Chapter 7 | Aster Classes

Q1.खालील व्यक्तींच्या स्वभाववैशिष्ट्यांची तुलना करा.

अब्दुलरघुभैया
  
  

SOLUTION

अब्दुलरघुभैया
इतरांच्या आनंदात आनंद मानणारास्वत:च्या कुटुंबाला महत्त्व देणारा
व्यवसायातील फायद्याचा विचार न करता समाजसेवा करणारास्वत:च्या धंद्यात फायदा कमवणारा
मानवसेवा करणारा असामान्य माणूसचारचौघांसारखा सामान्य माणूस

खालील विधानांमागील कारणे लिहा.

Q2.(A)रस्त्यानं कोणी भेटलं तर सांगू नका तपोवनात जातो म्हणून.

SOLUTION

अब्दुल तपोवनात कुष्ठरोगी स्त्रियांना बांगड्या भरण्यासाठी जात असल्याचे लोकांना समजले, तर त्याचा विपरीत परिणाम त्याच्या धंद्यावर होईल, असे शन्नूला वाटले.

(B)आजचा दिवस म्हणजे त्यांच्यासाठी पर्वणीच.

SOLUTION

संक्रांतीच्या दिवशी तपोवनातील मुली व स्त्रियांच्या हातात बांगड्या भरल्यावर त्यांच्या चेहऱ्यावरचा आनंद पाहून अब्दुलला अनमोल आनंद मिळत असे. अब्दुलला ही दुर्मीळ संधी वाटत असे.


Q3.(A)गुणविशेष लिहा.

SOLUTION

दाजीसाहेब- 

  1. तपस्वी समाजसेवक
  2. वयोवृद्ध असूनही तडफदार
  3. नि:स्वार्थी व त्यागी
  4. माणुसकी जपणारे
  5. समाजऋण मानणारे

(B)गुणविशेष लिहा.

SOLUTION

शन्नोची स्वभाववैशिष्ट्ये-

  1. कर्तव्यदक्ष गृहिणी
  2. सर्वसामान्य विचार करणारी
  3. गरिबीला त्रासलेली
  4. मुलावर प्रेम करणारी
  5. प्रगतीची आस असलेली

Q4.खालील वाक्यांतील अव्यये शोधा व त्यांचे प्रकार लिहा.

वाक्येअव्ययेप्रकार
(अ) अब्दुल जिल्हाधिकारी कचेरीजवळ आला.  
(आ) तो एक आनंदाचा आणि चैतन्याचा दिवस.  
(इ) बापरे! केवढी मोठी वसाहत.  
(ई) रघुभैयाने चिठ्ठी भरभर वाचली.  

SOLUTION

वाक्येअव्ययेप्रकार
(अ) अब्दुल जिल्हाधिकारी कचेरीजवळ आला.जवळशब्दयोगी
(आ) तो एक आनंदाचा आणि चैतन्याचा दिवस.आणिउभयान्वयी
(इ) बापरे! केवढी मोठी वसाहत.बाप रे!केवलप्रयोगी
(ई) रघुभैयाने चिठ्ठी भरभर वाचली.भरभरक्रियाविशेषण

Q5.विरामचिन्हे ओळखा व त्यांची नावे लिहा.

(A)‘‘अरे, पण चिठ्ठी मराठीतून आहे.’’

SOLUTION

  • ” ” – दुहेरी अवतरणचिन्ह
  • , – स्वल्पविराम्
  • . – पूर्णविराम

(B)’अन्वर जेवला?“

SOLUTION

  • ” ” – दुहेरी अवतरणचिन्ह
  • ? – प्रश्नचिन्ह

Q6.खालील उदाहरणांचा अभ्यास करा व दोन्ही अलंकाराच्या रचनेतील फरक समजून घ्या. अशा उदाहरणांचा शाेध घेऊन त्यांचा सराव करा.

  • अब्दुल हा तपोवनातील स्त्रियांना देवदूतासारखा वाटतो. (उपमा अलंकार)
  • अब्दुल हा तपोवनातील स्त्रियांसाठी जणू देवदूतच. (उत्प्रेक्षा अलंकार)

SOLUTION

Do it yourself.

Q7.(A)सत्यता पटवून द्या- ‘अब्दुल एक थोर समाजसेवक’

SOLUTION

अब्दुल हा बांगड्या विकण्याचा व्यवसाय करणारा एक सर्वसामान्य माणूस; पण दाजीसाहेबांच्या तपोवनातील कुष्ठरोगी स्त्रियांना वर्षातून दोनदा बांगड्या भरण्यासाठी तो स्वत:हून तयार झाला. दरवर्षी न चुकता, न बोलावता, मोबदल्याची अपेक्षा न ठेवता तो त्या स्त्रियांना बांगड्या भरण्यासाठी जात असे. कुष्ठरोगी भगिनींच्या जीवनात आनंद, उत्साह निर्माण करत असे. ‘कुष्ठरोग’ हा तसा सर्वसामान्यांच्या दृष्टीने नावडता विषय. त्यातही अशा स्त्रियांच्या हातात बांगड्या भरणे हे अवघड कार्य; पण अब्दुलने हेही सहज केले. पत्नीची बोलणी सहन करत, ऐन सणांदिवशी आपले चुडीचे दुकान बंद ठेवून, स्वत:च्या फायद्याचा जराही विचार न करता तो तपोवनात जात असे व मनापासून आपले काम करत असे. मनपसंत बांगड्या भरल्यानंतर या लेकीबाळींच्या चेहऱ्यावर दिसणारा आनंद पाहण्यात त्याला खूप समाधान मिळत असे. सत्कार समारंभाचे निमंत्रण ऐकून त्याला आनंद झाला; पण तपोवनासाठी मी काही सत्कार करण्याएवढे कार्य केले नाही असे वाटण्याइतकी साधी, नम्र वृत्ती त्याच्याजवळ होती, म्हणून अब्दुल एक थोर समाजसेवक आहे, असे मला वाटते.

(B)शन्नूच्या वागण्यामागील तिचा विचार काय असावा, याविषयी तुमचे मत लिहा.

SOLUTION

अब्दुलची बायको शन्नू ही एक सर्वसामान्य गृहिणी आहे. इतरांप्रमाणेच आपल्या पतीनेही चांगला धंदा करावा, खूप पैसे कमवावेत, म्हणजे घर व्यवस्थित चालेल असा तिचा विचार आहे. शिवाय, ऐन सणांदिवशी, ज्यावेळी कितीतरी बायका दुकानात बांगड्या भरायला येतात त्यावेळी अब्दुल आपले दुकान बंद ठेवून तपोवनातील स्त्रियांना बांगड्या भरण्यासाठी जातो, हे तिला पटत नाही कारण, त्यामुळे चांगले पैसे कमावण्याची संधी अब्दुल गमावून बसतो. परिणामी, पुरेसे पैसे मिळत नाहीत आणि आपल्या मुलाचा साधा हट्टही पुरवता येत नाही, जमा-खर्च बसवताना ओढाताण होते, असे तिला वाटत असावे. या सर्वांचा परिणाम म्हणून अब्दुलला शन्नूची बोलणी ऐकावी लागतात; पण तिच्या अशा वागण्यामागे कर्तव्यदक्ष गृहिणी म्हणून ‘आपल्या कुटुंबाचा विचार’ महत्त्वाचा आहे, असे दिसते.

(C)तंत्रज्ञानाची जोड देऊन अब्दुलचा मुलगा बांगड्यांचा व्यवसाय कसा वाढवू शकेल, याविषयी तुमचे विचार स्पष्ट करा.

