‘Renewal of Deposit’.

5.Which document is enclosed along with the Renewal Letter?

SOLUTION

A Renewal Deposit Receipt is enclosed along with the Renewal Letter.

6.When will the company return the deposit?

SOLUTION

The company will return the deposit on maturity of the tenure of deposit.

7.What is minimum and maximum period of deposit?

SOLUTION

The minimum period of deposit is 6 months and the maximum period is 36 months.


Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentence.

1.Depositors are owners of the company.

SOLUTION

Depositors are creditors of the company.

2.Deposits are the internal source of financing.

SOLUTION

Deposits are the external source of financing.

3.Deposit is a long term source of capital.

SOLUTION

Deposit is a short term source of capital.

4.Depositors are entitled to receive dividend.

SOLUTION

Depositors are entitled to receive interest.


1.Arrange in proper order

  1. Renewal of Deposit
  2. Acceptance of Deposits
  3. Deposit Receipt

SOLUTION

  1. Acceptance of Deposit
  2. Deposit Receipt
  3. Renewal of Deposit

2.Arrange in proper order

  1. Payment of Interest
  2. Deposit Receipt
  3. Acceptance of Deposits

SOLUTION

  1. Acceptance of Deposit
  2. Deposit Receipt
  3. Payment of Interest

Explain the following term/concept.

1.Depositor

SOLUTION

A depositor is a person who subscribes to the deposits of a company. He is a creditor of the company. Depositors get interest as a return on their investment of money in deposits.

2.Deposit

SOLUTION

Deposit is a short term source of finance for the company and it is used to meet the short term working capital requirements of the company. The company cannot accept deposits for a period of less than 6 months or more than 36 months. The company is liable to pay regular interest on the deposits at a fixed rate along with the principal amount on maturity.

3.Interest on Deposit

SOLUTION

The company accepts deposits in order to meet the short-term requirement of the company. A deposit is a borrowed capital. The company is liable to pay a fixed rate of interest on the amount invested in deposits by the depositors. The company pays interest through interest warrant or electronic mode i.e. NEFT, ECS etc.

4.Deposit Receipt

SOLUTION

The company accepts deposits in order to meet the short-term requirement of the company. The Deposit Receipt is proof of receipt of deposit. It is sent to the depositor within 21 days from the date of acceptance of deposits.

5.Renewal of Deposit

SOLUTION

A process whereby the deposit holder continues with the deposit for an additional time period after the completion of the initial time period of investment (deposit) is called as ‘Renewal of Deposit’. The additional period can be similar or different from the original time period. Deposit Renewal Form is sent to depositors at least one month before the maturity date.

6.Repayment of Deposit

SOLUTION

Repayment of deposit refers to returning the money invested by the deposits on completion of tenure of the deposits. On maturity of the tenure of deposits, it is binding on the company to repay the deposit. Default in repayment of deposit results in a levy of penalty.


Answer in brief.

1.What precautions are to be borne in mind by the Secretary, while corresponding with Depositors.

SOLUTION

The company secretary has to correspond with the depositors on various occasions. The secretary has to be careful and cautious while corresponding with depositors. The precautions which are to be borne in mind by the secretary are as follows:

  1. CORRECT INFORMATION (Accuracy):
    Letters written to the depositors should be accurate and precise. All the information provided to them should be correct and factual.
  2. CONSIDERATION (You altitude):
    The letters to the depositors should be written from the depositor’s point of view. It should be written after taking into consideration the requirements of the depositors.
  3. POLITENESS (COURTESY):
    Politeness means the use of courteous language in the letter. Being the creditors, due respect should be given to the depositors in secretarial correspondence. The tone of the letter to depositors must be polite. Rude language should be strictly avoided while corresponding with the depositors.
  4. SECRECY:
    As a confidential officer of the company, the secretary should not disclose any important and confidential information related to the company while corresponding with depositors.
  5. PROMPT RESPONSE:
    The secretary should promptly reply to any queries and complaints of the depositors. There should not be any delay in the correspondence.
  6. IMAGE AND GOODWILL:
    While corresponding with depositors, the secretary should always try to maintain goodwill and create a good image of the company in the mind of depositors.
  7. LEGAL PROVISIONS:
    The secretary should follow all the statutory provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, and any other relevant laws while corresponding with the depositors. The secretary should be cautious and careful while corresponding with depositors on legal matters.
  8. TO-THE-POINT LETTERS (Conciseness):
    The letter to the depositors should be concise i.e. it should be brief, short, and to the point. Any unnecessary and irrelevant information must be avoided.

2.What are the circumstances under which the Secretary makes correspondence with depositors?

SOLUTION

1. The company accepts deposits for a short period of time in order to meet the company’s short term working capital requirements.

2. Depositors are the creditors of the company.

3. The Company Secretary has to correspond with depositors on various occasions.

4. The Secretary has to communicate various decisions of the Board of Directors to the depositors.

5. The following are the few circumstances when the Secretary enters into correspondence with the Depositors:

  1. Thanking depositors for depositing the amount and showing faith in the company.
  2. Intimation about payment of interest through –
    i. Interest Warrant
    ii. Electronic payment of Interest
  3. Letter informing about the renewal of deposits.
  4. Informing depositors about repayment of deposit on maturity

Justify the following statement.

1.The Company Secretary should take certain precautions while corresponding with depositors.

SOLUTION

  1. Depositors are creditors of the company.
  2. The company secretary has to correspond with the depositors on various occasions.
  3. While writing letters, a secretary should provide correct, up-to-date, and factual information to the depositors.
  4. He should be prompt in replying to any queries or complaints of depositors.
  5. He should not give out sensitive and confidential information about the company. He should always strive to maintain a good image of the company.
  6. The secretary should follow the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, and its latest amendments.
  7. Most importantly, he must use courteous language during all his correspondence.
  8. Thus, the company secretary should take certain precautions while corresponding with depositors.

2.There are certain circumstances when a secretary has to correspond with Depositors.

SOLUTION

  1. Deposits are borrowed capital of a company.
  2. Depositors are the creditors of the company.
  3. The secretary has to communicate the decisions of the management and other information to the depositors by conducting correspondence
  4. The secretary has to correspond with depositors under the following circumstances:
    a. Thanking depositors for depositing the amount and showing faith in the company.
    b. Intimation about payment of interest
    c. Renewal of deposits
    d. Informing depositors about repayment of deposits on maturity.
  5. Thus, there are certain circumstances when a secretary has to correspond with depositors.

1.Draft a letter of thanks to the depositor of a company.

SOLUTION

  1. The letter of thanks is sent to the depositors by the company immediately after receiving the deposits.
  2. It gives detailed information about deposits i.e. Amount of deposit, Date of deposit, Period of deposit, etc.
  3. The Deposit Receipt which is proof of the receipt of the deposit by the company is sent to the depositor along with this letter.
  4. This letter is sent within 21 days from the date of acceptance of deposits.

HULK MOTORS LTD.

Registered office: Plot No. 05, Commercial Towers, P.K. Road,

Mumbai – 400067

CIN: R20020 MH 1000 PLC123456

Website: www.hulkmotors.in

Email: hulk4321@gmail.com

Date: 17th Oct, 2020

Phone: 022 12345678

Fax: 022 – 11112222

Ref. No.: C/2060/20-18

Mr. John Methiw

508, Lokesh Apartments,

AK.D. Road,

Mumbai – 4000089

Sub: Thanking Depositor for Fixed Deposit

Dear Sir,

       We have received your application dated 12th Oct, 2020 for an investment of ₹ 1,00,000 in the fixed deposit of our company, as per terms and conditions stated in the advertisement, for a period of 2 years. We are thankful to you for the initiative and the trust you have shown in depositing a substantial amount in our company.

      The details of deposits accepted are given in the following schedule:

12345
Fixed Deposit Receipt No.Amount of Deposit (₹)Period of Deposit (Years)Rate of interest (%)Bank Details
    Name of the BankBank Account No
12350,000210%HDFC Bank00004567

      The Board of Directors of our company expresses its gratitude for depositing money in our company. We assure you of our best services and thank you for the confidence shown in our company.

      Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully,    

For Hulk Motors Ltd.

 Sign           

Mr. Kamlesh Gaikwad

Company Secretary

Encl: Fixed Deposit Receipt No.123

2.Draft a letter of thanks to the depositor of a company.

SOLUTION

  1. Deposit is a borrowed capital of the company.
  2. Depositors get interest as a return on the money invested by them in the deposits.
  3. When the interest on the deposit becomes due, the secretary sends a letter to the depositor informing him about the payment of the interest.
  4. In this letter, the Company Secretary gives detailed information about payment of interest such as – Amount of deposit, Rate of interest, Gross amount of interest, TDS, Net amount of interest, Interest Warrant No., etc.
  5. The company pays interest either through interest warrant or electronically.

HULK MOTORS LTD.

Registered office: Plot No. 05, Commercial Towers, P.K. Road,

Mumbai – 400067

CIN: R20020 MH 1000 PLC123456

Website: www.hulkmotors.in

Email: hulk4321@gmail.com

Date: 17th Oct, 2020

Phone: 022 12345678

Fax: 022 – 11112222

Ref. No.: C/2060/20-18

Mr. John Methiw

508, Lokesh Apartments,

AK.D. Road,

Mumbai – 4000089

Sub: Payment of Interest on Fixed Deposits

Dear Sir,

        I am instructed by the Board of Directors to inform you that the interest @ 10% on your Fixed Deposit approved by the Board has become due for the year ending 31st March, 2020. We are enclosing herewith ‘Interest Warrant’ No. A-432, dated 12th Oct, 2020 drawn on ICICI Bank, Worli Branch for ₹ 5,000/-.

        Your company has complied with all the provisions relating to the payment of interest on deposits. The details of your Fixed Deposit and interest payable on deposit are given in the following schedule:

1234567
Interest Warrant No.Fixed Deposit Receipt No.Deposit Amount (₹)Rate of interest (%)Gross Amount of InterestTDS @ (10%)Net Amount of Interest Payable (₹)
A-43212350,00010%₹ 5,000/-NIL₹ 5,000/-

       The Interest Warrant is enclosed herewith. Please detach the Interest Warrant along the perforated line.

      Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully,    

For Hulk Motors Ltd.

 Sign           

Mr. Kamlesh Gaikwad

Company Secretary

Encl: Interest Warrant


3.Write a letter to depositor regarding renewal of his deposit.

SOLUTION

HULK MOTORS LTD.

Registered office: Plot No. 05, Commercial Towers, P.K. Road,

Mumbai – 400067

CIN: R20020 MH 1000 PLC123456

Website: www.hulkmotors.in

Email: hulk4321@gmail.com

Date: 17th Oct, 2020

Phone: 022 12345678

Fax: 022 – 11112222

Ref. No.: C/2060/20-18

Mr. John Methiw

508, Lokesh Apartments,

AK.D. Road,

Mumbai – 4000089

Sub: Renewal of Fixed Deposit.

Dear Sir,

We have received your application for renewal of the deposit of ₹ 50,000 for a further period of two years. Along with the application we have also received original Fixed Deposit Receipt (FDR) No. 685, and the same has been placed before the Board for consideration and approval.

      The Board of Directors by passing a resolution at the Board meeting held on 12th Oct 2020 has decided to renew the deposits for a further period of 2 years on the same terms and conditions. A Deposit Receipt No. 342 is enclosed along with this letter.

     Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully,    

For Hulk Motors Ltd.

 Sign           

Mr. Kamlesh Gaikwad

Company Secretary

Encl: Fixed Deposit Receipt No. 342


4.Draft a letter to depositor regarding repayment of his deposit.

SOLUTION

  1. On the maturity of the tenure of the deposits, it is binding on the company to repay the amount of the deposit.
  2. If the company defaults in the re-payment of the deposits, the penalty will be levied.
  3. The letter of repayment of the deposit is to be sent to the depositor when the deposit is to be redeemed.
  4. The letter informs the depositor that the fixed deposit receipt is received by the company.
  5. This letter includes information about the Repayment of Deposit such as – tenure of deposit, Fixed Deposit Receipt No., deposit amount, rate of interest, maturity amount, TDS, net amount, the due date of payment of deposits, etc.

HULK MOTORS LTD.

Registered office: Plot No. 05, Commercial Towers, P.K. Road,

Mumbai – 400067

CIN: R20020 MH 1000 PLC123456

Website: www.hulkmotors.in

Email: hulk4321@gmail.com

Date: 17th Oct, 2020

Phone: 022 12345678

Fax: 022 – 11112222

Ref. No.: C/2060/20-18

Mr. John Methiw

508, Lokesh Apartments,

AK.D. Road,

Mumbai – 4000089

Sub: Repayment of Fixed Deposit

Dear Sir,

        This is to inform you that your Fixed Deposit Receipt A-432 dated 27th Oct, 2018 for ₹ 50,000/- will be due for repayment on 28th Oct, 2020.

        We have received from you the original Deposit Receipt No. 567 duly discharged along with your instruction for repayment. The Board of Directors in the meeting held on 12th Oct, 2020 has passed a resolution for the redemption of the deposits.

       The details of repayment of deposit are as under:

12345678
Tenure of DepositFixed Deposit Receipt No.Deposit Amount (₹)Rate of interest (%)Maturity Amt (₹)TDS (10%)Net Amt (₹)Due Date of Deposit
2 years12350,000₹ 10,00060,000₹ 1,00059,00028th Oct, 2020

Please find enclosed herewith a crossed cheque of ₹ 59000, bearing No. 123456 dated 28th Oct, 2020 drawn on ICICI Bank, Worli Branch, Mumbai – 400 008.

      Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully,    

For Hulk Motors Ltd.

 Sign           

Mr. Kamlesh Gaikwad

Company Secretary

Encl: Crossed Cheque No. 456789


5.Draft a letter to depositor informing him about payment of interest electronically.

SOLUTION

The company can pay interest on the deposits to the depositors electronically through ECS or NEFT.

HULK MOTORS LTD.

Registered office: Plot No. 05, Commercial Towers, P.K. Road,

Mumbai – 400067

CIN: R20020 MH 1000 PLC123456

Website: www.hulkmotors.in

Email: hulk4321@gmail.com

Date: 17th Oct, 2020

Phone: 022 12345678

Fax: 022 – 11112222

Ref. No.: C/2060/20-18

Mr. John Methiw

508, Lokesh Apartments,

AK.D. Road,

Mumbai – 4000089

Sub: Payment of Interest on Fixed Deposit Electronically through ECS or NEFT.

Dear Sir,

        I am instructed by the Board of Directors to convey to you that the Board has passed a resolution in the Board Meeting held on 12th Oct, 2020 to pay interest @ 10% on deposits for the year ending 28th March, 2020.

      Your company has complied with all the provisions relating to the payment of interest on deposits.

      The details of payment of interest payable to you are as follows:

123456
Fixed Deposit Receipt. NoDeposit Amount (₹)Rate of interest (%)Gross Amt. of Interest (₹)TDS (10%)Net Amt. of Interest Payable (₹)
12350,000105000NIL5000

     Interest will be paid by electronic transfer i.e. by crediting the said interest to your bank account, as per details provided by you to the company.

     Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully,    

For Hulk Motors Ltd.

 Sign           

Mr. Kamlesh Gaikwad

Company Secretary


                                            

Tamil board, ssc, Chapter 8, Nationalism, Gandhian Phase, samacheer kalvi,

I. Choose the correct answer

Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

Who was arrested during the anti*Rowlatt protests in Amritsar?

(a) Motilal Nehru

(b) Saifuddin Kitchlew

(c) Mohamed Ali

(d) Raj Kumar Shukla

Answer:

(b) Saifuddin Kitchlew

Question 2.

In which session of the Indian National Congress was Non-Cooperation approved?

(a) Bombay

(b) Madras

(c) Lucknow

(d) Nagpur

Answer:

(d) Nagpur

Question 3.

Which among the following was declared as ‘Independence Day’?

(a) 26th January 1930

(b) 26th December 1929

(c) 16th June 1946

(d) 15th January 1947

Answer:

(a) 26th January 1930

Question 4.

When was the first Forest Act enacted?

(a) 1858

(b) 1911

(c) 1865

(d) 1936

Answer:

(c) 1865

Question 5.

On 8 January 1933 which day was observed

(a) Temple Entry Day

(b) Day of Deliverance

(c) Direct Action Day

(d) Independence Day

Answer:

(a) Temple Entry Day

Question 6.

Which Act introduced Provincial Autonomy?

(a) 1858 Act

(b) Indian Councils Act, 1909

(c) Government of India Act, 1919

(d) Government of India Act, 1935

Answer:

(d) Government of India Act, 1935

Question 7.

Who defeated Pattabhi Sitaramaya, Gandhi’s candidate, and became the President of the Congress in 1939?

(a) Rajendra Prasad

(b) Jawaharlal Nehru

(c) Subhas Chandra Bose

(d) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

Answer:

(c) Subhas Chandra Bose

Question 8.

Where was Gandhi when India attained independence on 15th August 1947?

(a) New Delhi

(b) Ahmedabad

(c) Wardha

(d) Noakhali

Answer:

(d) Noakhali

II. Fill in the blanks

Gandhi was thrown out of the first class compartment in ………………… station.

Gandhi regarded ………………… as his political guru.

Khilafat Movement was led by …………………

Government of India Act 1919 introduced ………………… in the provinces.

The Civil Disobedience Movement in North West Frontier Province was led by …………………

Ramsay Macdonald announced ………………… which provided separate electorates to the minorities and the depressed classes.

………………… established Congress Radio underground during the Quit India Movement.

………………… coined the term ‘Pakistan’.

Answers:

pietermaritzburg

Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Ali brothers

dyarchy

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

Communal award

Ushamehta

RahmatAli

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) The Communist Party of India was founded in Tashkent in 1920.

(ii) M. Singaravelar was tried in the Kanpur Conspiracy Case.

(iii) The Congress Socialist Party was formed by Jayaprakash Narayah, Acharya Narendra Dev and Mino Masani.

(iv) The Socialists did not participate in the Quit India Movement.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iv) is correct

(d) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Answer:

(d) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) Hindustan Republican Army was formed in Kanpur in 1924.

(ii) Ram Prasad Bismil was tried in the Kakori Conspiracy Case.

(iii) Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was formed by Surya Sen.

(iv) Chittagong Armoury Raid was carried out by B.K. Dutt.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iii) is correct

(d) (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 3.

Assertion: The Congress attended the First Round Table Conference. Reason: Gandhi-lrwin Pact enabled the Congress to attend the Second Round Table Conference.

(a) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

(b) A is correct but R is wrong.

(c) A is wrong but R is correct.

(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(c) A is wrong but R is correct.

Question 4.

Assertion: The Congress Ministries resigned in 1939.

Reason: The Colonial government of India entered the war without consulting the elected Congress ministries.

(a) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

(b) A is correct but R is wrong.

(c) Both A and R are wrong.

(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

IV. Match the following

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (i)

C. (ii)

D. (iii)

E. (iv)

V. Answer the following briefly

Question 1.

Describe the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

Answer:

On 13 April 1919, a public meeting was organised at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar in defiance of the Rowlatt Act. As it happened to be Baisaki Day, thousands of villagers had gathered there to enjoy the day together. General Reginald Dyer, on hearing the assemblage, surrounded the place with his troops and an armoured vehicle. He blocked the only entrance to the park and ordered his troops to fire without any warning. The firing continued for ten minutes in which about 370 were killed and more than thousand injured. However, an unofficial estimates put the death toll at more than thousand. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre is a big scar on the British Indian history.

Question 2.

Write a note on the Khilafat Movement.

Answer:

After the end of first World war in 1918 Caliph the Muslim head in Turkey was ill treated.

A movement was started his support Khilafat movement led by the Ali brothers, Maulana Mohamed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali.

It aimed to restore the prestige and power of the Caliphate.

Gandhiji saw Khilafat movement as an opportunity to unite Hindus and Muslims.

On 9th June 1920 the Khilafat committee in Allahabad adopted Gandhi’s non – violent, non – co-operation programme.

Question 3.

Why did Gandhi withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Answer:

The Non-cooperation Movement started in 1920. It soon became a nation-wide movement because it got support from the people across the country. But in February 1922, a violent incident occurred at Chauri Chaura, a village near Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh. In this incident a procession of nationalists provoked by the police turned violent. The police finding themselves outnumbered shut themselves inside the police station. The mob burnt the police station in which 22 policemen lost their lives. The incident hurt Gandhiji too much and he immediately withdrew the movement.

Question 4.

What was the conflict between the Swarajists and no-changers?

Answer:

The pro – changers (Swarajis) led by motilal Nehru and C.R. Das were the congressmen who wanted to contest the elections and enter the legislature.

They argued that the national interest could be promoted by working in the legislative councils under Dyarchy and the colonial Government could be wrecked within.

But on the other hand the followers of Gandhiji (no – changers) like Patel and C. Rajaji wanted to continue Non – Cooperation with the Government.

This was the conflict between the Swarajis and the no – changers.

Question 5.

Why was Simon Commission boycotted?

Answer:

On 8 November 1927, the British Government announced the appointment of the Indian Statutory Commission. It was composed of seven members headed by Sir John Simon which came to be known as the Simon Commission. When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, millions of Indians were infuriated with the idea of an all- British committee writing proposals for Indian constitutional reforms without any member or consultations with the people of India. The Commission was, therefore, boycotted everywhere. Holding black flag in their hands the protesters shouted, “Go back Simon”.

Question 6.

What is Poorna Swaraj?

Answer:

In the congress session held in Lahore in December 1929 with Jawaharlal Nehru as the president declared “Poorna Swaraj” (complete independence) as the goal.

To attain Poorna Swaraj it was decided to boycott the round Table conference and launch a Civil Disobedience Movement.

26th January 1930 was declared as Independence Day.

A pledge was taken all over the country to attain ‘Poorna Swaraj’ non – violently.

Question 7.

Write a note on Bhagat Singh.

Answer:

Bhagat Singh was an Indian socialist revolutionary whose two acts of dramatic violence against the British in India and the execution at the age of 23 made him a folk hero of the Indian Independence Movement. Bhagat Singh along with B. K. Dutt threw a smoke bomb inside the Central Legislative Assembly in 1929.

It was not intended to hurt anyone. They threw pamphlets and shouted ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ and ‘Long Live the Proletariat’. He along with Rajguru was arrested and sentenced to death. Bhagat Singh’s daring act fired the imagination of the youth across India and he became popular.

Question 8.

What are the terms of the Poona Pact?

Answer:

An agreement arrived between Gandhiji and Ambedkar came to be known as ‘Poona pact’. It’s main terms were.

Principle of joint electorate was accepted with reservation of seats for the depressed classes.

Number of seats allotted has increased from 71 to 148.

In the central legislature 18% of the seats were reserved for the depressed classes.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption

Question 1.

Gandhi and Mass nationalism.

(a) Which incident is considered a turning point in the life of Gandhi?

Answer:

On his journey from Durban to Pretoria, at the Pietermaritzburg railway station, he was physically thrown out of the first-class compartment in which he was travelling despite having a first class ticket. This incident is considered a turning point in the life of Gandhi.

(b) Name the works that influenced Gandhi?

Answer:

Tolstoy’s The Kingdom of God is Within You, Ruskin’s Unto This Last and Thoreau’s Civil Disobedience.

(c) How did Gandhi use satyagraha as a strategy in South Africa?

Answer:

Gandhi developed satyagraha (truth-force) as a strategy, in which campaigners went on peaceful marches and presented themselves for arrest in protest against unjust laws.

(d) What do you know about the Champaran Satyagraha?

Answer:

The Champaran Satyagraha of 1916 was the first satyagraha movement inspired by Gandhi. It was a farmer’s uprising that took place in Champaran district of Bihar, India during the British colonial period.

Question 2.

Constructive Programme of Gandhi

(a) What is constructive programme?

Answer:

After the chauri chaura incident, Gandhiji felt that the volunteers and the people had to be trained for a non – violent struggle, and take up in hand the youth of the country and make them the real soldiers of Swaraj. This is the constructive programme, Gandhiji wanted to implement. More over he focussed on promoting khadhi, Hindu – Muslim unity and the abolition of untouchability.

(b) What did Gandhi exhort the Congressmen to do?

Answer:

He exhorted the congressmen to go throughout their districts and spread the message of Khaddar, Hindu – Muslim unity and anti – untouchability.

(c) How did Gandhi try to bring about Hindu-Muslim unity?

Answer:

Gandhiji undertook a 21 days fast in between 1924 to appeal to the hearts of the Hindus and Muslims involved in communal politics.

(d) What is the contribution of Gandhi towards abolition of untouchability?

Answer:

Gandhiji made his life’s mission to wipe out untouchability. He sought to abolish the pernicious custom of untouchability not the caste system. He undertook an all India tour called the Harijan (Children of God) Tour.

He started the “Harijan Sevak Sangh’ to work for the removal of discrimination.

He worked to promote education, cleanliness and hygiene and giving up of liquour among the depressed class.

He also undertook two fasts in 1933 for this cause.

An important part of his campaign was the ‘Temple Entry Movement”.

He took the message of Nationalism to the grass roots by his work among the depressed classes and tribals.

Question 3.

Subash Chandra Bose and INA

(a) How did Subhas Chandra Bose reach Japan?

Answer:

First he went to Germany, from there he made his way to Japan on a submarine and took control of the Indian National Army.

(b) Who headed the women wing of Indian National Army?

Answer:

Lakshmi Sahgal headed the women wing of the Indian National Army.

(c) How did Subash Chandra Bose reorganize the INA?

Answer:

Bose reorganised the INA into three brigade: Gandhi Brigade, Nehru Brigade and a women’s brigade named after Rani Lakshmi Bai.

(d) Name the slogan provided by Subash Chandra Bose.

Answer:

He gave the slogan ‘Dilli Chalo’.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Examine the factors that led to the transformation of Gandhi into a mass leader.

Answer:

The factors that led to the transformation of Gandhiji into a mass leader are given below:

(i) Mahatma Gandhi arrived in India in 1915 from South Africa after fighting for the civil rights of the Indians therefor about twenty years. He brought with him a new impulse to Indian politics.

(ii) He introduced a new instrument Satyagraha, which he had perfected in South Africa, that could be practiced by men and women, young and old. As a person dedicated to the cause of the poorest of the poor, he instantly gained the goodwill of the masses.

(iii) Unlike the constitutionalists who appealed to the British sense of justice and the militants who confronted the repression of the colonial state violently, Gandhiji adopted non-violent methods to mobilize the masses and mount pressure on the British.

(iv His Champaran Satyagraha of 1916 earned immense success. This followed by his fruitful intervention in the Ahmedabad mill strike and the Kheda Satyagraha in 1918. These factors helped Gandhiji establish as a leader of mass struggle.

(v) The people from across the country began to support him whole-heartedly. They found in him all the qualities of a mass leader. So, they loved him and were ready to do what he said. They showed immense faith in him because they were sure Gandhiji would bring freedom for them.

Question 2.

Critically examine the Civil Disobedience Movement as the typical example of Gandhian movement,

Answer:

The congress session held in Lahore in December 1929 declared Pooma Swaraj-was declared as the goal,

Gandhi launched the civil Disobedience movement on 12th March 1930. Defying salt tax was a brilliant tactical’ decision taken by him.

It transformed civil disobedience movement into a mass movement drawing all sections of society including women to the streets.

To break the salt law he undertook a long March from Sabarmathi Ashram to Dandi covered nearly 24 miles in 24 days at the age 61.

He set out from Sabarmathi Ashram with 78 followers.

The procession became larger and larger when hundreds joined them along the March.

Gandhi reached Dandi on 5th April 1930.

He took a lump of salt breaking to salt law.

All over India many prominent leaders led the salt marches at different locations.

It was the biggest mass movement India had never witnessed.

Thus the Civil Disobedience Movement is a typical example of Gandhian Movement.

Question 3.

Discuss the reasons behind the partition of India.

Answer:

While the Indian National Congress was calling for Britain to quit India, in 1943, the Muslim League passed a resolution demanding the British to divide and quit. There were several reasons for the separate Muslim homeland in the sub-continent:

(i) As colonizers, the British had followed a divide-and-rule policy in India. In the census, they categorized people according to religion and viewed and treated them as separate from each other.

(ii) The British based their knowledge of the people of India on religious texts and the intrinsic differences they found in them, instead of examining how people of different religions coexisted.

(iii) As soon as the Muslim League was formed. Muslims were placed on a separate electorate.

Thus, the separateness of Muslims in India was built into the Indian electoral process,

(iv) There was also an ideological divide between the Muslims and the Hindus of India. While there were strong feelings of nationalism in India, by the late 19th century there were also communal conflicts and movements in the country that were based on religious identities rather than class or regional ones.

(v) Both Hindu Mahasabha and Muslim League claimed that the interests of the Hindus and Muslims were different and hostile to each other.

(vi) The British policy of divide and rule, through measures such as Partition of Bengal, Communal Award, had encouraged the vested interests out to exploit the religious differences.

VIII. Activity

Question 1.

Students can be asked to mark the important places of Gandhian Movement in a map and write a sentence or two about what happened there.

Map: Indian National Movement (1900 – 1947)

Champaran: A Satyagraha campaign conducted against the oppression of the peasants by the Indigo planters.

Kheda: Gandhi helped to conduct kheda Satyagraha (1918) No – tax provincial struggle by the peasants ended successfully.

Jallianwala Bagh: Massacre of thousands of people. Nation wide Satyagraha and Vigourously Gandhi enter in to the Indian National Movement.

Chauri – Chaura: A preocession was conducted as a part of non – cooperation movement. Gandhi advised the participants not to indulge in violence. Violence brokeout Gandhi immediately suspended the movement.