SOLUTION

तंत्रज्ञानाची जोड देऊन अब्दुलचा मुलगा बांगड्यांचा व्यवसाय नक्कीच वाढवू शकेल. त्यासाठी त्याला संगणकाचे ज्ञान असणे आवश्यक आहे. विविध समाजमाध्यमांवर बांगड्यांच्या जाहिराती टाकून तो ग्राहकांपर्यंत पोहोचू शकतो. त्या जाहिरातींसोबतच आपला व्यवसाय ‘डिजिटल’ पद्धतीने सर्वत्र पोहोचवण्यासाठी तो स्वत:चे ‘ॲप’ विकसित करू शकतो. त्या ॲपवर तऱ्हेतऱ्हेच्या बांगड्यांचे नमुने पेश करून, आकर्षक सवलती (ऑफर्स) देऊन ग्राहकांना आकर्षित करू शकतो. शिवाय, ऑनलाइन मार्केटिंग सुरू करून तो देशातच नाही, तर परदेशातूनही मागणी मिळवून आपला व्यवसाय वाढवू शकतो.

शिवाय, बांगड्या बनवण्यासाठीची नवीन यंत्रसामग्री विकत घेऊन तो विविध प्रकारच्या (लाखेच्या, काचेच्या, प्लास्स्टिकच्या), विविध रंगांच्या, आकाराच्या बांगड्या बनवू शकतो व आपला व्यवसाय वाढवू शकतो.

(D)दुसऱ्याला मदत करण्यातला आनंद ज्या प्रसंगातून मिळू शकतो, असा प्रसंग लिहा.

SOLUTION

सहावीत असतानाची गोष्ट. परीक्षा जवळ आलेली असताना माझा मित्र अचानकच आजारी पडला. परीक्षेची तयारी करण्यासाठी त्याच्याजवळ पुरेसा वेळ नव्हता. त्याची अडचण लक्षात येताच मी माझ्यापरीने त्याला जमेल ती मदत करू लागलो. 

अवघड गणिते, इतर विषयांचे परीक्षेसंदर्भातील महत्त्वाचे प्रश्न मी त्याला समजावून देण्याचा प्रयत्न केला. त्याची उजळणी करून घेतली. परीक्षेच्या काळात आम्ही एकत्र अभ्यास करायचो. परीक्षा संपल्यावर त्याने माझा हात हातात घेतला व आभार मानले. ओलावलेल्या नेत्रांनी त्याने मला प्रेमभराने मिठी मारली. हा आनंदाचा क्षण मी कधीही विसरू शकणार नाही.

COMPLETED

Chapter 7, Region and Regional Development, geography, hsc, ebalbharathi, solution,

Chapter 7: Region and Regional Development

1.Identify the correct group:

ABСD
SatpudaYavatmalTharMarathwada
DeccanAmravatiSaharaKhandesh
AlpsSolapurHimalayaVidarbha
RockiesGreater MumbaiGobiKonkan

OPTIONS

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

2.Identify the correct group:

ABCD
PlainPressureTropical forestFishing
LakeRiversThorny forestLumbering
MountainTemperatureMangrove forestAgriculture
PlateausHumidityDeciduous forestBakery

OPTIONS

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

Differentiate between:

1.Functional region and formal region.

SOLUTION

Functional regionFormal region
(i) Specific to one area.(i) Often physical in nature.
(ii) Areas organised around a node or focus one point like university, airport, etc.(ii) Has specific boundaries that set them apart.
(iii) This region has no common characteristics but functions are more important, functions bind regions together.(iii) This region has some common characteristics such as common economic activity or common language.
(iv) Often a metropolitan area that consists of major city and lot of smaller towns.(iv) Homogeneous areas or habitats inhabited by social groups, societies or nation.
(v) The region is tied to a central point by transportation system or economic or functional associations.(v) Organised and represented by small systems or part systems.
(vi) It functions and works together to form a part of an economic and social system.(vi) Has clear-cut political boundaries.
(vii) Defined by a set of activities.(vii) Defined by common political units where all people are subject to same law and government.

2.Physical region and political region.

SOLUTION

Physical regionPolitical region
(i) Physical region is an area of land divided by natural borders.(i) Political region tends to be based on political units such as sovereign states like administrative region, province, states, township, etc.
(ii) For example, interior plains of USA with borders of Appalachian Mountains in the east and Rocky Mountains in the west.(ii) For example, USA, State of Maharashtra, etc.
(iii) Physical regions are natural regions.(iii) Political regions are man-made regions.
(iv) Physical regions are almost unchanged regions.(iv) Political regions are not permanent regions.

Write short notes on:

1.Factors affecting regional development

SOLUTION

The physical factors like relief, climate, location, population and land use of the region affects the regional development.

Regional development occurs near areas with favourable location, plain relief, sufficient rainfall, developed agriculture, transportation, industries and trade. For example, Asian countries have developed agriculture and trade of agricultural goods. USA has developed industries and trade.

There is poor development of economic activities in areas with unfavourable relief like mountains or hills and extreme climate. For example, in the northern part of Russia, economic development is poor due to extreme cold climate.

Location of the region is an important factor. If there is a long and broken coastline, then there is development of ports and thus development of trade and economy. For example, Japan has economically developed in spite of limited natural resources, due to development of trade.

On the other hand, landlocked countries remain isolated. They cannot develop trade due to absence of coastline. Such countries have poor economic development. For example, Afghanistan, Nepal.

The economic development in any region depends upon the quantity and quality of its people.

Where more suitable land is available, different economic activities are developed. For example, cities use land for various purposes such as industries, education, entertainment, transport, commerce, etc. Therefore, cities have economic development.

Hence, physical factors are said to affect the economic development of the region.

2.Measures to reduce regional imbalance.

SOLUTION

The following measures along with numerous policies are considered by the government to reduce regional imbalance.

  1. The underdeveloped regions are identified and its economic, physical and social reasons for the non-development are studied.
  2. Regions which require monetary support in a particular sector or field are funded through sector-wise investments to improve the conditions.
  3. Subsidies are given to certain sectors. Investment is made for improvements of roads, schools, agriculture, irrigation, industries, housing, medical and health facilities, etc.
  4. Special attention is given to areas facing problems such as frequent droughts, deserts or hilly and tribal-dominated areas.
  5. The very important strategy to reduce regional imbalances is decentralisation of industries.

Give geographical reasons:

1.Regional development is dependent on physical setting.

SOLUTION

The physical factors like relief, climate and location of the region affect the regional development. Regional development occurs where agriculture, agro-based industries and trade is developed in areas where there is plain relief and sufficient rainfall. For example, Asian countries have developed agriculture and trade of agricultural goods. Plain relief and sufficient rainfall encourage development of transportation and industries. There is poor development of economic activities in areas with unfavourable relief like mountains or hills and extreme climate. For example, in the northern part of Russia, economic development is poor due to extreme cold climate. Location of the country is an important factor. If there is a long and broken coastline, then there is development of trade and economy. For example, Japan has economically developed in spite of limited natural resources, due to the development of trade. On the other hand, landlocked countries remain isolated. They cannot develop trade due to absence of coastline. Such countries have poor economic development. For example. Afghanistan, Nepal. Thus, there is relationship between regional development and physical factors and therefore, we can say the regional development depends on physical factors.

2.Factors like literacy, poverty affect the regional development.

SOLUTION

Literacy and poverty are the important factors affecting the regional development. High literacy rate determines the quality of human population. This increases the availability of employment opportunities and development of resources, which contributes to the economic growth and regional development. Due to high literacy rate, the population growth is controlled and resources are shared among less people in the country. However, poverty decreases the purchasing powers resulting in a decline in the demand for goods, which reduces the production and drops the economic development and GDP of a country. Hence, poverty and literacy affect regional development.

3.Development is not seen in the Himalayan region.

SOLUTION

Relief and climate are the most important factors affecting the development of any region. The Himalayan region has high mountains with a steep slope. The climate is cold and the mountains are covered with snow. There is heavy soil erosion and hardly plain land, so agriculture is not developed. In this mountainous region, it is difficult and expensive to develop transportation facilities. Hence, there is poor development of industries. Since all above factors are neither suitable for agricultural, industrial or trade, development is not seen in the Himalayan region.

Answer in details:

1.What is a region?

SOLUTION

A region is an area of a country or any part of the world having common features. Thus, there is a difference between two regions on the basis of its features. The common features may be physical (relief, climate, soil, natural vegetation, ete.), socio cultural factors (language, religion, etc.), man-made like political features (administrative or political boundaries). Regions may be small or large. The large regions include sub-regions. For example, the plateau region of India has various sub-regions such as Chota Nagpur plateau, Malwa plateau, Marwar plateau, Deccan plateau, etc. The main characteristics of regions are:

Regions have its geographical location mentioned in latitudes and longitude.

Every region has a specific boundary, the area of another region starts beyond that boundary.

The extent of a region depends upon the homogeneity of a region. There are sub-regions in one region and therefore regions can be arranged into different orders on the basis of same features.

There are two types of regions – formal and functional regions.

A formal region is also known as uniform region or homogeneous region. It is an area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics. It can be common physical characteristic such as relief or climate of the region. It can be socio-cultural or economic activity such as common language. For example, rice producing regions.

In some formal regions, there are boundaries. Thus, district, state or country may be formal region. For example, USA and Canada are the examples of formal regions.

In functional regions characteristics are not important but functions are more important.

In one functional region, there may be many political or physical regions but due to one common function it is said to be functional. For example, Mumbai metropolitan or Pune metropolitan regions.

Functional regions act as a focal point that connects surrounding areas by transportation and communication. For example, Mumbai metropolitan city is well connected with its surrounding areas through transportation.

2.On what factors are the regions differentiated? Give examples.

SOLUTION

A region is an area of a country or any part of the world with same common features. Thus, regions are differentiated on the basis of physical or man-made or socio-cultural factors. For example, Chota Nagpur plateau region has plateau relief. Himalayan mountain region has mountainous relief. The desert region of Rajasthan has shortage of rainfall and very high temperature. Northern plain region has plain relief, fertile soil and moderate climate. The region may be differentiated on the basis of man-made factors like political factors such as administrative boundaries or political boundaries. For example, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab are two different regions because they have different political boundaries and government bodies. The region may be differentiated on the basis of socio-cultural factors such as language, religion or ethnicity. For example, in Mumbai there is an area, where people speaking Gujarati language live in one region. The Middle East countries form one region where people of Muslim religion stay together. Thus, regions are differentiated on the basis of various factors.

3.Per capita income is not the real indicator of regional development. Explain.

SOLUTION

The per capita income is the income of per person in the country or region. It is the ratio between the country’s national income and total population. Per capital income is an index of development because more the per capita income, higher the standard of living of people. But it is not always true. The per capita income gives an idea about the average income of people in the country but it does not explain how income is distributed among the people. Some people may be rich and some may be below the poverty line. The per capita income is related to only economic aspect of the country but it does not take into account literacy rate, health, sex ratio, age structure, life expectancy etc. Sometimes rise in per capita income is due to increase in prices of commodities. If the population is low the per capita income will be high, but the regional development will be slow, because such regions have shortage of skilled labour supply for further development. Therefore, we can say that the per capita income is not the real indication of regional

development.

Find the correlation between land under permanent crops and GDP given in the table using Spearman’s Rank Correlation. Write the conclusion in your own words:

SOLUTION

do it yourself.

COMPLETED


Chapter 7, Plant Growth and Mineral Nutrition, hsc, biology, maharashtra board, 12th std, balbharathi solution,

Multiple choice question.

1.Which of the hormones can replace vernalization?

OPTIONS

  • Auxin
  • Cytokinin
  • Gibberellins
  • Ethylene

2.The principle pathway of water translocation in angiosperms is ______

OPTIONS

  • Sieve cells
  • Sieve tube elements
  • Xylem
  • Xylem and phloem

3.Abscisic acid controls ______.

OPTIONS

  • cell division
  • leaf fall and dormancy
  • shoot elongation
  • cell elongation and wall formation

4.Which is employed for the artificial ripening of banana fruits?

OPTIONS

  • Auxin
  • Ethylene
  • Cytokinin
  • Gibberellin

5.Which of the following is required for stimulation of flowering in the plants?

OPTIONS

  • Adequate oxygen
  • Definite photoperiod
  • Adequate water
  • Water and minerals

6.For short-day plants, the critical period is

OPTIONS

  • light
  • dark/ night
  • UV rays
  • both light and UV rays

7.Which of the following is day-neutral plant?

a. Tomato

b. Cotton

c. Sunflower

d. Soybean

SOLUTION

a. Tomato and c. Sunflower 

8.Essential macroelements are ____________.

OPTIONS

  • manufactured during photosynthesis
  • produced by enzymes
  • absorbed from soil
  • produced by growth hormones

9.Function of Zinc is ______.

OPTIONS

  • closing of stomata
  • biosynthesis of 3-IAA
  • synthesis of chlorophyll
  • oxidation of carbohydrates

10.Necrosis means ______.

OPTIONS

  • yellow spots on the leaves
  • death of tissue
  • darkening of green colour in leaves
  • wilting of leaves

11.Conversion of nitrates to nitrogen is called ______

OPTIONS

  • ammonification
  • nitrification
  • nitrogen fixation
  • denitrification

12.How many molecules of ATP are required to fix one molecule of nitrogen?

OPTIONS

  • 12
  • 20
  • 6
  • 16

Very Short Answer Question:

1.Enlist the phases of growth in plants?

SOLUTION

Three phases of growth in plants are:

i. Phase of cell division/ formation

ii. Phase of cell enlargement/ elongation

iii. Phase of cell maturation/ differentiation.

2.Give the full form of IAA?

SOLUTION

IAA: Indole-3-acetic acid

3.What does it mean by ‘open growth’?

SOLUTION

The form of growth where in new cells are being constantly added to the plant body by the activity of the meristem is called the open growth.

4.Which is the plant stress hormone?

SOLUTION

Abscisic acid (ABA) is the plant stress hormone

5.What is denitrification?

SOLUTION

i. Denitrification is the process in which anaerobic bacteria convert soil nitrates back into nitrogen gas.

ii. Denitrifying bacteria removes fixed nitrogen i.e. nitrates from the ecosystem and returns it to the atmosphere in an inert form.

iii. Denitrifying bacteria include Bacillus spp., Paracoccus spp. and Pseudomonas denitrificans. They transform nitrates to nitrous and nitric oxides and ultimately to gaseous nitrogen.

2NO3 → 2NO2 → 2NO → N2

6.Name the bacteria responsible for conversion of nitrite to nitrate.

SOLUTION

Chemoautotrophs like Nitrobacter are responsible for conversion of nitrite to nitrate.
7.What is role of gibberellin in rosette plants?