Calcutta: In a special session the Indian National Congress approved the Non – cooperation movement worked to control Hindu Muslim conflict after the announcement of partition of India, (communal violence)

Nagpur: Non – Cooperation movement was adopted in the congress session chaired by Salem C. Vijayaraghawachariar.

Delhi: Gandhi gave his support or khilafat movement by Ali brothers for the cause of Hindu – Muslim unity.

Allahabad: Khilafat committee adopted Gandhi’s non – violence and non – cooperation programme.

Madras: Gandhi visited more than 20 times. During his Harijan Tour in Madurai he discard his following robes and wear a simple Dhoti.

Poona: Gandhi underwent fasting unconditionally against the separate electorates for the depressed classes, (a campaign against untouchability).

Sabarmathi Ashram: Gandhi set out from Sabarmathi Ashram with 78 followers as a part of Civil Disobedience movement undertook Salt March to defy the levy of tax on salt.

Lahore: In the All India Congress Session authorised Gandhi to launch the civil disobedience movement.

Dandi: Gandhi break the salt law by picking up salt from the coast at Dandi. (Dandi March)

Wardha: Undertook as the Headquarters of Satyagraha. All India villages Industries Association formed Idea of Quit India originated.

Bombay: Quit India Resolution was passed to end the British rule in India.

Question 2.

Students can be divided into groups and asked to debate the views of Gandhi, Jinnah, B.R. Ambedkar, Revolutionaries and Communists.

Answer:

(A debate for 5 to 7 minutes)

Step1: Class will be divided in to different groups representing the views of

Gandhi

Jinnah

B.R.Ambedkar

Revolutionaries

Communists.

Step 2: From each group one person will be asked to prepare the debate.

Step 3: Debate can be between Gandhi and Jinnah, Gandhi and Ambedkar. Revolutionaries and communists.

Step 4: The students can selects the Character of each (Revolutionary, communist) of their own choice.

Step 5 : The final conclusion on the debate will be compiled and declared by the students as audience.

Step 6: Concluding part can be given by the teacher concerned.

Revolutionaries: Bhaghat singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev, Subhas Chandra Bose, R.K.Dutt.

Communist: Singaravelar, S.A.Dange, P.G. Joshi events for debate points can be taken from Jinnah.

Boycott of Simon commission Nehru’s report and Jinnah’s response.

Resignation of Congress Ministries

Negotiating Independence Simla conference.

Cabinet mission

Direct Action day call

Partition of India.

Gandhi:

Rowlatt Satyagraha

Khilafat movement

Chauri chaura no- tax campaign

Constructive programme

Civil Disobedience movement

Dandi march, left movement in 1930’s

Partition of India

Campaign against untouchability

Ambedkar:

Communal award and poona pact

Campaign against untouchability

Revolutionaries: Revolutionary Activities

Communists: Left movement in 1930’s.

Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on:

(a) 30th October 1896

(b) 26th January 1869

(c) 2nd October 1869

(d) 31st December 1869

Answer:

(c) 2nd October 1869

Question 2.

The language of the educated Indian was ……………

(a) French

(b) English

(c) Hindi

Answer:

(b) English

Question 3.

Gandhi’s experiences in London had not prepared him for:

(a) Injustice

(b) Satyagraha

(c) Services

(d) Racial discrimination

Answer:

(d) Racial discrimination

Question 4.

The Minto-Morley reforms introduced separate electorate for the …………..

(a) Hindus

(b) Muslims

(c) Sikhs

Answer:

(b) Muslims

Question 5.

After the outbreak of the ……………… Gandhi returned to India.

(a) First world war

(b) Russian revolution

(c) Anglo – Mysore war

(d) Second world war

Answer:

(a) First world war

Question 6.

Bengal was partitioned in ……………….

(a) 1917

(b) 1912

(c) 1905

Answer:

(c) 1905

Question 7.

The real power was not transferred to the Indians as promised by ……………… 1919.

(a) tinkathiya system

(b) Government of India Act

(c) Dyarchy system

(d) Indian council act

Answer:

(b) Government of India Act

Question 8.

Bengal was partitioned by …………..

(a) Lord Ripon

(b) Lord Litton

(c) Lord Curzon

Answer:

(c) Lord Curzon

Question 9

………………… incident made Gandhi to withdraw the no – tax campaign Non – co-operation movement at once.

(a) Bardoli

(b) Champaran

(c) Chauri – chaura

(d) Kheda

Answer:

(c) Chauri – chaura

Question 10.

Home Rule League in Chennai was started by …………..

(a) Tilak

(b) Annie Besant

(c) Nehru

Answer:

(b) Annie Besant

Question 11.

Swarajya party was formed by ………………… and motilal Nehru in 1923.

(a) Madan Mohan Malaviya

(b) C. R. Das

(c) Subhas Chandra Bose

(d) C. Rajaji

Answer:

(b) C. R. Das

Question 12.

Dyarchy was introduced by ………….

(a) Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act

(b) The Charter Act of 1833

(c) 1878 – The Indians Arms Act

Answer:

(a) Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act

Question 13.

The Indian Forest Act of ………………… claimed the original ownership of forests was with the state.

(a) 1878

(b) 1865

(c) 1927

(d) 1972

Answer:

(a) 1878

Question 14.

Gandhiji advocated a new technique in our freedom struggle …………….

(a) Satyagraha

(b) Long march

(c) Violence

Answer:

(a) Satyagraha

Question 15.

Gandhi called the proposals of ………………… as a post dated cheque on a crashing bank.

(a) Simon commission

(b) Cripps mission

(c) Cabinet mission

(d) Mount Batten plan

Answer:

(b) Cripps mission

II. Fill in the blanks

The interim Government was headed by :

……………….. was sent as viceroy of India with the specific task of transfer of power.

……………….. joined the interim Government with some hesitation.

The mount batten plan was given effect by the enactment of ……………….. by the British parliament.

……………….. declared 16th August 1946 as the Direct Action Day.

The worst affected district in Bengal was ……………….. by communal riots in 1946.

The Muslim League representative ……………….. was made as the Finance Minister in the Interim Government cabinet.

According to the mount batten plan boundary commission was set up under ………………..

Prime Minister of Britain ……………….. wanted to transfer power at the earliest.

The British surrender in South East Asia to the ……………….. was a big blow to imperial prestige.

The/British Government arrested the INA officers and put them on trial in the ………………..

……………….. formed the provisional Government of free India at Singapore.

Azad Hindu Faug was organized by ……………….. with Indian prisoners of war with the support of Japanese in Malaya and Burma.

The Slogan of Quit India Movement given by Gandhiji was ………………..

……………….. was the first individual to offer Satyagraha when Gandhi declared limited Satyagraha by individuals.

The party ……………….. was started by Subhash Chandra Bose after resigned from congress as president.

In the elections for the provinces in 1937 congress won in ……………….. provinces out of eleven.

Assam valley Muslim party was led by ……………….. with whom congress formed coalition Government.

By the Government of India Act of 1935 ……………….. was separated from India.

In the year ……………….. the ban on the communist party was lifted.

In 1934 ……………….. was formed by Jaya Prakash Narayan.

The sudden withdrawal of ……………….. by Gandhi took to violence.

The communist party established the party in 1928.

Gandhi started the to work for the removal of discrimination of Harijans.

The communists used their party as a platform to expose the ………………..

……………….. and ……………….. were the leaders of the depressed classes.

The British Prime Minister ……………….. proposed a federal Government with provincial autonomy.

……………….. was the forest area where the police forest and revenue officials harassed the Rampa tribals.

……………….. organised the Rampa tribals to fight for their rights.

A special ……………….. team was sent to quell the uprisings of Rampa Adivasis in 1922-24.

The soldiers of ……………….. regiment refused to fire on unarmed Satyagraha.

For defying the salt tax and breaking the salt law Gandhi was arrested at mid night and sent to ……………….. jail.

The ……………….. event united the different political parties in India.

As a part of constructive programme Gandhi focussed on promoting ……………….. and made it compulsory for congress man to wear khaddar.

The prochangers of congress used the ……………….. as a platform for propagation of ………………..

Answers:

Jawaharlal Nehru

Lord Mount batten

The Muslim League

Indian Independence Act

Jinnah

Noakhali

Liaqut Ali Khan

RadclifFe brown

Clement Atlee

Japanese

Redfort

Subhas Chandra Bose

General Mohan Singh

Do or Die in the attempt of free India

Vinobha Bhave

Forward Bloc

seven

Sir Muhammad Sadullah

Burma

1942

Congress Socialist Party

Non – cooperation movement

All India Worker’s and Peasants

Harijan Sevak Sangh

True colour British rule in India

B.R.Ambedkar and M.C Rajah

Ramsay Macdonald

Many am

Alluri Sitarama Raju

Malabar police

Gharwali

Yeravada

Simon boycott

khadi

Legislature, nationalist idea

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) Prochangers refused to take charge of transferred subjects.

(ii) They did not want to cooperate with the Government.

(iii) They were the staunch followers of Gandhi.

(iv) Some of the Swaraj party members began to accept Government jobs.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i),(ii), and (iv) are correct

(c) (i) and (iii) are correct

(d) (iii) is correct

Answer:

(b) (i),(ii), and (iv) are correct

Question 2.

(i) In February 1922 Gandhi announced a non – tax campaign in Bengal.

(ii) The nationalist procession at chauri -chaura was provoked by policemen.

(iii) The young leaders of congress thought that the non – cooperation movement was gaining momentum.

(iv) Gandhi continued to conduct the movement at chauri – chaura.

(a) (i) md (ii) are correct

(b) (iii) and (iv) are correct

(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 3.

(i) Public meeting was organised at Jailianwala bagh on Baisaki day.

(ii) The only entrance to the park was opened.

(iii) Martial law was imposed in Amritsar after the incident.

(iv) Leaders renounced their titles and honours.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(d) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

Question 4.

Assertion (A): India became independent on 15th August 1947.

Reason (R): The British parliament passed Indian Independence Act abolishing the sovereignity of British rule over India.

(a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

(b) A is correct but R is wrong.

(c) A is wrong R is correct.

(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 5.

Assertion (A): Cabinet mission suggested a Federal Government and the provinces were divided in to three major groups.

Reason (R): Transfer of power, to elect a constituent Assembly and an Interim Government with representation from ail communities.

(a) A is correct R is wrong.

(b) R is correct A is wrong.

(c) Both A and R are correct R is the correct explanation of A.

(d) Both A and R are correct R is not the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(c) Both A and R are correct R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 6.

Assertion (A): The British hegemonic control ceased even in the armed forces.

Reason (R): All the political leaders were released and the ban on congress was lifted.

(a) Both A and R is wrong

(b) A is correct R is not the correct explanation of A.

(c) Both A and R are correct R explains A.

(d) Both A and R are correct.

Answer:

(b) A is correct R is not the correct explanation of A.

IV. Match the following

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (v)

C. (iv)

D. (i)

E. (ii)

Question 2.

Match the colum I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iv)

C. (ii)

D. (i)

E. (iii)

IV. Answer the following briefly

Question 1.

What were the aims of Indian National Congress?

Answer:

Greater representation and expansion of legislative councils.

More facilities for the spread of education.

Freedom of press

Holding of India Civil Service Examination in India

Reduction of military expenditure

Taxation should be made lighter.

More Indians should be employed on higher posts.

Indian council at London should be abolished

Question 2.

What made Gandhi to fight for the rights of the Indians in south Africa?

Answer:

Gandhi was thrown out of the first class compartment physically on his journey from the Durban to Pretoria, at pietermaritzburg railway station in April 1893.

Gandhi faced racial discrimination and understood Indians were treated only as coolies.

He called a meeting of the Indians in Transvaal to form an association to seek redress of their grievances.

He petitioned to the authorities about the injustices in violation of their own laws.

Indians had to pay poll tax except in areas marked for them.

Without permit they could not allowed outdoor after 9 pm.

These unjust laws made him to fought for the rights of Indians in South Africa.

Question 3.

Mention the importance of Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress

Answer:

The moderates and the extremists joined together.

The Congress and the Muslim League signed a pact agreeing to co-operate with earn “her in order to achieve self government.

It was at this session Jawaharlal Nehru met Gandhiji for the first time.

Question 4.

What were the programmes included in non – cooperation?

Answer:

The non – cooperation included the following programme.

Surrender of all titles of honours and honorary offices.

Non – participation in Government functions.

Boycott of Government schools, colleges legislature, foreign goods.

Spreading the doctrine of Swadeshi.

Suspension of practice by lawyers and settlement of court disputes by private arbitration.

Refusal to accept any civil or military port.

Non – participation in Government parties and after official functions.

Question 5.

What were the aims of the Muslim League?

Answer:

Aims of Muslim league:

To protect the rights of the Muslims.

To remain loyal to the British Government

To make a demand for a separate electorate

Question 6.

What were the provisions of Gandhi – Irwin pact?

Answer:

Provisions of Gandhi – Irwin pact:

Gandhi – Irwin pact was signed on 5th March 1931. According to this.

The British agreed to the demand of all political prisoners not involved in violence.

Return of confiscated land and lenient treatment of Government employees who had resigned.

It also permitted the people of coastal villages to make salt for consumption and non – violent picking.

To suspend the Civil Disobedience movement and attend the second round-table conference.

Question 7.

What were the changes introduced by the Government of India Act of 1935?

Answer:

It introduced provincial autonomy.

It abolished dyarchy in the provinces.

It established federal government at the centre.

It provided for the establishment of a federal court to decide the conflicts between the provinces and the centre.

It provided for the establishment of a Federal Reserve Bank.

VI. Answer all the question given under each caption

Question 1.

Mount Batten Plan

(a) Who was sent as viceroy to India with what task?

Answer:

Mount batten was sent as viceroy to India with the specific task of transfer of power.

(b) When was Mount batten plan announced?

Answer:

Mount batten plan was announced on 3rd June 1947.

(c) On what basis it was planned to transfer power?

Answer:

It was planned to transfer power on the basis of dominion status to India and Pakistan.

(d) What was set up under Raddiffe Brown?

Answer:

Boundary commission was set up under Radcliffe Brown.

Question 2.

The Indian National Congress

(a) When was the Indian National Congress founded?

Answer:

The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885.

(b) On whose advice was it founded?

Answer:

It was founded on the advice of a retired British Civil Servant Allan Octavian Hume.

(c) Where was the first session of the congress held? Who was the chairperson?

Answer:

The first session of the congress was held at Bombay.

W. C. Bannerjee was the chairperson.

(d) Name some of the leaders who attended the first session of the congress.

Answer:

G. Subramaniam

Dadabai Naoroji

Surrendranath Banerjee

Madan Mohan

M.G. Ranad

Gopala Krishna Gokhale 

Question 3.

Cabinet Mission

(a) Who sent a Cabinet Mission to India?

Answer:

The British Prime Minister Clement Atlee – (labour party) sent a Cabinet Mission to India.

(b) Who were the members of the Cabinet Mission?

Answer:

Cabinet Mission comprised pethick lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V Alexander.

(c) What did the mission reject?

Answer:

The Cabinet mission rejected the demand for Pakistan.

(d) What was the suggested given for transfer of power?

Answer:

It suggested to elect a Constituent Assembly and an Interim Government to be set up with representation for all the communities.

Question 4.

Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy

(a) Who were the prominent leaders Arrested?

Answer:

Dr. Satyapal, and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew were arrested.

(b) Where did the people gather?

Answer:

The people gathered in Jallianwala Bagh at Amritsar in Punjab.

(c) Who was the British military commander of Amirtsar?

Answer:

General Dyer was the British military commander of Amirtsar.

(d) What did Rabindranath Tagore do?

Answer:

Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood.

Question 5.

Congress Ministries and Their Work (1937)

(a) What was the announcement made by the Government of India Act of 1935?

Answer:

The implementation of Government of India Act 1935 announced the elections in 1937.

(b) Who was benefited immensely? How?

Answer:

The congress was benefitted because of the Civil Disobedience movement.

(c) What was the response of congress?

Answer:

The congress called off its programme of boycott of legislature and contested election.

(d) Name some of the measures taken by the congress after forming ministry.

Answer:

Congress ministries responded to the needs of the people. Legislative measures were adopted for reducing the indebtedness of the peasantry and improving the working conditions of the industrial labour.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Write a paragraph on the Partition of Bengal.

Answer:

Bengal was partitioned by Curzon in 1905.

Bengal was partitioned into two parts as East Bengal and West Bengal.

Curzon made a statement that the partition was purely on administrative grounds.

But the people of India thought that it was to break the unity of the people and to divide the Muslims from the Hindus.

The partition angered both the moderates and the extremists.

They called it as an introduction of the policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ and agitated against it.

Due to violent criticism and agitation, the partition was revoked in 1911.

It paved the way for the birth of the Swadeshi movement, an economic boycott.

Question 2.

What were the movement led by Gandhi towards the struggle for freedom.

Answer:

Gandhi’s Principles was based on Truth and Non – violence.

He organised the movements adopting the technique of Satyagraha.

A true Satyagraha will have strong determination and won’t giveup his protest in Ahimsa way and ready to sacrifice his life.

Three important movements were led by Gandhiji.

Non – cooperation movement

Civil Disobedience movement

Quit India Movement

Non – Cooperation Movement:

Resolution was passed in the Calcutta session of Indian National Congress on September 1920.

No – tax campaign and boycott of foreign goods and institutions were effective.

At Bardoli in 1922 Gandhi announced no – tax campaign. He made nation – wide tour.

Thousands joined the movement left their Government jobs. Trade unions and workers actively participated.

Peasants enhanced Gandhi as a national leader.

A mass procession was conducted by the peasants at Chauri chaura a village near Gorakhpur (Uttarpradesh) provoked by the police turned in to violence, burnt police station killing 22 policemen.

Gandhi was upset and suspended non – cooperation movement and abstain himself from the activities of congress for two years.

Civil Disobedience Movement:

Pooma Swaraj was declared by Nehru at Lahore session of congress in 1930.

26th January 1930 was declared as Independence day and pledge was taken to attain Pooma Swaraj Non – violently through Civil Disobedience Movement.

The Indian National Congress authorised Gandhi to launch the movement.

A charter of demands presented to the viceroy Lord Irwin comply by 31 January 1930, One of the demand was Abolition of Salt tax.

The viceroy did not respond to the demands Gandhi launched the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement”.

The inclusion of abolition of salt tax was an tactful brilliant decision.

Tax on salt affected every section of the society.

With 78 of his followers Gandhi left Sabarmathi Ashram on 12th March 1930 to Dandi a coastal town to defy salt law.

Hundreds of people joined the procession .

At the age of 61 Gandhi covered a distance of 241 miles by foot to reach Dandi in 24 days.

Reached Dandi on 5th April 1930 at sunset.

Gandhi took handful of salt from the coast thus breaking the salt law.

This March was famously known as Dandi March. Gandhi was arrested.

Quit India Movement:

The all India congress committee met at Bombay on 8th April 1942 passed famous ‘Quit India Resolution’

Main reason regarding: transfer of power to Indians failure of cripps mission war* time shortages, price rise,

Gandhi gave a call “Do (or) Die”.

Gandhi said ‘‘We shalTeither .free India or die in the cause attempt: We shall not live to see the perpetuation of our slavery?’.

“Gandhi and other congress leaders were arrested”.


Chapter 8, Company Meetings -2, fyjc, 11th std, maharashtra board, sp, secretarial practice, balbharathi solution,

Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statement.

1.The secretary has to prepare _________ before the meeting.

Options
  • resolution
  • notice
  • minutes

2.General Meeting must have a notice of at least ______ clear days.

Options
  • 7
  • 21
  • 14

3.The gap between two annual general meetings should not be more than ______ months.

Options
  • 15
  • 18
  • 24

4.Auditor is appointed in ___________

Options
  • Annual General Meeting
  • Creditors Meeting
  • Extra ordinary General Meeting

5.The business transacted in extra ordinary general meeting is _________ business.

Options
  • Ordinary
  • Routine
  • Special

6.An extra ordinary general meeting is held ____________.

Options
  • once in a year
  • once in the life time
  • under special circumstances

7.Writing the minutes of the meeting is the duty of the ________.

Options
  • Chairman
  • Director
  • Secretary

8.New Directors in place of retiring Directors are appointed in the ___________.

Options
  • Class Meeting
  • Annual General Meeting
  • Creditors Meeting

9.Before the Annual General Meeting is held the Secretary has to compile __________.

Options
  • Auditor’s Report
  • Committee Report
  • Annual Report

10.The Secretary has to draft the minutes of the meeting within __________ days of the meeting.

Options
  • Fifteen
  • Sixty
  • Forty

Match the pairs.

Group AGroup B
aBoard meeting1Once in the year
bAuditor2Minimum 4 meeting in a year
cAnnual general meeting3Prepare at any time
dExtraordinary general meeting4Auditors Reports
eMinutes of meeting5Prepared before the meeting
  6Prepared after the meeting
  7Under special circumstances
  8Prepared during the meeting
  9Once in Six months
  10Meeting of creditors

SOLUTION

Group AGroup B
aBoard meeting2Minimum 4 meeting in a year
bAuditor4Auditors Reports
cAnnual general meeting1Once in the year
dExtraordinary general meeting7Under special circumstances
eMinutes of meeting6Prepared after the meeting
  3Prepare at any time
  5Prepared before the meeting
  8Prepared during the meeting
  9Once in Six months
  10Meeting of creditors

Write a word or a term or a phrase which can substitute each of the following statement.

1.A meeting of shareholders which is held once in a year

SOLUTION

Annual general meeting

2.A meeting of shareholders which is held between two annual general meetings.

SOLUTION

Extraordinary general meeting

3.A Report which is prepared before Annual General Meeting.

SOLUTION

Annual reports

4.A meeting of the shareholders which is held under special circumstances.

SOLUTION

Extraordinary general meeting

5.A meeting of the preference shareholders of a company.

SOLUTION

Class meeting

State whether the following statement is True or False.

1.Only special business is transacted at Annual General Meeting.

Options
  • True
  • False

2.Annual Report is prepared by members.

Options
  • True
  • False

3.Extraordinary General Meeting is called for special and urgent purpose.

Options
  • True
  • False

4.A member has a right to attend Board Meeting.

Options
  • True
  • False

5.Class Meeting is the meeting of particular class of shareholders.

Options
  • True
  • False

6.Director cannot appoint proxy to attend and vote at Board Meeting.

Options
  • True
  • False

7.21 clear days notice should be given in case of Board Meeting.

Options
  • True
  • False

8.Secretary has to arrange to take down the notes of the proceedings of the meeting.

Options
  • True
  • False

1.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Annual General Meeting
  • Extra Ordinary General Meeting
  • Board Meeting

2.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Annual General Meeting
  • Committee Meeting
  • Class Meeting

Complete the sentence

1.The meeting which is held once in every financial year is called is _______

SOLUTION

The meeting which is held once in every financial year is called is Annual general meeting.

2.The meeting held to discuss and decide any special or urgent matters is called as _________

SOLUTION

The meeting held to discuss and decide any special or urgent matters is called as Extraordinary general meeting.

3.Meeting of all Directors is called as __________

SOLUTION

Meeting of all Directors is called as Board Meeting.

4.The Authority to convene the Annual General Meeting is with the __________

SOLUTION

The Authority to convene the Annual General Meeting is with the Board of Directors

1.Select the correct option form the bracket

Group AGroup B
Interval between two annual meeting______
Options
  • Notice of General Meeting
  • Extra ordinary General Meeting
  • Not more than 15 months
  • within 30 days of company’s Incorporation

2.Select the correct option form the bracket

Group AGroup B
First Board Meeting______
Options
  • Notice of General Meeting
  • Extra ordinary General Meeting
  • Not more than 15 months
  • within 30 days of company’s Incorporation

3.Select the correct option form the bracket

Group AGroup B
______21 clear days
Options
  • Notice of General Meeting
  • Extra ordinary General Meeting
  • Not more than 15 months
  • within 30 days of company’s Incorporation

4.Select the correct option form the bracket

Group AGroup B
______Alteration in Memorandum of Assocition
Options
  • Notice of General Meeting
  • Extra ordinary General Meeting
  • Not more than 15 months
  • within 30 days of company’s Incorporation

Answer in one sentence

1.Who can attend Board Meetings?

SOLUTION

Only Directors can attend Board Meetings.

2.When can an Adjourned Annual General meeting be held?

SOLUTION

An Adjourned Annual General Meeting can be held on the same day, time and place in the next week.

3.Why is Extraordinary General Meeting held?

SOLUTION

 An Extraordinary General Meeting is held to discuss and decide special or urgent matters which cannot be postponed till next Annual General Meeting.

4.When should the first Annual General Meeting be held?

SOLUTION

The first Annual General Meeting should be held within 9 months of closing of the first financial year of the company.

5.What should be the interval between two Annual General Meetings?

SOLUTION

The interval between two Annual General Meetings should not be more than 15 months

6.What should be the gap between two Board Meetings?

SOLUTION

The gap between two Board Meetings should not be more than 120 days.

Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentence.

 1.Minimum four Committee Meetings must be held in a year.

SOLUTION

Minimum four Board of Directors Meetings must be held in a year.

2.Creditors Meeting must be held once in every year.

SOLUTION

Annual General Meeting must be held once in every year.

3. Extraordinary Meeting must be held every year.

SOLUTION

Annual General Meeting must be held every year.

4.The Meeting of all Directors is called Annual General Meeting.

SOLUTION

The Meeting of all Directors is called Committee Meeting.

Explain the following term/concept

1. Committee Meeting

SOLUTION

Meaning: In a Joint Stock Company the usual committees are formed from among the members of the Board of Directors. A meeting of the members of such committee is called committee meeting e.g. a meeting allotment committee.

Legal Provisions: The Articles of Association of the company provide for the appointment of different committees and holding their meetings to expedite the managerial work. Such committee is formulated to investigate and submit a report after a careful examination of various aspects of the problem under investigation from all possible angles. The rules and procedure for convening and conducting committee meeting are generally laid down by the Board.

Assistance: The Secretary has to provide needed assistance to the committee. He is required to prepare and maintain separate minute’s book to record the proceedings of committee meetings.

Frequency: The committee collects the relevant information of the problem under consideration and holds several meetings for a detailed study of the collected information. The committee then prepares a report for consideration and approval of the Board. To carry out the assigned work systematically, to discuss the problems and to exchange views, the committee members frequently arrange the committee meetings.

2. Virtual Meeting

SOLUTION

A virtual meeting means Directors around the city or outside the city regardless of their location use audio video and link online, use video teleconference software. This is a quicker and efficient way to co-ordinate and conduct urgent meeting with various members or departments in an organisation. It depends on the flow of information and ease of communication between the participants. The meeting should be capable of recording and recognising the participation of Directors. However, in certain cases Central Government specifies certain matters that cannot be discussed and dealt through video conferencing or other audio visual means.

3.Creditors Meeting

SOLUTION

Meaning: The creditors of the company include debentureholders, depositors, company bankers, lenders and other financial institutions. Etc. A meeting arranged and held with creditors for discussion and taking decisions on certain problems relating to the terms and conditions of loans which affect their interest is called creditors meeting.

Purpose of creditors meeting: The creditors meeting is usually held:

(1) to make compromise in disputes with its creditors

(2) to alter the rate of interest

(3) to alter the terms of security

(4) to modify the rights of creditors such as debentureholders, depositors and other creditors, etc.

(5) to get support of the creditors When a company passes through a financial crisis.

(6) To compute the amount payable by the company to creditors and contributors when a company goes into liquidation or adjudicated insolvent by the court.

Legal provisions: The procedure of holding creditors meeting is laid down by the Companies Act, 2013. Similarly, the rules and procedure for holding such meeting are usually provided in the trust deed, e.g. debenture trust deed.

Frequency: Creditors meetings are held whenever the decisions affecting their interest are to be taken. Such a meeting is very rarely arranged and it is normally convened in the case of the Winding-up of the company.

Types: Creditors meetings are classified as meeting of debentureholders, meeting of depositors and meeting of other creditors such as trade creditors, suppliers, loan creditors, etc. A creditors meeting may be arranged class wise for discussion and solving varied problems of Creditors.

1.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

Platinum Limited Company was incorporated on 1st Jan.2018. Advice the Board of Directors on the following matters.

  1. Within what period should the company hold its 1st Annual General Meeting?
  2. At which place should the Annual General Meeting be held.
  3. How many days in advance should the notice and agenda be sent to members?

SOLUTION

  1. The Board of Directors should hold 1st Annual General Meeting of Platinum Limited Company any time during the period of 9 months from 1st April 2019 to 3lst December 2019.
  2. Annual General Meeting of Platinum Limited Company should be held at the registered office of the company or at some other place within the city or village in which the registered office of the Platinum Limited Company is situated.
  3. The Secretary of Platinum Limited Company should send the notice and agenda of the Annual General Meeting 21 days prior to date of meeting to be held.

2.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

XYZ Ltd held its Annual General Meeting on 11th May 2018. On 1st June Mr. X, a Director of the company was arrested for a financial scam. Hence the shareholders of the company want to remove him.

  1. Can the company call for the next Annual General Meeting to be held immediately to remove the Director?
  2. Which meeting of members should the company hold to discuss removal of the Director?
  3. What type of resolution will be passed in this meeting for removal of the Director?

SOLUTION

  1. To remove the Director from his office, the shareholders of XYZ Ltd. cannot call the next Annual General Meeting immediately after 1st June 2018.
  2. The XYZ Ltd. Company should hold Extraordinary General Meeting to discuss removal of the Director for financial scam.
  3. Resolution requiring special notice (Section 115) is to be passed in the Extraordinary General Meeting for removal of the Director.