SOLUTION

Gibberellin promotes bolting i.e. elongation of internodes just prior to flowering in plants with rosette habit e.g. beet, cabbage.
8.Define vernalization.

SOLUTION

The low-temperature treatment or chilling treatment of germinating seeds or seedlings to promote early flowering in plants is called vernalization. It was evidenced by Klippart (1918).
9.Define photoperiodism.

SOLUTION

The relative length of the day which is crucial in the growth and development of flowers is termed as photoperiodism.

OR

The response of plants to the relative length of light and dark periods with reference to the initiation of flowering is called photoperiodism.
10.What is a grand period of growth?

SOLUTION

The total time (period) required for all phases to occur, is called Grand Period of Growth.

Short Answer Question:

1.Write a short note on Differentiation.

SOLUTION

1. It is maturation of cells derived from the apical meristem of root and shoot.
2. Permanent change in structure and function of cells leading to maturation is called differentiation.
3. During cell differentiation, the cell undergoes few to major anatomical and physiological changes.
4. For e.g. Parenchyma in hydrophytes develops large schizogenous interspaces for mechanical support, buoyancy and aeration.
5. Cells lose the capacity to divide and redivide and mature.
2.Write a short note on Re-differentiation.

SOLUTION

1. The cells produced by dedifferentiation once again lose the capacity to divide and mature to perform a specific functions. This is called a re-differentiation.
2. For e.g. secondary xylem and secondary phloem are formed from dedifferentiated cambium present in the vascular bundle.
3.Differentiate between Arithmetic and Geometric growth.

SOLUTION

Arithmetic growthGeometric growth
After mitosis one of the daughter cell continues to divide and the other cell takes part in the differentiation and maturation.After mitosis both the daughter cells continue to divide and re-divide repeatedly.
On plotting the growth against time, a linear curve is obtained.On plotting the growth against time, a sigmoid curve is obtained.
4.Enlist the role and deficiency symptoms of Nitrogen.

SOLUTION

Nitrogen:
a. Role: Constituent of proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins, hormones, coenzymes, ATP, chlorophyll.
b. Deficiency symptom: Stunted growth, chlorosis
5.Enlist the role and deficiency symptoms of Phosphorus.

SOLUTION

Phosphorus:
a. Role: Constituent of cell membrane, certain proteins, all nucleic acids, and nucleotides required for all phosphorylation reactions.
b. Deficiency symptom: Poor growth, leaves dull green.
6.Enlist the role and deficiency symptoms of Potassium.

SOLUTION

Potassium:

a. Role: Helps in determining anion- cation balance in cells involved in protein synthesis, involved in the formation of the cell membrane and in opening and closing of stomata; increases hardness; activates enzymes, and helps in the maintenance of turgidity of cells.
b. Deficiency symptom: Yellow edges to leaves, premature death.
7.What is short day plant? Give any two examples.

SOLUTION

1. Critical photoperiod is the length of photoperiod above or below which flowering occurs. Short Day Plants usually flower during winter and late summer when day length is shorter than the critical photoperiod.
2. These are called long night plants because they require long uninterrupted dark period/ night for flowering.
3. If the dark period is interrupted even by a flash of light, SDP will not flower.
4. Some of the short-day plants are Dahlia, Tobacco, Chrysanthemum, Soybean (Glycine max), Cocklebur (Xanthium), cotton, etc.
8.Define vernalization.

SOLUTION

The low-temperature treatment or chilling treatment of germinating seeds or seedlings to promote early flowering in plants is called vernalization. It was evidenced by Klippart (1918).
9.Give its significance of vernalization.

SOLUTION

1. Chouard (1960) defined vernalization as the acceleration of the ability to flower by chilling treatment.
2. The term vernalization was coined by T.D Lysenko (1928) for the effect of low temperature on flowering in plants.
3. It is an influence of temperature on development and flowering.
4. Many plants such as cereals, crucifers require a period of cold treatment for flowering.
5. It is the method of inducing early flowering in the plants by pretreatment to their seeds/ seedlings at low temperatures (1-6ºC for one to one and half months’ duration).
6. The site of vernalization is believed to shoot apical meristem.
7. Generally, vernalization is effective at the seed stage in annual plants.
8. It was suggested by Melchers (1939) that vernalization initiates a stimulus for the formation of a hormone called vernalin.
9. Significance of vernalization:
a. Crops can be produced earlier.
b. Crops can be cultivated in regions where they do not grow naturally.

Long Answer Question:

1.Explain sigmoid growth curve with the help of diagram.

SOLUTION

1. The curve obtained when a graph of growth rate against time is plotted for three phases of growth is called as a sigmoid curve.
2. Growth rate differs with three distinct phases of growth.
3. In the Lag phase, the growth rate is slow.
4. In Exponential (Log) phase, growth rate is faster and reaches its maximum.
5. In Stationary phase, growth rate gradually slows down.
2.Describe the types of plants on the basis of photoperiod required, with the help of suitable examples.

SOLUTION

Based on the photoperiodic response, plants were classified into three categories viz. Short Day Plants (SDP), Long Day Plants (LDP) and Day Neutral Plants (DNP).
1. Short Day Plants (SDP):
i. Critical photoperiod is the length of photoperiod above or below which flowering occurs. Short Day Plants usually flower during winter and late summer when day length is shorter than the critical photoperiod.
ii. These are called long night plants because they require long uninterrupted dark period/ night for flowering.
iii. If dark period is interrupted even by a flash of light, SDP will not flower.
iv. Some of the short-day plants are Dahlia, Tobacco, Chrysanthemum, Soybean (Glycine max), Cocklebur (Xanthium), cotton, etc.
2. Long Day Plants (LDP):
i. Plants that flower during summer are called long-day plants.
ii. They require a longer duration of light than the critical photoperiod, for flowering.
iii. They are called short night plants as they require a short dark period.
iv. When long dark period is interrupted by a brief flash of light, LD plants can flower e.g. pea, radish, sugar beet, cabbage, spinach, wheat, poppy, etc.
3. Day Neutral Plants (DNP):
a. These plants flower throughout the year-round, independent of the duration of light (photoperiod).
b. They do not require specific photoperiod to flower.
c. Therefore, they are called day-neutral plants e.g. Cucumber, tomato, sunflower, maize, balsam, etc.
Photoperiodism-
3.Explain biological nitrogen fixation with example.

SOLUTION

Biological nitrogen fixation:
i. It is carried out by prokaryotes called as ‘Nitrogen fixers’ or Diazotrophs’.
ii. It accounts for nearly 70% of natural nitrogen fixation.
iii. Nitrogen fixers are either symbiotic or free living.
iv. Symbiotic N2 fixation: 
The best-known nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacterium is Rhizobium. This soil living/ dwelling bacterium forms root nodules in plants belonging to the family Fabaceae e.g. beans, gram, groundnut etc.
v. Azotobacter, Azospirillum is free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
vi. The cyanobacteria fix a significant amount of nitrogen in specialized cells called heterocysts.
vii. Nitrogen fixation is high energy-requiring process and nitrogen fixers use 16 molecules of ATP to fix each molecule of nitrogen to form ammonia.
N2 + 8H+ + 8e + 16ATP → 2NH3 + H2 + 16ADP + 16Pi

               COMPLETED


Chapter 7, Why we Travel, english, hsc, maharashtra board, latest edition, full solution,

1.Share your views on how travelling can be a hobby.