Distinguish between the following

1.Shareholders’ Meeting and Board Meeting

SOLUTION


Sr no
Shareholder meetingBoard meeting
1A meeting of all the shareholders or members of the company is called a Shareholders’ Meeting.A meeting of all the Directors of the company iscalled as Board Meeting.
2Frequency of meeting depends on the type of meeting. Annual General Meeting is held once in every year and Extraordinary General Meeting is held as and When required.Board Meeting is held once in every 3 months and minimum 4 meetings in a period of 1 year. The time gap between two consecutive Board Meetings should not be more than 120 days.
3The quorum for a shareholders’ meetings(a) For Public CompanyMember QuorumNot more 1000- 5member1001 to 5000-15 memberAbove 5000-30 memberb) For private company : 2 memberThe quorum for a Board Meeting is minimum 2directors or 1/3rd of the total strength of Directors, whichever is higher.
4A shareholder can appoint a proxy to attend and vote at meeting on his behalf, if he is unable to attend the meeting.A Director cannot appoint proxy to attend and vote in the Board Meeting on his behalf.
5A notice of this meeting must be sent to all the members at least 21 days in advance.A notice of Board Meeting must be sent to all the Directors at least 7 days in advance.
6The purpose of this meeting is to get approval of the shareholders on certain matters like appointment of Directors and auditor, approval of annual report, etc. and inform them about the progress and activities of the company.The purpose of this meeting is to discuss important issues, decide upon policy matters like issue of shares, calls on shares, appointment of staff, etc their implementations and to review the progress made by the company.

2.Annual General Meeting and Extra ordinary General Meeting.

SOLUTION

 Sr noAnnual general meetingExtra ordinary general meeting
1A General Body Meeting of all the shareholders Which is held once in every calendar year as per the provision of Section 96 of the Companies Act, 2013, is called Annual General Meeting.A General Body Meeting of all the shareholders of a company which is held in between two consecutive Annual General Meetings to discuss and decide urgent matters as per Section 100 of the Companies Act 2013, is called Extraordinary General Meeting
2The purpose of this meeting is to review the working of the company during the previous financial year, to approve the final accounts, to declare dividends, to elect Directors, auditors and to transact special business, if any.This meeting may be held to transact and decide any urgent and special business or matters which cannot be postponed till the Annual General Meeting.
3This meeting is held every year within 9 months of closing of the financial year. The gap between two Annual General Meetings should not exceed 15 months.This meeting is held in between two consecutive Annual General Meetings. It can be held any number of times depending on the urgency and requirements
4This meeting is convened by the Board of Directors. The Central Government can call this meeting on application received from the members of the company.This meeting can be convened by (i) the Board of Directors itself (ii) the Board of Directors on requisition of members (iii) the requisitionists themselves and (iv) the National Company Law Tribunal.
5This meeting is held: (i) to approve annual accounts, Directors, report and auditors’ report (ii) to appoint Directors and auditors (iii) to declare dividend.This meeting is held : (i) to alter the clauses of Memorandum of Association (ii) to alter Articles of Association (iii) to remove Directors before the expiry of their term (iv) to dissolve the company voluntarily.
6In case of default in holding the meeting, every officer concerned of the company is punishable With a tine which may extend to Rs 1,00,000 and a further a fine of f 5.000 per day till the default continues.If the Directors fail to hold this meeting on requisition, the requisitionists themselves can hold it and recover the expenses of holding such meeting from the company.

Answer in brief

1.List the duties of a Secretary after the Annual General Meeting.

SOLUTION

  1. Drafting the Minutes: The Secretary has to draft the minutes of the meeting Within 30 days of the meeting. He has to submit the draft of the minutes for approval and signature of the Chairman.
  2. Implementing decisions: The Secretary has to instruct the concerned executives to execute the decisions taken in the meeting and to take action on the resolutions approved in the meeting.
  3. Sending documents and filing resolutions: The Secretary has to arrange for the despatch of dividend warrants to all the shareholders as declared in the Annual General Meeting, Within 30 days of the date of declaration of dividend. He has to file Annual Returns with the Registrar of companies. He has to file the copies of the special resolutions passed at the Annual General Meeting with the Registrar of Companies within 30 days of their passing.
  4. Send intimation to absent members: The Secretary has to send the information of the proceedings, resolutions passed and other related information of the meeting to the absent members.

2.State the objectives of Annual General Meeting.

SOLUTION

  1. To approve annual accounts, Directors’ report and auditors’ report
  2. To declare dividend
  3. To elect Directors In place of retiring Directors and to appoint auditors and fix their remuneration
  4. To provide an opportunity to the shareholders (members) to discuss and review the progress and performance of the company.

3.State any four legal provisions regarding Board Meeting.

SOLUTION

Authority to convene: The Chairman of the Board is the proper authority to convene the Board Meeting.

Number of Board Meeting:

  1. First Board Meeting: The first Board Meeting is required to be held within 30 days of is the date of its incorporation.
  2. Subsequent Board Meeting: Subsequent Board meetings must be held at least once in 3 calendar months i.e. minimum 4 Board Meetings must be held every year. The time gap between two Board meetings should not be more than 120 days.
  3. In case of One Person Company : In a One Person Company, small company and dormant company, the Board Meeting must be held once in the period of six months i.e. at least one meeting in each half of calendar year. The time gap between two Board Meetings should not be less than 90 days.

Virtual Meeting : A virtual meeting of Directors means Directors around the city or outside the city regardless of their location use audio video and link online, use video teleconference software. This is a quicker and efficient way to co-ordinate and conduct urgent meeting with various members or departments in an organisation. It depends on the flow of information and ease of communication between the participants. The meeting should be capable of recording and recognising the participation of Directors. However, in certain cases Central Government specifies certain matters that cannot be discussed and dealt through video conferencing or other audio visual means.

Notice : The notice of Board Meetings must be sent to all the Directors of the board at least 7 days prior to the Board Meeting at their registered address by hand delivery or by post or by electronic means. Agenda of the meeting also to be sent along with notice.

Quorum: The quorum for this meeting is one-third of the total number of Directors or two Directors whichever is higher. The Directors who have personal interest in the mater to be discussed in the meeting are excluded from the quorum.

Adjournment: In the absence of requisite quorum, the meeting is adjourned and is to be held on the same day, same time and place next Week.

4.What are Class Meetings?

SOLUTION

Meaning: The rights attached to the shares of any class may be varied or altered any time by the company. A consent of the holders in writing is necessary for such alteration. A meeting which is held to obtain such consent from a particular class of shareholders is called ‘Class Meeting’.

Legal Provisions: Section 48 of the Companies Act, 2013, provides for the holding of meetings of a particular class ofshareholders, if necessary. It is held whenever a company desires to make changes in the rights and duties of a particular class of shareholders. Article of Association may provide for arranging such meeting.

Purpose : The purpose of class meeting are to discuss the matters Which are affecting the rights and duties of particular class of shareholders and to get their approval for the changes desired to be carried out.

Convene: If a company wants to change the rate of dividend on preference shares, the company has to convene a meeting of preference shareholders to get their approval. Similarly, if the preference shareholders are not paid dividend for more than two years, they can summon a meeting of all the preference shareholders.

Frequency: The class meeting is held or arranged very rarely and not regularly.

Resolution: Usually special resolutions are passed in this meeting.

5.What is the purpose of conducting Extra ordinary General meeting?

SOLUTION

This meeting is convened whenever it becomes necessary to’ take an immediate decision on some important issue affecting the business of the company which cannot be postponed till the next Annual General Meeting. The purpose of Extraordinary General Meeting:

  1. Alterations in the clauses of Memorandum of Association such as name clause, domicile clause or object clause.
  2. Alteration in Articles of Association.
  3. Removal of Director before the expiry of his term.
  4. Removal of auditor before expiry of his term.
  5. Voluntary winding-up of company.

Justify the following statement.

1.Annual General Meeting is adjourned in absence of quorum.

Answer in Brief

SOLUTION

The quorum means the minimum number of members legally required to remain present at the beginning and during the course of the meeting. Meeting without quorum is invalid and the business it transacts becomes null and void. The Companies Act has prescribed certain minimum requirement for quorum e.g. the quorum for a general meeting of a public company is 51 the number of members of the company does not exceed 1,000 and for a private company quorum is 2 members.

The proxies cannot be counted for quorum. The Articles of Association may increase the minimum requirement but cannot decrease it. The quorum is also required during the course of the meeting The moment when attendance fan. short of the quorum, a member may raise a point of order and Chairman has to stop the proceeding, on‘ the meeting and is adjourned it. Even in the beginning of meeting if requisite quorum is in formed or constituted, the meeting will be postponed for an hour and even after that if quorum is not constituted the meeting Will not be held and it will be adjourned and will be held on me same day. Time and place in the next week.

2.A notice of meeting must be sent to all members in case of General Meeting.

SOLUTION

A notice is an advance intimation to the persons entitled to receive it. About the venue, day, date and time of a meeting and the business to be transacted in it with a request to attend the meeting. The notice may be sent with the necessary documents. A notice of the meeting must be given to all the members entitled to attend the same. Such a notice must contain details of holding the meeting and the agenda of the meeting, further. The notice must be sent well in advance to all the concerned members.

In case of General Meetings such as Annual General Meeting and Extraordinary Meeting. a notice of clear 21 days is necessary to be given to all members. Notice which is sent well in advance to the members enable them to prepare about the points to be discussed in a meeting, they take active part in the discussion held in the meeting. They know in advance time. Date. Day and venue of the meeting and hence they keep themselves free to attend the meeting at scheduled time.

3.Extra ordinary general meeting is called under special circumstances.

SOLUTION

A General Body Meeting of all the shareholders of a company which is held in between the two consecutive Annual General Meetings is called Extraordinary General Meeting This meeting is convened whenever it become Necessary to take immediate decision on some important issues affecting the business of the company which cannot be postponed till the next Annual General Meeting.

This meeting is held to transact urgent and special business like alterations in Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association. Removal of a Director before the expiry of his/her term, removal of auditor before the expiry of his/her term and voluntary winding-up of the company. If the business to be transacted is not special and not urgent. then such business can be discussed in the next Annual General Meeting. Thus, only under special circumstances Extraordinary General Meeting is held.

4.Board of Directors can exercise their powers collectively through the Board Meeting.

Answer in Brief

SOLUTION

Shareholders are large in numbers and are scattered and spread over a wide area. They cannot personally take part in the management to manage the day-to-day affairs of the company. Hence they hold their meeting and elect their representatives called Directors. They are collectively called Board of Directors.

The Directors are given wide powers in the management of the company. The Directors exercise their powers collectively through their periodical meetings called Board Meetings. These meetings are important to share thoughts, discuss. debate and take policy decisions to manage day to-day workings of the company. In Board Meeting. Directors collectively take policy decisions on important issues such as issue of shares, allotment of shares, calls on shares, forfeiture of shares, sales, purchases, appointment of staff, expansion of business, etc. Thus, Board of Directors exercises their powers collectively through Board Meetings.

5.The Quorum for Annual General Meeting of a public company depends upon the number of shareholders.

SOLUTION

every type of meeting has a specific requirement of quorum. The members those forming the quorum must be present personally. The Companies Act provides a quorum of 2 members for the General Meeting of a private public and 5 members in the case of a public company. As per the new provisions made under Section 103(1) of the Companies Act 2013. the quorum for the meetings of the Public Limited Company is stated in the following table :

 Sr. noNumber of shareholderRequisite Quorum
1Up to 10005 member
21000 to 500015 member
3More than 500030 member

These members must be personally present at the meeting for discussion, debate and giving opinion and votes for taking decisions on various issues. The Articles of Association may make a separate provision regarding the quorum, but such a provision cannot be less than the minimum prescribed by the Companies Act. From the study and analysis of the above table, it is clear that Quorum for Annual General Meeting of a public company depends upon the number of shareholders. However, proxies are not counted in quorum.

6.When a company is in a financial difficulty, it may call a meeting of creditors.

SOLUTION

Meaning : The creditors of the company include debentureholders, depositors, company bankers, lenders and other financial institutions. Etc. A meeting arranged and held with creditors for discussion and taking decisions on certain problems relating to the terms and conditions of loans which affect their interest is called creditors’ meeting.

Purpose of creditors’ meeting: The creditors’ meeting is usually held:

  1. to make compromise in disputes with its creditors
  2. to alter the rate of interest
  3. to alter the terms of security
  4. to modify the rights of creditors such as debentureholders, depositors and other creditors, etc.
  5. to get support of the creditors When a company passes through a financial crisis.
  6. To compute the amount payable by the company to creditors and contributors when a company goes into liquidation or adjudicated insolvent by the court.

Legal provisions : The procedure of holding creditors’ meeting is laid down by the Companies Act, 2013. Similarly, the rules and procedure for holding such meeting are usually provided in the trust deed, e.g. debenture trust deed.

Frequency : Creditors’ meetings are held whenever the decisions affecting their interest are to be taken. Such a meeting is very rarely arranged and it is normally convened in the case of the Winding-up of the company.

Types : Creditors’ meetings are classified as meeting of debentureholders, meeting of depositors and meeting of other creditors such as trade creditors, suppliers, loan creditors, etc. A creditors’ meeting may be arranged class wise for discussion and solving varied problems of Creditors.

7.As per the Companies Act every company has to hold the Annual General Meeting.

SOLUTION

Annual General Meeting is a meeting of all the members of the company which is held once a year after the closing of the financial year in accordance with the provisions of Section 96 of the Companies Act, 2013.

The main objects of holding the Annual General Meeting are to inform the members of the company about the performance of the company during the financial year completed and to present the duly audited Profit & Loss Account and Balance Sheet of the company for their consideration and approval.

Besides, the meeting transacts other items of ordinary business such as appointment of Directors, auditors, solicitors, etc. and declaration of dividend. It also transacts special business such as increase in nominal capital, alteration in the Memorandum and Articles of Association, etc. All these items of business have to be considered and decided by the members only. Therefore the Companies Act has made it compulsory for every Company (including a private company) to hold the Annual General Meeting 6 months after the completion of its financial year. The time interval between two Annual General Meetings should not be more than 15 months.

1.Explain the functions of a secretary related with Annual General Meeting.

SOLUTION

Functions before the Annual General Meeting :

  1. Fixing a Board Meeting: The Secretary has to convene the Board Meeting to fix the date, time and place of the Annual General Meeting.
  2. Issue of Notice: The Secretary has to print and send the notice, agenda and all other related documents to the members at least 21 days prior to the meeting. He is also required to publish notice and agenda in the leading newspapers for convenience of concerned members.
  3. Speech of the Chairman: The Secretary has to assist the Chairman in preparing the Chairman’s speech and to get it printed.
  4. Preliminary arrangements: Secretary has to make necessary arrangements such as booking of hall, seating arrangements, checking admission cards, public address system, lighting, refreshment, etc.
  5. Company Accounts: The Secretary has to get the annual accounts finalised, as soon as the financial year is over. These accounts include Trading Account, Profit and Loss Account, Balance Sheet and other statements. They must be prepared in the forms prescribed by the Companies Act. He has to prepare Annual Report also.

Functions during the Annual General Meeting:

  1. Attendance: The Secretary has to keep the Attendance Register and the Register of Members ready at the gate. Each member has to sign in the register after getting his membership verified.
  2. Quorum : The Secretary has to check the requirements of the quorum as per the provision in the Articles He confirm the result of his checking to the Chairman. He has to wait for half an hour in the case the meeting is short of the quorum. After half an hour the meeting can be commenced if there is the required quorum or may be adjourned in the absence of the quorum.
  3. Reading reports: The Secretary has to read the notice the agenda of the Annual General Meetings minutes of the last Annual General Meeting and the Directors’ Report at the beginning of the meeting.
  4. Writing the proceedings: The Secretary has to note down the decisions resolutions and explanatory points about the proceedings of the meeting in a serial order. This is necessary for writing minutes.
  5. Helps the Chairman: During the course of the meeting the Secretary has to provide necessary assistance and related information, materials etc. to the Chairman as and when required for smooth conduct of the meeting.
  6. Conduct Poll: The Secretary has to make all the arrangements for voting and poll if demanded by the members.

Functions after the Annual General Meeting:

  1. Drafting the Minutes: The Secretary has to draft the minutes of the meeting within 30 days of the meeting. He has to submit the draft of the minutes for approval and signature of the Chairman.
  2. Implementing decisions: The Secretary has to instruct the concerned executives to execute the decisions taken in the meeting and to take action on the resolutions approved in the meeting.
  3. Sending documents and filing resolutions: The Secretary has to arrange for the despatch of dividend warrant to all the shareholders as declared In the Annual General meeting within 30 days of the date of declaration of dividend. He has to file Annual Returns with the Registrar of companies. He has to file the copies of the special resolutions passed at the Annual General Meeting with the Registrar of Companies within 30 days of their passing.
  4. Send intimation to absent members: The secretary has to send the information of the proceedings, resolutions passed and other related information of the meeting to the absent members.

2.Explain the different types of General Meetings of company.

SOLUTION

(1) Annual General Meeting (Section 96 to 98)

(A) Meaning: A meeting of all the shareholders which is held once in every calendar year as per the provisions of Section 96 to 98 of the Companies Act, 2013, is called an Annual General Meeting.

(B) Purpose of Annual General Meetings: (1) To approve annual accounts. Directors’ report and auditors‘ report (2) To declare dividend (3) To elect Directors in place of retiring Directors and (4) to appoint auditors and fix their remuneration (5) To provide an opportunity to the shareholders (members) to discuss and review the progress and performance of the company.

(C) Legal Provisions:

(i) Time of holding Annual General Meeting: The first Annual General Meeting must be held within 9 months from the date of closing first financial year.

Thereafter subsequent Annual General Meeting should be held within 6 months of the closing of the financial year. The gap between two consecutive Annual General Meetings shall not be more than 15 months. On the request of the company. Registrar of Companies may extend the time to conduct Annual General Meeting by further period of not more than 3 months. However, this extension cannot be granted in case of first Annual General Meeting. These legal provisions are not applied to One Person Company.

(ii) Authority to convene Annual General Meeting : The right to convene this meeting is vested with the Board of Directors.

(iii) Notice : The notice of this meeting must be sent to all the members of the company at their registered address by post or through electronic mode at least 21 days prior to the date of the meeting.

(iv) Date, time and place of Annual General Meeting : Annual General Meeting must be called during working hours between 9 am to 6 pm on any day except national holiday. It must be held either at the registered office of the Company or at any other place within the city in which registered office in located.

(v) Quorum: The requisite Quorum for Annual General Meeting is:

 Sr noNumber of shareholderRequisite Quorum
1Up to 10005 member
21000 to 500015 member
3More than 500030 member

For private company, requisite quorum is 2 members.

(vi) Adjournment of Meeting: In the absence of requisite quorum, meeting is adjourned and is held on the same day, time and place next week.

(vii) Default : In case the company fails to hold Annual General Meeting, the company and every officer of the company who is in default are punishable with fine which may be up to Rs 1 ,00,000 and in the case of continuing default with further fine which way extend up to Rs 5,000 per day.

(2) Extraordinary General Meeting (Section 100):

(A) Meaning: A general body meeting of all the shareholders of a company other than a Statutory Meeting or an Annual General Meeting which is held in between the two Annual General Meetings is called Extraordinary General Meeting.

(B) Purpose : This meeting is convened Whenever it becomes necessary to take an immediate decision on some important issue affecting the business of the company which cannot be postponed till the next Annual General Meeting.

The purpose of Extraordinary General Meeting : (1) Alterations in the clauses of Memorandum of Association such as name clause, domicile clause or object clause. (2) Alteration in Articles of Association. (3) Removal of Director before the

expiry of his term. (4) Removal of auditor before expiry of his term. (5) Voluntary winding-up of company.

(C) Legal Provisions:

(1) Authority to convene Extraordinary General Meeting:

(a) Board of Directors: The Board of Directors has right to call this meeting by giving proper notice to the shareholders.

(b) Board of Directors on requisition of Members : In case of company having share capital, the shareholders holding at least 1/10 of the paid-up share capital carrying voting rights and in the case of a company not having share capital members having 10% of voting powers can request to hold Extraordinary General Meeting. The Board of Directors in such case must hold Extraordinary General Meeting within 45 days of the date of receipt of requisition from the members.

(c) Requisitionist themselves: If the Board unable to call an Extraordinary General Meeting, the meeting can be called by the requisitionist themselves. In such case meeting must be held within 3 months from the date of deposit of requisition. The company in such case is required to reimburse the expenses incurred by the requisitionists to arrange and organise such meeting.

(d) National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) or Government : If on account of any reason it 13 totally impracticable for a company to hold Extraordinary General Meeting then National Company Law Tribunal can order the company hold it. NCLT has power to order such a meeting on its own or at the request of a Director or any member having voting rights.

(D) Notice: The notice of an Extraordinary General Meeting must be given to the members at least 21 days in advance. If the company intends to transact any special business, it requires to send an explanatory statement to the members along with the notice.

(E) Quorum: The quorum for this meeting is 5 members in case of public company and 2 members in case of private company.

3.Explain the different types of Directors Meetings.

SOLUTION

Board Meeting (Section 173):

(A) Meaning: The meeting of Directors, which is held frequently to discuss important issues, to take decisions on important policy matters and to implement is called a Board Meeting.

(B) Legal Provisions regarding Board Meeting:

(a) Authority to convene: The Chairman of the Board is the proper authority to convene the Board Meeting.

(b) Number of Board Meeting:

(i) First Board Meeting: The first Board Meeting is required to be held within 30 days of is the date of its incorporation.

(ii) Subsequent Board Meeting: Subsequent Board meetings must be held at least once in 3 calendar months i.e. minimum 4 Board Meetings must be held every year. The time gap between two Board meetings should not be more than 120 days.

(iii) In case of One Person Company : In a One Person Company, small company and dormant company, the Board Meeting must be held once in the period of six months, i.e. at least one meeting in each half of calendar year. The time gap between two Board Meetings should not be less than 90 days.

(c) Virtual Meeting : A virtual meeting of Directors means Directors around the city or outside the city regardless of their location use audio video and link online, use video teleconference software. This is a quicker and efficient way to co-ordinate and conduct urgent meeting with various members or departments in an organisation. It depends on the flow of information and ease of communication between the participants. The meeting should be capable of recording and recognising the participation of Directors. However, in certain cases Central Government specifies certain matters that cannot be discussed and dealt through video conferencing or other audio visual means.

(D) Notice : The notice of Board Meetings must be sent to all the Directors of the board at least 7 days prior to the Board Meeting at their registered address by hand delivery or by post or by electronic means. Agenda of the meeting also to be sent along with notice.

(E) Quorum: The quorum for this meeting is one-third of the total number of Directors or two Directors whichever is higher. The Directors who have personal interest in the mater to be discussed in the meeting are excluded from the quorum.

(F) Adjournment: In the absence of requisite quorum, the meeting is adjourned and is to be held on the same day, same time and place next Week.

(2) Committee Meeting :

(A) Meaning: In a Joint Stock Company, the usual committees are formed from among the members of the Board of Directors. A meeting of: the members of such committee is called committee meeting e.g. a meeting allotment committee. (B) Legal Provisions : The Articles of Association of the company provide for the appointment of different committees and holding their meetings to expedite the managerial work.

Such committee is formulated to investigate and submit a report after a careful examination of various aspects of the problem under investigation from all possible angles. The rules and procedure for convening and conducting committee meeting are generally laid down by the Board.

(C) Assistance: The Secretary has to provide needed assistance to the committee. He is required to prepare and maintain separate minutes book to record the proceedings of committee meetings.

(D) Frequency : The committee collects the relevant information of the problem under consideration and holds several meetings for a detailed study of the collected information. The committee, then prepares a report for consideration and approval of the Board. To carry out the assigned work systematically, to discuss the problems and to exchange views, the committee members frequently arrange the committee meetings.


                               COMPLETED

Tamilnadu, Samacheer Kalvi, 10th, Social Science, Solutions, History, Chapter 8, Gandhian Phase,

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
Who was arrested during the anti*Rowlatt protests in Amritsar?
(a) Motilal Nehru
(b) Saifuddin Kitchlew
(c) Mohamed Ali
(d) Raj Kumar Shukla
Answer:
(b) Saifuddin Kitchlew

Question 2.
In which session of the Indian National Congress was Non-Cooperation approved?
(a) Bombay
(b) Madras
(c) Lucknow
(d) Nagpur
Answer:
(d) Nagpur

Question 3.
Which among the following was declared as ‘Independence Day’?
(a) 26th January 1930
(b) 26th December 1929
(c) 16th June 1946
(d) 15th January 1947
Answer:
(a) 26th January 1930

Question 4.
When was the first Forest Act enacted?
(a) 1858
(b) 1911
(c) 1865
(d) 1936
Answer:
(c) 1865

Chapter 8, The Sower, fyjc, 11th std, English, Maharashtra board,

Make a list of words related to agriculture.

SOLUTION

Words related to agriculture are as follows:

LetterWords
Aanimals, arid, agrarian, acres
Bbarn, biofuel, barren, botanical
Ccattle, cultivation, crops, chemicals
Ddrought, development, domestication, drainage
Eequipment, erosion, ecology, environment
Ffarm, fertile, furrow, farmer
Ggraze, ground, grain, germination
Hharvest, hectare, husbandry, harrow
Iirrigation, intercropping, insects
Llabour, livestock, land
Mmachinery, manure, materials, mulch
Nnutrient management, nature, nitrogen
Oovercrop, organic
Ppesticide, pollination, ploughing, produce
Rreap, region, rear, resource
Sseed, sow, soil, sprout
Ttillage, tractor, technique, trade
VVermifiltration
Wwool, water, weather, wheat

Discuss the activities carried out by a farmer.

SOLUTION


In our country engineering, teaching, and medical fields are much sought after. Other professions, occupations though they make a significant contribution to society, do not get their due.

(a)Farmerhighly unpredictable economic gains
(b)Conservancy workers________________
(c)________________________________
(d)________________________________
(e)________________________________

SOLUTION

i.Farmerhighly unpredictable economic gains
ii.Conservancy workersNo protective clothing for handling waste, no provision of clean water and soap at the dumps for washing, high risk of skin-related and respiratory diseases due to the handling of and exposure to toxic waste.
iii.Veterinariananimal bites, scratches, exposure to chemicals, exposure to radiation and disease-causing pathogens, etc
iv.Sales Personnelextensive travelling, long working hours, income partly dependent on variables.
v.Factory Workerslow wages, unpredictable working hours, working overtime, health risks, and dangers while handling heavy machinery.

Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy’. Fill in the boxes supporting this statement. Complete the following web diagram.

SOLUTION


There are a number of challenges a farmer in India faces. Discuss with your friend, how it is possible to improve the condition of farmers.

Sr.No.ChallengesSolutions
1.Water ScarcityRain Water Harvesting
2.Credit and In-debtedness 
3.Land Issues 
4.Climatic changes 
5.Social Groups 
6.Lack of advanced technology 
7.Diversification 
8.Market Risks 

SOLUTION

Sr.No.ChallengesSolutions
1.Water ScarcityRain Water Harvesting.
2.Credit and IndebtednessProviding subsidies and waiving loans.
3.Land IssuesPreventing soil erosion, watershed management, crop diversification, etc.
4.Climatic changesInsuring crops damaged due to natural disasters, engaging in climate forecasting to limit the extent of damage
5.Social GroupsSocial groups need to stop influencing a farmer’s choice in terms of the adoption of new methods, diversification, etc. Farmers ought to stop giving in to the pressure put on them by these social groups.
6.Lack of advanced technologyProvision of modern solutions to deal with modern problems, adopting methods that increase yield, making advanced technology available at subsidised rates.
7.DiversificationProvision of agriculture insurance to limit the risks involved in crop diversification, and to reduce the dependence.
8.Market RisksRegularisation of market prices by the government, minimum revenue guarantees for farmers, etc.

The poet has observed the sower closely. Express in your own words the reverence the poet has for the sower.

SOLUTION

The poet notices the sower for the first time when the twilight sets in. The sower captures the poet‟s attention because the working hours are over, but the sower is still working hard in the field. As the poet continues to observe the sower, he realises that the sower is committed to his work. The sower‟s silhouette against the twilight sky makes his form dominate the deep furrows. The poet‟s reverence increases when he sees the sower striding across the field in order to scatter the grains far and wide, despite the deepening darkness. For the poet, the actions of the sower are dignified because he knows that the sower was not sowing only for himself, but for everyone else. He persevered so that others could enjoy the fruits of his hard work. The poet‟s respect for the sower increases manifold and he sees the sower as being tall enough to touch the skies.

The poet is prompted to call the sower an ‘august personality’ which means one who has reached the highest position in his workplace.


1.Explain this using the following point.

Hard work

SOLUTION

Hard work: The sower is termed as an ‘august personality’ by the poet for his absolute commitment towards his craft. The sower’s diligence can be seen when he continues to work well beyond the working hours. Though the daytime is over, the sower maintains a calm and patient attitude and carries on with his work.


2.Explain this using the following point.

Perseverance

SOLUTION

Perseverance: The sower’s perseverance can be seen when he marches along the plain with determination to sow the seeds and hopes for a good harvest. The poem suggests that the sower is old and must have seen many bad harvests in his lifetime. In spite of this, he continues to persevere. He sows the seeds with the same hope and enthusiasm – that of a good harvest.


3.Explain this using the following point.