SOLUTION

In my opinion, travelling can be a hobby if one considers it to be a source of inspiration. The new elements of different cultures that one encounters during one’s travels can help that person locate his/her areas of interest. For example, if one likes the architecture of a particular place, he/she could travel to other places with similar architectural patterns and understand the reasons behind such similarities. Likewise, travel can be a hobby if one is keen to explore the rich cultural backgrounds of a nation, thus enriching one’s knowledge about a country’s people, food, religious practices, etc. Travel can be an opportunity to delve deeper into communities different from one’s own, thus broadening a person’s outlook about different cultures. This is how travelling can be a hobby.

2.1Discuss in the class the benefits of travelling and complete the web.

SOLUTION

2.2Make a list of your expectations when you travel to some new place:

  1. Food should be delicious and available whenever hungry
  2. ___________________
  3. ___________________
  4. ___________________

SOLUTION

  1. Food should be delicious and available whenever hungry.
  2. There should be new things to learn from the culture of that place.
  3. The local people should be willing to help you with directions and other information, if needed.
  4. The place should be safe to travel and stay.

1.Discuss in the class the various types of travels. Add your own to ones given below:

SOLUTION

  1. Solo travel
  2. Sightseeing travel
  3. Education travel
  4. Culinary travel
  5. Business travel
  6. Luxury travel
  7. Group travel
  8. Family travel
  9. Travel with friends
  10. Adventure travel

1.Read the first two paragraphs and discuss the need to travel.

SOLUTION

We travel firstly to lose ourselves and next, to find ourselves. We travel to take our ignorance or knowledge to the places which are of different economic statuses. We also travel to become young fools again. In the words of George Santayana, “We need sometimes to escape into open solitudes, into aimlessness, into the moral holiday of running some pure hazard.” We need to travel in order to attain a better balance of wisdom or compassion and seeing the world clearly. Travelling also enables us to see everything in a new light.

1.Read the sentence ‘If a diploma can famously ________ in cultural relativism.’

Pick the sentence which gives the meaning of the above statement from the alternatives given below.

  1. A diploma certificate can be used as a passport and a passport can be used as a diploma certificate.
  2. If one has a diploma, he does not need a passport and if he has a passport, he does not need a diploma.
  3. One can acquire permission to travel to foreign countries for educational purposes based on her academic achievements and travelling to foreign countries enriches one the most regarding the knowledge and wisdom of the world.

SOLUTION

One can acquire permission to travel to foreign countries for educational purposes based on her academic achievements and travelling to foreign countries enriches one the most regarding the knowledge and wisdom of the world.

2.Prepare a list of the litterateurs and their quotations mentioned by the writer in the passage.

SOLUTION

George Santayana:

“We need sometimes to escape into open solitudes, into aimlessness, into the moral holiday of running some pure hazard, in order to sharpen the edge of life, to taste hardship, and to be compelled to work desperately for a moment at no matter what.” (The Philosophy of Travel)

3.‘The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeing new places but in seeing with new eyes.’  Marcel Proust. Justify with the help of the text.

SOLUTION

This statement by Marcel Proust implies that during travel, it’s not the place that matters as much as the traveller’s perspective in seeing the new place. In order to really discover something, it is more important to see a single place from a fresh perspective than to see a number of new places. The statement also goes on to suggest that a traveller’s outlook of the native people of the new place also enables him/her to mould the perspective of the local people.

4.Read the third paragraph and find the difference between a tourist and a traveller as revealed through the complaints made by them.

SOLUTION

As portrayed in the paragraph, a tourist is just someone who complains “Nothing here is the way it is at home”, i.e., he or she finds drawbacks in the new place. A traveller, on the other hand, would grumble. ‘Everything is the same ……’, which implies that he/she would rather wish that things were different in different parts of the world and would find it unsettling to not notice any difference in a particular destination. This is because a traveller leaves the comf orts if his home to experience different things in different places, whereas a tourist merely seeks to get out of the house without really wanting to give up the comforts of home.

5.Write four sentences with the help of the text conveying the fact that travelling brings together the various cultures of the different parts of the world.

SOLUTION

The following four sentences from the text convey the fact that travelling brings together various cultures of the different parts of the world.

1. It a diploma can famously be a passport (to a journey through hard realism), a passport can be a diploma (for a crash course in cultural relativism)

2. …… and how much we can become a kind of carrier pigeon – an antiFederal Express, if you like it – it transporting back and forth what every culture needs.

3. You can teach them what they have to celebrate as much as you celebrate what they have to teach

4. Walk just six blocks in Queens or Berkeley, and you are travelling through several cultures in as many minutes.

6.By quoting Camus, the writer has stated that travelling sets us free from circumstances and all the habits behind which we hide. Write in detail your views about that.

SOLUTION

The observation by Camus signifies that travelling frees us up from all inhibitions and conditions which we are subjected to in our native place, that is, the place where we normally reside. Being in a foreign culture brings out our inquisitive self and hence liberates us from our habitual behaviour at home. In other words, travel enables us to ‘let our hair down’ and be in our element. Hiding behind habits means the shyness in coming out of our routine behaviour, which could be stopping us from fully expressing ourselves.

1.Read the following groups of words from the text.

AB
crooked anglewalking video screens
censored limits living newspapers
impoverished placessearching questions

Words crooked, censored and impoverished in group ‘A’ describe the nouns ‘angle’, ‘limits’ and ‘places’ respectively. They are past participles of the verbs ‘crook’, ‘censor’ and ‘impoverish’. But in the sentences, they act as adjectives. Similarly, in group ‘B’ wordswalking, living and searching are the present participles (‘ing’ forms) of the verbs walk, live and search. But in the above examples they function as adjectives.

Discuss in pairs and make list of some more adjectives like this and make sentences using them.

SOLUTION

Some example of Past Participles:

  1. devoted
    He has been a devoted follower of Lord Krishna since his childhood.
  2. stained
    Put the stained shirt to wash.
  3. waxed
    The policemen in the neighbourhood are known for their long and waxed moustaches.

Some example of Present Participles:

  1. swimming
    The Albatross is a swimming bird.
  2. laughing
    Nitrous Oxide is known as laughing gas as inhaling it can induce laughter.
  3. burning
    Put off the burning candle before you go to sleep.

1.The verbs in bold letters are made up of a verb and a small adverb.

(Adverb particles are not the same as prepositions.)

For example, shake (verb) + up (adverb). These are called ‘phrasal verbs.’ The meaning of a phrasal verb may be idiomaticdifferent from the meanings of the two separate words.

Read carefully the following sentence from the text and underline the phrasal verbs.

We travel, then, in part just to shake up our complacencies.

SOLUTION

We travel, then, in part just to shake up our complacencies.

2.The verbs in bold letters are made up of a verb and a small adverb.

(Adverb particles are not the same as prepositions.)

For example, shake (verb) + up (adverb). These are called ‘phrasal verbs.’ The meaning of a phrasal verb may be idiomaticdifferent from the meanings of the two separate words.

Read carefully the following sentence from the text and underline the phrasal verbs.

Abroad is the place where we stay up late.

SOLUTION

Abroad is the place where we stay up late.

3.The verbs in bold letters are made up of a verb and a small adverb.

(Adverb particles are not the same as prepositions.)

For example, shake (verb) + up (adverb). These are called ‘phrasal verbs.’ The meaning of a phrasal verb may be idiomaticdifferent from the meanings of the two separate words.

Read carefully the following sentence from the text and underline the phrasal verb.

I remember, in fact, after my first trip to Southeast Asia, more than a decade ago. How I would come back to my apartment in New York.

SOLUTION

I remember, in fact, after my first trip to Southeast Asia, more than a decade ago. How I would come back to my apartment in New York.

4.The verbs in bold letters are made up of a verb and a small adverb.

(Adverb particles are not the same as prepositions.)

For example, shake (verb) + up (adverb). These are called ‘phrasal verbs.’ The meaning of a phrasal verb may be idiomaticdifferent from the meanings of the two separate words.

Read carefully the following sentence from the text and underline the phrasal verb.

All, in that sense, believed in, “being moved”______

SOLUTION

All, in that sense, believed in, “being moved”______.

5.The verbs in bold letters are made up of a verb and a small adverb.

(Adverb particles are not the same as prepositions.)

For example, shake (verb) + up (adverb). These are called ‘phrasal verbs.’ The meaning of a phrasal verb may be idiomaticdifferent from the meanings of the two separate words.

Read carefully the following sentence from the text and underline the phrasal verb.

But there is, for the traveller at least, the sense that learning about home and…….

SOLUTION

But there is, for the traveller at least, the sense that learning about home and…….

1.The words in bold type show to + verb form. These are Infinitives. An Infinitive is the base form of the verb. Infinitives are formed from a verb but they do not act as verbs because they are not verbs; ‘s’, ‘es’, or ‘ing’ cannot be added to that.

However, sometimes infinitives may occur without ‘to’. For example,

Thus even as holidays help you appreciate your own home more – …..

In this sentence, though ‘to’ is skipped off, ‘appreciate’ acts as an infinitive’.

Read the following sentence carefully from the text and find out the infinitive.

We travel, initially, to lose ourselves; and we travel, next, to find ourselves.

SOLUTION

We travel, initially, to lose ourselves; and we travel, next, to find ourselves.

2.The words in bold type show to + verb form. These are Infinitives. An Infinitive is the base form of the verb. Infinitives are formed from a verb but they do not act as verbs because they are not verbs; ‘s’, ‘es’, or ‘ing’ cannot be added to that.

However, sometimes infinitives may occur without ‘to’. For example,

Thus even as holidays help you appreciate your own home more – …..

In this sentence, though ‘to’ is skipped off, ‘appreciate’ acts as an infinitive’.

Read the following sentence carefully from the text and find out the infinitive.

We travel to bring what little we can,…..

SOLUTION

We travel to bring what little we can,…..

3.The words in bold type show to + verb form. These are Infinitives. An Infinitive is the base form of the verb. Infinitives are formed from a verb but they do not act as verbs because they are not verbs; ‘s’, ‘es’, or ‘ing’ cannot be added to that.

However, sometimes infinitives may occur without ‘to’. For example,

Thus even as holidays help you appreciate your own home more – …..

In this sentence, though ‘to’ is skipped off, ‘appreciate’ acts as an infinitive’.

Read the following sentence carefully from the text and find out the infinitive.

Yet one of the subtler beauties of travel is that it enables you to bring new eyes to the people you encounter.

SOLUTION

Yet one of the subtler beauties of travel is that it enables you to bring new eyes to the people you encounter.

1.Combine two sentences into one. You may use the word given in the bracket.

I go to Iceland. I visit the lunar spaces within me. (to)

SOLUTION

I go to Iceland to visit the lunar spaces within me.

2.We have the opportunity. We come into contact with more essential parts of ourselves. (of)

SOLUTION

We have the opportunity of coming into contact with more essential parts of ourselves.

3.Romantic poets inaugurated an era of travel. They were great apostles of open eyes. (being)

SOLUTION

Being great apostles of open eyes, romantic poets inaugurated on era of travel.

4.The travel spins us around. It shows us the sights and values ordinarily ignored. (showing)

SOLUTION

The travel spins us around, while showing us the sights and values ordinarily ignored.

Read the sentence given below and state whether the underlined word is Gerunds or Present Participles.

1.As it’s a hot day, many people are swimming.

SOLUTION

Swimming – Gerund

2.This is a swimming pool.

SOLUTION

swimming – Present Participle

3.It’s very bad that children are begging.

SOLUTION

begging – Gerund

4.Begging is a curse on humanity.

SOLUTION

Begging – Gerund

1.Write an email to your friends about your proposed trek. You can take help of the following points. You can keep your parents informed about it by adding them in BCC.

  • A trek in the forest of Kodaikanal
  • Time and duration
  • Type of trek (cycle/motorbike/walk)
  • Facilities provided
  • Last date for registration
  • Fees

SOLUTION

To: keshav.arya@tmail.com, ramesh.pawar@hotmail.com, rahul.vade@hotmail.com, hiteshpathak0405@hotmail.com

BCC: Pankajrane1897@tmail.com, vasudharane@hotmail.com

Subject: Trip to Kodaikanal

Dear Friends,

I hope you are doing well. The purpose of this e-mail is to remind all of you that we had planned to take a trip during the summer vacation and the time has come now!

I recently saw an advertisement in a newspaper about a wildlife trek in the mountains of Kodaikanal. It is being organized by an adventure travel group called Daretrekkers for seven days. It starts on 13th April, which is a Saturday and ends on 19th April, Friday. I have called them personally and found out that it is going to be a three-day trek by foot through the jungle trail, originating from Palani foothills in Tamil Nadu and ending in Kodaikanal. They will be making arrangements for train travel to and from Mumbai. They will be providing all the lodging and boarding facilities, including tents for the night halt during the trek.

1.There is boom in ‘Travel and Tourism’ career. Find information about different options in this field.

SOLUTION

The students can use the following pointers to collect details about the different options in this field:

  • Types of Tourism
  1. Adventure Tourism
  2. Atomic Tourism
  3. Bicycle Tours
  4. Beach Tourism
  5. Cultural Tourism
  6. Ecotourism
  7. Geo-tourism
  8. Industrial Tourism
  9. Medical Tourism
  • Available Career Options:
  1. Holiday Agent/Travel Agent
  2. Travel Officer
  3. Tourism Manager
  4. Agency Co-ordinator
  5. Travel Consultant
  6. Cruise Manager
  7. Tour Guide
  8. Adventure Tourism Expert
  9. Interpreter/Translator
  10. Tourist information center manager

1.Find information about Fa Hien.

SOLUTION

Fa Hien:

He was a Chinese Buddhist monk and translator, who travelled by foot from Ancient China to Ancient India in c.400 AD. His journey is documented in his travelogue and is an important source to know Indian history of his times.

2.Find information about Huen Tsang.

SOLUTION

Huen Tsang:

He was also a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, and translator, who travelled to India in the 7th century. On his route to India, he visited many Buddhist sites such as Nalanda University and wrote about them in his travelogue.

3.Find information about Ibn Batuta.

SOLUTION

Ibn Batuta:

He was a Moroccan scholar, who widely travelled the medieval world and visited India in the 14th century. He is said to have travelled a distance of more than one lakh kilometres, more than any other foreign travellers who had come to India.

4.Find information about Marco Polo

SOLUTION

Marco Polo:

An Italian traveller, merchant writer and explorer, who visited India in the 13th century and recorded his travel in a book titled ‘The Travels of Macro Polo’. His book gives us insights into the history of India, China and Japan.

5.Find information about Sir Richard Burton.

SOLUTION

Sir Richard Burton:

He was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, poet, and linguist. He was also known as Haji Abdu El-Yezdi and Frank Baker. He is said to have known 29 languages from across the world.

1.Further reading:

‘Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage’ – Lord Byron

SOLUTION

Do it yourself.

2.Further reading:

‘Gulliver’s Travels’ – Jonathan Swift

SOLUTION

Do it yourself.

3.Further reading:

‘Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea’ – Jules Verne

SOLUTION

Do it yourself.