Dedication

SOLUTION

Dedication: The dedication of the sower can be seen when he takes strides to move back and forth in the field to ensure that the grains are scattered all around so that it results in a good yield.


Pick out the examples of alliteration from the poem and write them down.

SOLUTION

  1. Sunlight, I see, dying fast – The consonantal sound ‘s’ is repeated pleasingly.
  2. Darkness deepens. – The consonantal sound ‘d’ is repeated pleasingly.

‘Seems to touch the starry skies’. The poet has used word imagery. Describe the idea and pick out other similar examples from the poem.

SOLUTION

The poet has created a mental picture of a farmer touching the sky filled with stars.

Similar examples of word imagery are as follows:

  1. Twilight hastens on to rule.

Write an appreciation of the poem considering the following points:

  • About the poem/poet/title.
  • Theme
  • Poetic devices, language, style
  • Special features/ novelties/focusing elements
  • Values, message
  • Your opinion about the poem.

SOLUTION

Appreciation of the poem ‘The Sower’

‘The Sower’ is a poem about the hard work and persistence of a sower, who works tirelessly and relentlessly while the poet observes his actions and terms him as an august personality, who works not for himself, but for others. Originally written by Victor Hugo in French, this poem has been translated to English by the Bengali poet, Torulata Dutt, who was the first Indian poetess to write verses in English and French. The title of the poem represents the central character of the poem, that is, the sower.

The central idea of the poem revolves around the act of sowing seeds by the sower, while the poet observes him and begins to revere him for his noble actions. The poetic devices used in the poem are Alliteration, Antithesis, Consonance, Hyperbole, Inversion, Personification, Repetition, and Synecdoche. An example of Personification from the poem is ‘Twilight hastens on to rule’ where ‘Twilight’ has been given the animate quality of ‘hastening (rushing in)’. The language used by the poet is slightly complex because it has been written in a way that it maintains the rhyme scheme of ‘abab’. It has a steady rhythm and a consistent metre, meaning that there is consistency in the number of syllables used in a line. The poet follows the narrative style of writing, where he gives a first-person account of observing the sower working hard in the field.

The special features used in the poem are imagery and symbolism. The poem is full of descriptive imagery, as each line either describes the scene or the action of the sower or the poet. The dominance of the silhouette of the sower over the deep furrows is symbolic of the dominance of man over nature. The ‘precious grain’ is so-called because each grain holds importance for the sower. He shall sow these grains carefully and hope for a good harvest.

The novelties in this poem are the exact translations of lines from French by Toru Dutt. She chose to provide a true account of the observations, as written by Victor Hugo, instead of trying to refine the lines that sound inelegant when translated. Her retention of the optimistic tone of the poem makes the poem refreshing and appealing. The focussing elements in the poem are the dedication and commitment of the sower, his perseverance, and the poet’s acknowledgment of the sower’s actions as being selfless and noble.

The values that one can learn from this poem are determination, perseverance, and selflessness. The message given by the poet, through this poem, is that one should keep working with a positive attitude in life because one shall eventually reap the benefits of one’s hard work.

The sower’s commitment towards his work and the poet’s admiration of the sower, give the poem a positive and encouraging tone, thus making it a fine read.


CHAPTER 8, Sound, Science, physics. 9th std, tamilnadu board,

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.

Which of the following vibrates when a musical note is produced by the cymbals in a orchestra?

(a) stretched strings

(b) stretched membranes

(c) air columns

(d) metal plates

Answer:

(a) stretched strings

Question 2.

Sound travels in air:

(a) if there is no moisture in the atmosphere.

(b) if particles of medium travel from one place to another.

(c) if both particles as well as disturbance move from one place to another.

(d) if disturbance moves.

Answer:

(b) if particles of medium travel from one place to another.

Question 3.

A musical instrument is producing continuous note. This note cannot be heard by a person having a normal hearing range. This note must then be passing through ………….

(a) wax

(b) vacuum

(c) water

(d) empty vessel

Answer:

(d) empty vessel

Question 4.

The maximum speed of vibrations which produces audible sound will be in ……………..

(a) seawater

(b) ground glass

(c) dry air

(d) Human blood

Answer:

(a) seawater

Question 5.

The sound waves travel faster

(a) in liquids

(b) in gases

(c) in solids

(d) in vacuum

Answer:

(c) in solids


II. Fill in the blanks.

  1. Sound is a ………… wave and needs a material medium to travel.
  2. Number of vibrations produced in one second is …………..
  3. The velocity of sound in solid is …………. than the velocity of sound in air.
  4. Vibration of object produces …………..
  5. Loudness is proportional to the square of the …………..
  6. …………… is a medical instrument used for listening to sounds produced in the body.
  7. The repeated reflection that results in persistence of sound is called ……………..

Answer:

  1. longitudinal
  2. frequency of wave
  3. faster
  4. Sound
  5. amplitude
  6. ECG
  7. reverberation

III. Match the following.

Column – IColumn – II
(a) Tuning fork(i) The point where density of air is maximum
(b) Sound(ii) Maximum displacement from the equilibrium position
(c) Compressions(iii) The sound whose frequency is greater than 20,000 Hz
(d) Amplitude(iv) Longitudinal wave
(e) Ultrasonics(v) Production of sound

Answer:

(a) (v)

(b) (i)

(c) (iv)

(d) (ii)

(e) (iii)


IV. Answer in brief.

Question 1.

Through which medium sound travels faster, iron or water? Give reason.

Answer:

Sound travels faster through iron as solids are packed together tighter than liquids and gases.

Question 2.

Name the physical quantity whose SI unit is ‘hertz’. Define.

Answer:

The SI unit of frequency is hertz (Hz). The number of vibrations (complete waves or cycles) produced in one second is called frequency of the wave.

Question 3.

What is meant by supersonic speed?

Answer:

When the speed of any object exceeds the speed of sound in air (330 m s-1) it is said to be travelling at supersonic speed.

Question 4.

How does the sound produced by a vibrating object in a medium reach your ears?

Answer:

When an object vibrates, it forces the neighbouring particles of the medium to vibrate. These vibrating particles then force the particles adjacent to them to vibrate. In this way vibrations produced by an object are transferred till it reaches the ear.

Question 5.

You and your friend are on the moon. Will you be able to hear any sound produced by your friend?

Answer:

No, as there is no medium on moon for the sound to travel.


V. Answer in detail.

Question 1.

Describe with diagram, how compressions and rarefactions are produced.

Answer:

Sound is also a longitudinal wave. Sound can travel only when there are particles which can be compressed and rarefied. Compressions are the regions where particles are crowded together. Rarefactions are the regions of low pressure where particles are spread apart. A sound wave is an example of a longitudinal mechanical wave. Below figure represents the longitudinal nature of sound wave in the medium.


Question 2.

Verify experimentally the laws of reflection of sound.

Answer:

The laws of reflection are:

  • The angle in which the sound is incident is equal to the angle in which sound is reflected.
  • Direction of incident sound, direction of the reflected sound and the normal are in the same plane.

Take two metal tubes A and B. Keep one end of each tube on a metal plate as shown in figure. Place a wrist watch c at the open end of the tube A and interpose a cardboard between A and B. Now at a particular inclination of the tube B with the cardboard, ticking of the watch is clearly heard. The angle of reflection made by the tube B with the cardboard is equal to the angle of incidence made by the tube A with the cardboard.

For example, if the angle of incidence is 20° on the left side of a protractor (see figure arrangement), the angle of reflection at which we are able to hear the sound clearly will also be at 20° on the right side of the protractor.

∴ ∠ i = ∠ r    ➝ verifying Law I

We will also further observe that pipe 1, pipe 2 i.e, the incident ray, reflected ray and the normal lie on the same plane, verifying law II.


Question 3.

List the applications of sound.

Applications of ultrasound

Answer:

  • Ultra sound can be used in cleaning technology. Minute foreign particles can be removed from objects placed in a liquid bath through which ultrasound is passed.
  • Ultrasounds can also be use d to detect cracks and flaws in metal blocks.
  • Ultrasonic waves are made to reflect from various parts of the heart and form the image of the heart. This technique is called ‘echo cardiography’.
  • Ultrasound may be employed to break small ‘stones’ formed in the kidney into fine grains. These grains later get flushed out with urine.

Question 4.

Explain how does SONAR work?

Answer:

SONAR stands for Sound Navigation And Ranging. Sonar is a device that uses ultrasonic waves to measure the distance, direction and speed of underwater objects. Sonar consists of Science – 9 (Physics)

a transmitter and a detector and is installed at the bottom of boats and ships. The transmitter produces and transmits ultrasonic waves. These waves travel through water and after striking the object on the seabed, get reflected back and are sensed by the detector.

The detector converts the ultrasonic waves into electrical signals which are appropriately interpreted. The distance of the object that reflected the sound wave can be calculated by knowing the speed of sound in water and the time interval between transmission and reception of the ultrasound. Sonar technique is used to determine the depth of the sea and to locate underwater hills, valleys, submarine, icebergs etc.


VI. Numerical problem.

Question 1.

The frequency of a source of sound is 600 Hz. How many times does it vibrate in a minute?

Answer:

The number of vibrations (complete waves or cycles) produced in one second is called frequency of the wave.

Hence, in one minute 600 x 60 vibrations are produced = 36000 (Need clarification)


Question 2.

A stone is dropped from the top of a tower 750 m high into a pond of water at the base of the tower. When is the splash heard at the top?

(Given g = 10 m s– 2 and speed of sound = 340 ms– 1)

Height = 750m

h = ut + 0.5 gt2

The initial velocity is 0

750 = 0.5 × 10 × t2

t = 10sec

Speed of sound is 340m/sec

So, time taken to travel 750m upwards is,

750

340

 = 2.20s

time taken = 10 + 2.20 = 12.2 sec.


Balbharati solutions, for, Biology, 11th, Standard, Maharashtra, State Board, Chapter 8, Plant Tissues, and Anatomy, Exercise, [Pages 95 – 96],

Exercise | Q 1. (A) | Page 95

Choose the correct option.

Location or position of meristematic regions is divided into ______ types.

one

two

three

none of the above

SOLUTION

three


Cambium is also called ______.

apical meristem

intercalary meristem

lateral meristem

none of the above

SOLUTION

lateral meristem


Collenchyma is a type of ______ tissue.

living

dead

living and dead

none of the above

SOLUTION

living


______ is a complex permanent tissue.

Parenchyma

Sclerenchyma

Chlorenchyma

Xylem

SOLUTION

Xylem


Mesophyll tissue is present in ______.

root

stem

leaf

flower

SOLUTION

leaf


Exercise | Q 2. (A) | Page 95

Answer the following question.

A fresh section was taken by a student but he was very disappointed because there were only a few green and most colourless cells. Teacher provided a pink colour solution. The section was immersed in this solution and when observed it was much clearer. What is magic?

SOLUTION

The pink coloured solution given by teacher must be a safranin stain. Safranin is used to stain plant tissues, especially lignified tissues such as cell wall and xylem.


While observing a section, many scattered vascular bundles could be seen. Teacher said, in spite of this large number the stem cannot grow in girth. Why?

SOLUTION

1. Students must have observed monocot stems.

2. It is because, monocot stem shows scattered vascular bundles.

3. In monocot stem, vascular bundles are closed i.e. without cambium.

4. Thus, secondary growth does not occur which is required for an increase in girth. Hence, in spite of having large number of scattered vascular bundles, monocot stems do not grow in girth.


A section of the stem had vascular bundles, where one tissue was wrapped around the other. How will you technically describe it?

SOLUTION

Concentric vascular bundle:

1. When one vascular tissue is completely encircling the other, it is called a concentric vascular bundle.

2. When phloem is encircled by xylem, it is called a leptocentric vascular bundle, whereas when xylem is encircled by phloem, it is called a hadrocentric vascular bundle.

3. When xylem is encircled by phloem on both faces, it is called as amphicribral vascular bundle. When phloem is encircled by xylem on both faces it is called an amphivasal vascular bundle.


There were two cut logs of wood lying in the campus. One had growth rings and other didn’t. Teacher said it is due to differences in their pattern of growth which is dependent on the season. How?

SOLUTION

1. It is possible that one of the cut logs was of a tropical tree, whereas the other was of a temperate tree. Since tropical trees grow in a similar manner all year, growth rings are not apparent. Another explanation for this could be that the log which had growth rings must be of an old tree which has experience many seasons, whereas the log without growth rings must be of younger tree, that has not been subjected to seasonal changes and hence not developed prominent growth rings.

2. Growth rings are formed due to cambial activity during favourable and non-favourable climatic conditions.

3. During favourable conditions, spring wood (early wood) is formed which has broader xylem bands, lighter colour, tracheids with thin wall and wide lumen, fibres are less in number, low density. Whereas, during unfavourable conditions, autumn wood (late wood) is formed which has narrow xylem band, darker in colour, a lumen is narrow and walls are thick with abundant fibres, high density.

4. Spring wood and autumn wood that appears as alternate light and dark concentric rings, constitute an annual ring or growth ring.

5. These growth rings can be used to estimate the age of the tree. These are found more in older trees as compare to a younger tree.


While on the trip to Kashmir, Pintoo observed that cut portions of large trees show distinct rings, which he never found in Maharashtra. Why is so?

SOLUTION

1. Cut portions of large tress show distinct rings which are annual rings formed due to activity of cambium during favourable and non-favourable climatic conditions.

2. Kashmir falls under the temperate region where the climatic conditions are not uniform through the year. In the spring season, conditions are favourable due to which cambium is active, whereas, in the autumn season, conditions are unfavourable due to which cambium is less active. This leads to the formation of spring wood and autumn wood that appears as alternate light and dark concentric rings, constitute an annual ring or growth ring.

3. Maharashtra falls under the tropical region where climatic conditions are favourable throughout the year. In tropical areas, the continuous growth of secondary xylem occurs. Thus, trees growing in tropical regions show less or no annual rings as compared to trees in the temperate region.


A student was observing a slide with no label under a microscope. The section had some vascular bundles scattered in the ground tissue. It is a section of a monocot stem! He exclaimed. No! it is a section of fern rachis, said the teacher. Teacher told to observe vascular bundle again. Student agreed, Why?

SOLUTION

1. In fern rachis, the number of vascular bundles is less as compared to the number of vascular bundles in monocot stem. In monocot stem, vascular bundles are numerous.

2. In fern rachis, xylem consists of only tracheids whereas in monocot stem, xylem consists of vessels (protoxylem and metaxylem) as well as tracheids. Monocot stem shows the presence of lysigenous cavity just below protoxylem.

3. In fern rachis, phloem consists of only sieve cells whereas in monocot stem, phloem consists of sieve tubes and companion cells.

Thus, a student must have observed these differences in the given section and agreed to teacher’s statement that the given section is of fern rachis and not of monocot stem.


Student found a wooden stopper in lab. He was told by an old lab attendant that it is there for many years. He kept thinking how it did not rot?