4.Further reading:

‘Travelling Souls’ – Brian Bouldrey

SOLUTION

Do it yourself.


COMPLETED

Chapter 7, Atoms and Molecules, sslc, chemistry, 10th, tamilnadu board, science, full, solution,

Science ssc chemistry

I. Choose the best answer:

Question 1.

Which of the following has the smallest mass?

(a) 6.023 × 1023 atoms of He

(b) 1 atom of He

(c) 2 g of He

(d) 1-mole atoms of He

Answer:

(b) 1 atom of He

Question 2.

Which of the following is a triatomic molecule?

(a) Glucose

(b) Helium

(c) Carbon dioxide

(d) Hydrogen.

Answer:

(c) Carbon dioxide

Hint:

(a) Glucose = C6H12O6 (Polyatomic molecule)

(b) Helium = He (Monoatomic molecule)

(c) Carbon dioxide = CO2 (Triatomic molecule)

(d) Hydrogen = H2 (Diatomic molecule)

So, (c) is the correct answer.

Question 3.

The volume occupied by 4.4 g of CO2 at S.T.P:

(a) 22.4 litre

(b) 2.24 litre

(c) 0.24 litre

(d) 0.1 litre

Answer:

(b) 2.24 litre

Question 4.

Mass of 1 mole of Nitrogen atom is _____.

(a) 28 amu

(b) 14 amu

(c) 28 g

(d) 14 g.

Answer:

(b) 14 amu

Hint: Atomic mass of Nitrogen is 14.00674 grams. It is equal to 1 mole of Nitrogen atoms.

So, answer (b) is correct.

Question 5.

Which of the following represents 1 amu?

(a) Mass of a C – 12 atom

(b) Mass of a hydrogen atom

(c) 1/12 th of the mass of a C – 12 atom

(d) Mass of O – 16 atom

Answer:

(c) 1/12 th of the mass of a C – 12 atom

Question 6.

Which of the following statement is incorrect?

(a) One gram of C – 12 contains Avogadro’s number of atoms.

(b) One mole of oxygen gas contains Avogadro’s number of molecules.

(c) One mole of hydrogen gas contains Avogadro’s number of atoms.

(d) One mole of electrons stands for 6.023 × 1023 electrons.

Answer:

(a) One gram of C – 12 contains Avogadro’s number of atoms.

Hint: 12 g of Carbon contains 6.023 × 1023 atoms,

1 g of Carbon contain

6.023×12

= 5.018 × 1022 atoms and its is not Avogadro’s number of atoms.

So (a) is the incorrect statement.

Question 7.

The volume occupied by 1 mole of a diatomic gas at S.T.P is:

(a) 11.2 litre

(b) 5.6 litre

(c) 22.4 litre

(d) 44.8 litre

Answer:

(c) 22.4 litre

Question 8.

In the nucleus of 20Ca40, there are

(a) 20 protons and 40 neutrons

(b) 20 protons and 20 neutrons

(c) 20 protons and 40 electrons

(d) 40 protons and 20 electrons

Answer:

(b) 20 protons and 20 neutrons

Question 9.

The gram molecular mass of oxygen molecule is_____.

(a) 16 g

(b) 18 g

(c) 32 g

(d) 17 g.

Answer:

(c) 32 g

Hint: By definition, the gram molecular mass of oxygen molecule O2 is 32 g.

So the answer (c) is correct.

Question 10.

1 mole of any substance contains molecules.

(a) 6.023 × 1023

(b) 6.023 × 10-23

(c) 3.0115 × 1023

(d) 12.046 × 1023

Answer:

(a) 6.023 × 1023

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Atoms of different elements having ……… mass number, but ………. atomic numbers are called isobars.

2. Atoms of different elements having same number of ………. are called isotones.

3. Atoms of one element can be transmuted into atoms of other element by ………….

4. The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons of an atom is called its …………

5. Relative atomic mass is otherwise known as …………

6. The average atomic mass of hydrogen is ……….. amu.

7. If a molecule is made of similar kind of atoms, then it is called ……….. atomic molecule.

8. The number of atoms present in a molecule is called its ………….

9. One mole of any gas occupies ………… ml at S.T.P

10. Atomicity of phosphorous is …………

Answer:

1. same, different

2. neutrons

3. artificial transmutation

4. mass number

5. standard atomic weight

6. 1.008

7. homo

8. atomicity

9. 22, 400

10. four

III. Match the following:

 1

Answer:

A. (ii)

B. (iii)

C. (v)

D. (i)

E. (iv)

IV. True or False: (If false give the correct statement)

Two elements sometimes can form more than one compound.

Nobel gases are diatomic.

The gram atomic mass of an element has no unit.

1 mole of Gold and Silver contain same number of atoms.

Molar mass of CO2 is 42 g.

Answer:

True

False – Noble gases are Monoatomic.

False – The unit of gram atomic mass of an element is gram.

True

False – Molar mass of CO2 is 44 g.

V. Assertion and Reason:

Answer the following questions using the data given below:

Question 1.

Assertion: Atomic mass of aluminium is 27

Reason: An atom of aluminium is 27 times heavier than 1/12 th of the mass of the C-12 atom.

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

(b) Assertion is correct, Reason is wrong.

(c) Assertion is wrong, Reason is correct.

(d) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason doesn’t explains Assertion.

Answer:

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

Question 2.

Assertion: The Relative Molecular Mass of Chlorine is 35.5 a.m.u.

Reason: The natural abundance of Chlorine isotopes are not equal.

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

(b) Assertion is correct, Reason is wrong.

(c) Assertion is wrong, Reason is correct.

(d) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason doesn’t explains Assertion.

Answer:

(c) Assertion is wrong, Reason is correct.

VI. Short answer questions:

Question 1.

Define: Relative atomic mass.

Answer:

Relative atomic mass of an element is the ratio between the average mass of its isotopes to

1

part of the mass of a carbon-12 atom. It is denoted as Ar.

[OR]

2

Question 2.

Write the different types of isotopes of oxygen and its percentage abundance.

Answer:

Oxygen has three stable isotopes. They are

3

Question 3.

Define Atomicity.

Answer:

The number of atoms present in the molecule is called its ‘Atomicity’.

Question 4.

Give any two examples for heteroatomic molecules.

Answer:

HI, HCl, CO, HBr, HF.

Question 5.

What is Molar volume of a gas?

Answer:

One mole of any gas occupies 22.4 litres.

(or)

22400 ml at S.T.R This volume is called as molar volume.

Question 6.

Find the percentage of nitrogen in ammonia.

Answer:

Molar mass of NH3 = 1(14) + 3(1) = 17 g

4

VII. Long answer questions:

Question 1.

Calculate the number of water molecule present in one drop of water which weighs 0.18 g.

Answer:

The molecular mass of water (H2O) is 18.

18 g of water molecule = 1 mole.

0. 18 g of water =

118×0.18

= 0.01 mole.

1 mole of water (Avogadro’s number) contains 6.023 × 1023 water molecules.

0. 01 mole of water contain

6.023×

= 6.023 × 1021 molecules.

Question 2.

N2 + 3 H2 → 2 NH3

(The atomic mass of nitrogen is 14, and that of hydrogen is 1)

1 mole of nitrogen (……..g) +

3 moles of hydrogen (………g) →

2 moles of ammonia (………g)

Answer:

1 mole of nitrogen (28 g) +

3 moles of hydrogen (6 g) →

2 moles of ammonia (34 g)

Question 3.