SOLUTION

1. The wooden stopper or cork is obtained from the phellem (cork) part of a bark.

2. Phellem (cork) is impervious in nature and does not allow entry of water due to suberized walls.

3. Due to this it does not rot and remains as it is for many years.


Student while observing a slide of leaf section observed many stomata on the upper surface. He thought he has placed slide upside down. Teacher confirmed it is rightly placed. Explain.

SOLUTION

1. In a dicot leaf, stomata are generally absent on the upper epidermis but are present on the lower epidermis. Thus, the student must have thought that he has placed slide upside down.

2. According to teacher, the section was placed rightly, thus the given section must be of monocot leaf.

3. It is because in monocot leaf stomata are present on both upper and lower epidermis.


Exercise | Q 3. (A) | Page 95

Write a short note on

Structure of stomata.

SOLUTION

1. Small gateways in the epidermal cells are called stomata.

2. Stoma is controlled or guarded by specially modified cells called guard cells.

3. These guard cells may be kidney-shaped (dicot) or dumbbell-shaped (monocot), collectively called as stomata.

4. Guard cells have chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis.

5. Change in turgor pressure of guard cells causes opening and closing of stomata, which enables the exchange of gases and water vapour.

6. Stomata are further covered by subsidiary cells.

7. Stoma, guard cells and subsidiary cells form a unit called stomatal apparatus.


secondary growth.

SOLUTION

1. Dicotyledonous plants and gymnosperms exhibit increase in girth of root and stem.

2. In dicot stem, secondary growth begins with the formation of a continuous cambium ring.

3. The cambium present between the primary xylem and primary phloem of a vascular bundle is called intrafascicular cambium.

4. The cells of medullary rays adjoining these intrafascicular cambium strips become meristematic (regain the capacity to divide) and form the interfascicular cambium.

5. Thus, a complete and continuous ring of vascular cambium is formed.

6. The cambium ring cuts off new cells, towards both inner and outer sides.

7. The cells that are cut-off towards pith (inner side) mature into secondary xylem and cells that are cut-off towards the periphery mature into secondary phloem.

8. Generally, amount of secondary xylem is more than the secondary phloem.


peculiarity of a sclerenchyma cell wall.

SOLUTION

1. Cell wall of sclerenchyma is evenly thickened due to uniform deposition of lignin.

2. Cell wall of sclereids is extremely thick and strongly lignified.


Differentiate between Vascular bundle of monocot and Vascular bundle of dicot.

SOLUTION


Differentiate between Xylem and Phloem functioning

SOLUTION


Distinguish Between Internal or anatomical difference between monocots and dicots.

SOLUTION


Exercise | Q 5. (A) | Page 96

Draw a neat labelled diagram.

T. S. of Dicot leaf

SOLUTION

T. S. of Monocot root

SOLUTION

T. S. of dicot stem

SOLUTION


Exercise | Q 6 | Page 96

Write the information related to the diagram given below.

SOLUTION

1. Small gateways in the epidermal cells are called as stomata.

2. Stoma is controlled or guarded by specially modified cells called guard cells.

3. These guard cells may be kidney-shaped (dicot) or dumbbell-shaped (monocot), collectively called as stomata.

4. Guard cells have chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis.

5. Change in turgor pressure of guard cells causes opening and closing of stomata, which enables exchange of gases and water vapour.

6. Stomata are further covered by subsidiary cells.

7. Stoma, guard cells and subsidiary cells form a unit called stomatal apparatus.


Write the information related to the diagram given below.

SOLUTION


Exercise | Q 7. (a) | Page 96

Identify the following diagram, label it and prepare a chart of characteristics.

1. Epiblema:

It is the outermost single layer of cells without cuticle. Some epidermal cells prolong to form unicellular root hairs.

2. Cortex:

It is made up of many layers of thin walled parenchyma cells. Cortical cells store food and water.

3. Exodermis:

After the death of epiblema, outer layer of cortex become cutinized and is called Exodermis.

4. Endodermis:

The innermost layer of cortex is called Endodermis. The cells are barrel-shaped and their radial walls bear Casparian strip or Casparian bands composed of suberin. Near the protoxylem, there are unthickened passage cells.

5. Stele:

It consists of pericycle, vascular bundles and pith.

a. Pericycle:

Next to the endodermis, there is a single layer of thin walled parenchyma cells called pericycle. It forms outermost layer of stele or vascular cylinder.

b. Vascular bundle:

Vascular bundles are radial. Xylem and Phloem occur in separate patches arranged on alternate radii. Xylem is exarch in root that means protoxylem vessels are towards periphery and metaxylem elements are towards centre. Xylem bundles vary from two to six number, i.e. they may be diarch, triarch, tetrarch, etc. Connective tissue: A parenchymatous tissue is present in between xylem and phloem.

c. Pith:

The central part of stele is called pith. It is narrow and made up of parenchymatous cells, with or without intercellular spaces.

6. At a later stage cambium ring develops between the xylem and phloem causing secondary growth.


Identify the following diagram, label it and prepare a chart of characteristics.

SOLUTION

1. It is a type of simple permanent tissue.

2. Cells in this tissue are thin walled, isodiametric, round, oval to polygonal or elongated in shape.

3. Cell wall is composed of cellulose.

4. Cells are living with prominent nucleus and cytoplasm with large vacuole.

5. Parenchyma has distinct intercellular spaces. Sometimes, cells may show compact arrangement.

6. The cytoplasm of adjacent cells is interconnected through plasmodesmata and thus forms a continuous tissue.

7. This is less specialized permanent tissue.

8. Occurrence:

These cells are distributed in all the parts of a plant body viz. epidermis, cortex, pericycle, pith, mesophyll cells, endosperm, xylem and phloem.

9. Functions:

These cells store food, water, help in gaseous exchange, increase buoyancy, perform photosynthesis and different functions in plant body.

10. Dedifferentiation in parenchyma cells develops vascular cambium and cork cambium at the time of secondary growth.


Identify the following diagram, label it and prepare a chart of characteristics.

SOLUTION

Structure of stomata:

1. Small gateways in the epidermal cells are called as stomata.

2. Stoma is controlled or guarded by specially modified cells called guard cells.

3. These guard cells may be kidney shaped (dicot) or dumbbell shaped (monocot), collectively called as stomata.

4. Guard cells have chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis.

5. Change in turgor pressure of guard cells causes opening and closing of stomata, which enables exchange of gases and water vapour.

6. Stomata are further covered by subsidiary cells.

7. Stoma, guard cells and subsidiary cells form a unit called stomatal apparatus.


Identify the following diagram, label it and prepare a chart of characteristics.

SOLUTION

Structure of dorsiventral leaf:

The mesophyll tissue is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma in a dorsiventral leaf. This type is very common in dicot leaf. The different parts of this leaf are as follows:

Upper epidermis:

It consists of a single layer of tightly packed rectangular, barrel shaped, parenchymatous cells which are devoid of chloroplast. A distinct layer of cuticle lies on the outside of the epidermis. Stomata are generally absent.

Mesophyll:

Between upper and lower epidermis, there is chloroplast-containing photosynthetic tissue called mesophyll It is differentiated into Palisade parenchyma and Spongy parenchyma.

1. Palisade parenchyma:

Palisade parenchyma is present below upper epidermis and consists of closely packed elongated cells. The cells contain abundant chloroplasts and help in photosynthesis.

2. Spongy parenchyma:

Spongy parenchyma is present below palisade tissue and consists of loosely arranged irregularly shaped cells with intercellular spaces. The spongy parenchyma cells contain chloroplast and are in contact with the atmosphere through stomata.

Vascular system:

It is made up of a number of vascular bundles of varying size depending upon the venation. Each one is surrounded by a thin layer of parenchymatous cells called bundle sheath. Vascular bundles are closed. Xylem lies towards upper epidermis and phloem towards lower epidermis. Cambium is absent, hence there is no secondary growth in the leaf.

Lower epidermis:

It consists of a single layer of compactly arranged rectangular, parenchymatous cells. A thin layer of cuticle is also present. The lower epidermis contains a large number of microscopic pores called stomata. There is an air-space called substomatal chamber at each stoma.


Exercise | Q 8 | Page 96

Distinguish between dicot and monocot leaf on the basis of following characters.

SOLUTION


Chapter 8, Cell Biology And Biotechnology, Science Part II, Solutions, for, Class 10, Science, Maharashtra board,

Question 1:

Fill in the blanks and complete the statements.
a. Methods like artificial insemination and embryo transplant are mainly used for — — —
b. — — — — is the revolutionary event in biotechnology after cloning.
c. The disease related with the synthesis of insulin is — — —.
d. Government of India has encouraged the — — — — for improving the productivity by launching NKM-16.

ANSWER:

a. Methods like artificial insemination and embryo transplant are mainly used for improving the quality and quantity of animal products.
b. Stem cell technology is the revolutionary event in biotechnology after cloning.
c. The disease related with the synthesis of insulin is diabetes.
d. Government of India has encouraged the people for pisciculture for improving the productivity by launching NKM-16.

Question 2:

Match the pairs.

a.Interferon1.Diabetes
b.Factor2.Dwarfness
c.Somatostatin3.Viral infection
d.Interleukin4.Cancer
5.Hemophilia
ANSWER:
a.Interferon. 3.Viral infection
b.Factor. 5.Hemophilia
c.Somatostatin. 2.Dwarfness
d.Interleukin. 4.Cancer

Question 3:

Rewrite the following wrong statements after corrections.
a. Changes in genes of the cells are brought about in non-genetic technique.
b. Gene from Bacillus thuringiensis is introduced into soyabean.

ANSWER:

a. Changes in genes of the cells are brought about in genetic technique.
b. Gene from Bacillus thuringiensis is introduced into cotton plants.

Question 4:

Write short notes.

a. Biotechnology: Professional uses.
b. Importance of medicinal plants.

ANSWER:

a. Biotechnology is the branch of biology that involves the application of technology in utilising the living organisms or their parts to produce products useful for humans. There are various applications of biotechnology, some of which are mentioned below:
(i) It is used in agriculture to produce improved varieties of plants and animal breeds, and to control pests and pathogens.
(ii) It is applied in food processing industries to produce additives.
(iii) It is applied to produce biocatalysts and biopolymers.
(iv) Many biotechnological processes are applied to control pollution and treat waste water.
(v) It is applied in the field of health care to produce several vaccines, drugs and hormones like insulin, etc.

b. Several plants have medicinal properties which can be used as medicines.
Some of the plants grown for their medicinal value are: Cinchona − Quinine, a drug used in the treatment of malaria, is obtained from the bark of the Cinchona tree.
Rauwolfia (Sarpagandha) − This plant is used for the treatment of hypertension and insomnia.
Belladonna − Alkaloids obtained from the roots of this plant are used as pain relievers.
It also stimulates respiration and circulation.
Eucalyptus − The leaves of eucalyptus are used for extracting on oil which is used in the treatment of blocked nose and throat infections.
It is also used as a mosquito repellent.

Question 5:

Answer the following questions in your own words.

a. Which products produced through biotechnology do you use in your daily life?
b. Which precautions will you take during spraying of pesticides?
c. Why some of the organs in human body are most valuable?
d. Explain the importance of fruit processing in human life?
e. Explain the meaning of vaccination.

ANSWER:

a. There are various products which we use in our daily life that are produced by biotechnological processes.
These products belong to the category of: Medical products like antibiotics, vaccines and insulin.
Fruits and dairy products. Microbial metabolites like vitamins and enzymes.
Organic acids like acetic acid/vinegar.

b. Pesticides are chemicals which are used on plants for protecting them against pest infection.
They contain various kinds of chemicals which are harmful to humans as well as the environment.
There are certain points which should be taken care of while using pesticides like, cover the nose, mouth and eyes while spraying them, keeping them out of the reach of children.
Another important point is to prevent excessive use of pesticides as they also lead to water and soil pollution.
Instead one should adopt natural or biological methods to ward off pests.

c. We know that the human body is a system which is comprised of various types of organs.
These organs have specific and important roles to play and in the absence of their functioning, normal body functions cannot be carried out.
There are various reasons like aging, accidents, infections, disorders because of which an organ may become non functional.
Such situation can eventually result in the death of the patient.
However, organ transplant is a solution for such cases.
There are organs that can be donated to such people and our thus valuable, for example, heart, kidneys, eyes, liver etc.

d. Fruits are something which we eat everyday.
Fruits are called perishable products which means that they cannot be stored for long durations.
The solution to this problem is fruit processing.
Fruit processing is a process which converts fruits into jams, juices, jellies etc.
These processing methods include storage in cold areas, drying salting etc.
This process makes the fruits available all year and makes their storage possible.

e. Vaccines are dead or weakened microorganisms, which help the body in fighting against diseases.
Our body reacts to infection by microorganisms by producing certain substances called antibodies.
These antibodies kill the invading microorganisms, thereby freeing the body from diseases.
In order to protect the body from diseases caused by microorganisms, some dead or weakened microbes are introduced in the body, which cause the production of antibodies.
These antibodies then remain in the body for a long period of time protecting the body from diseases.
This whole process of introducing vaccines into the body is known as vaccination.

Question 6:

Complete the following chart.

ANSWER:


Question 7:

Write the correct answer in blank circles.

ANSWER:


Question 8:

Identify and complete the following correlations.

a. Insulin : Diabetes :: Interleukin : — — —
b. Interferon : — :: Erythropoietin : Anemia.
c. ——- : Dwarfness :: Factor VIII : Hemophilia.
d. White revolution : Dairy :: Blue revolution : — — — –.

ANSWER:

a. Insulin: Diabetes :: Interleukin: Cancer 
b. Interferon: Viral infection  :: Erythropoietin: Anemia
c. Somatostatin : Dwarfness :: Factor VIII: Hemophilia
d. White revolution: Dairy :: Blue revolution: Aquatic organisms 

Question 9:

Write a comparative note on usefulness and harmfulness of biotechnology.

ANSWER:  

Biotechnology has revolutionised the field of science and technology.
It has provided us with solutions to our problems which would not have been possible otherwise.
It has found widespread applications in various fields and its many potentials are still being exploited.
However, despite the various merits of biotechnology, there are certain disadvantages also associated with it.

Merits of biotechnology:

it has helped in the field of agriculture for the development of stress resistant varieties for example drought resistant, temperature resistant plants etc.
it has been useful in the medical field in the diagnosis and treatment of various kind of diseases.
it is being widely applied in the food industry for producing different kinds of food products on a larger scale.
it’s potential for solving environmental problems is also being exploited.
For example, microorganisms are being used to solve the menace of plastics.


Demerits of biotechnology


Although biotechnology has found widespread applications in various fields, it has its own potential risks.
Some of its demerits are:
some of the biotechnological procedures are against nature and natural laws as they involve other living organisms and disturbing their genetic makeup.
new and advanced varieties of crops produced by biotechnology, which are considered to be healthier and better, also have some disadvantages like seed sterility.
it may also lead to the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria there are various ethical issues associated with products produced by biotechnological processes.

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