Calculate the number of moles in

(i) 27 g of Al;

(ii) 1.51 × 1023 molecules of NH4Cl.

Answer:

(i) 27 g of Al

Given mass atomic mass =

GivenMassAtomicMass

=

= 1 mole

(ii) 1.51 x 1023 molecules of NH4Cl

Number of moles

5

Question 4.

Give the salient features of “Modern atomic theory”.

Answer:

The salient features of “Modem atomic theory” are,

An atom is no longer indivisible.

Atoms of the same element may have different atomic mass.

Atoms of different elements may have the same atomic masses.

Atoms of one element can be transmuted into atoms of other elements. In other words, an atom is no longer indestructible.

Atoms may not always combine in a simple whole-number ratio.

Atom is the smallest particle that takes part in a chemical reaction.

The mass of an atom can be converted into energy [E = mc2].

Question 5.

Derive the relationship between Relative molecular mass and Vapour density.

Answer:

Relative molecular mass : The relative molecular mass of a gas or vapour is the ratio between the mass of one molecule of the gas or vapour to mass of one atom of hydrogen.

Vapour density : Vapour density is the ratio of the mass of certain volume of a gas or vapour, to the mass of an equal volume of hydrogen, measured under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.

6

According to Avogadro’s law equal volumes of all gases contain equal number of molecules.

Let the number of molecules in one volume = n, then

When cancelling ‘n’ which is common at STP, we get

8

Since hydrogen is diatomic,

9

2 × Vapour density = Relative Molecular mass of a gas

[OR]

Relative Molecular Mass = 2 × Vapour density

VIII. HOT Question:

Question 1.

Calcium carbonate is decomposed on heating in the following reaction

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2

How many moles of Calcium carbonate is involved in this reaction?

Calculate the gram molecular mass of calcium carbonate involved in this reaction.

How many moles of CO2 are there in this equation?

Answer:

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2

1 mole of CaCO3 is involved in this reaction.

Gram molecular mass of calcium carbonate

CaCO3 = (40 + 12 + 3 × 16) = 52 + 48 = 100 g

1 mole of CO2 is in this equation.


IX. Solve the following problems:

Question 1.

How many grams are there in the following?

(i) 2 moles of a hydrogen molecule, H2

(ii) 3 moles of chlorine molecule, Cl2

(iii) 5 moles of sulphur molecule, S8

(iv) 4 moles of a phosphorous molecule, P4

Solution:

(i) 2 moles of a hydrogen molecule, H2

Mass of 1 mole of hydrogen molecule = 2 g

Mass of 2 moles of hydrogen molecule = 2 × 2 = 4 g.

(ii) 3 moles of chlorine molecule, Cl2

Mass of 1 mole of chlorine molecule = 71 g

Mass of 3 moles of chlorine molecules = 71 × 3 = 213 g.

(iii) 5 moles of sulphur molecule, S8

Mass of 1 mole of sulphur molecule = 32 g

Mass of 5 moles of sulphur molecules = 32 × 5 = 160 g.

(iv) 4 moles of the phosphorous molecule, P4

Mass of 1 mole of phosphorous molecule = 30.97 g

Mass of 4 moles of phosphorous molecules = 30.97 × 4 = 123.88 g.

Question 2.

Calculate the % of each element in calcium carbonate. (Atomic mass: C – 12, O – 16, Ca – 40)

Answer:

Formula to find % of each element

10

Question 3.

Calculate the % of oxygen in Al2(SO4)3.

(Atomic mass: Al – 27, O – 16, S – 32)

Answer:

Formula:

11

Molar mass of Al2(SO4)3 = [2(Atomic mass of Al) + 3(Atomic mass of S) + 12(Atomic mass of O)]

= 2(27) + 3(32) + 12(16) = 342 g

% of Oxygen =

12(16)342

× 100 = 56.14%.

Question 4.

Calculate the % relative abundance of B – 10 and B – 11, if its average atomic mass is 10.804 amu.

Answer:

% of relative abundance can be calculated by the formula.

Average atomic mass of the element

= Atomic mass of 1st isotope × abundance of 1st isotope + Atomic mass of 2nd isotope × abundance of 2nd isotope

∴ Average atomic mass of Boron

= Atomic mass of B – 0 × abundance of B -10 + Atomic mass of B – 11 × abundance of B – 11

Let the abundance of B – 10 be ‘x’ and B – 11 be (1 – x)

So, 10.804 = 10 × x + 11 (1 – x)

10.804 = 10x + 11 – 11x

x = 11 – 10.804

x = 0.196

1 -x = 1 – 0.196 = 0.804

Therefore % abundance of B – 10 is 19.6% and B – 11 is 80.4%

[OR]

Let the % of the isotope B – 10 = x

Then the % of the isotope B – 11 = 100 – x

12

1100 – x = 1080.4

x = 19.6

% abundance of B – 10 = 19.6%

% abundance of B – 11 = 80.4%


Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.

The first scientific theory of an atom was proposed by:

(a) Ruther Ford

(b) Newland

(c) John Dalton

(d) Neils Bohr

Answer:

(c) John Dalton

Question 2.

Identify the pair that indicates isobars among the following _____.

(a)

1Ca40

Question 3.

Which one of the following represents 180 g of water?

(a) 5 moles of water

(b) 90 moles of water

(c) 6.023 × 1024 molecules of water

(d) 6.023 × 1022 molecules of water

Answer:

(c) 6.023 × 1024 molecules of water

Question 4.

The isotope of Carbon-12 contains _____.

(a) 6 protons and 7 electrons

(b) 6 protons and 6 neutrons

(c) 12 protons and no neutrons

(d) 12 neutrons and no protons.

Answer:

(b) 6 protons and 6 neutrons

Question 5.

Which contains the greatest number of moles of oxygen atoms?

(a) 1 mol of water

(b) 1 mole of NaOH

(c) 1 mole of Na2CO3

(d) 1 mole of CO

Answer:

(c) 1 mole of Na2CO3

Question 6.

The mass of proton or neutron is approximately _____.

(a) 1 amu

(b) 1.609 × 10-19 g

(c) 1 g

(d) 6.023 × 10-23 g.

Answer:

(a) 1 amu

Question 7.

The natural abundance of C-12 and C-13 are 98.90% and 1.10% respectively. The average atomic mass of carbon is:

(a) 12 amu

(b) 12.011 amu

(c) 14 amu

(d) 12.90 amu

Answer:

(b) 12.011 amu

Question 8.

The relative atomic mass of magnesium-based on C – 12 scale is _____.

(a) 24 g

(b) 24

(c) 24 amu

(d) 24 kg

Answer:

(b) 24

Question 9.

If 1.5 moles of oxygen combine with Al to form Al2O3, the mass of Al in g (atomic mass of Al = 27) used in the reaction is:

(a) 2.7

(b) 54

(c) 40.5

(d) 81

Answer:

(b) 54

Question 10.

The atomicity of methane is:

(a) 5

(b) 4

(c) 3

(d) 6

Answer:

(a) 5

Question 11.

Find the odd one out _____.

(a)

8

.

Answer:

(c)

O12

Question 12.

The volume occupied by 3 moles of HCl gas at STP is:

(a) 22.4 L

(b) 44.8 L

(c) 2.24 L

(d) 67.2 L

Answer:

(d) 67.2 L

Question 13.

The mass percentage of hydrogen in ethane (C2H6) is:

(a) 25%

(b) 75%

(c) 80%

(d) 20%

Answer:

(d) 20%

Question 14.

Which one of the following is a homo diatomic molecule?

(a) H2

(6) CO

(c) NO

(d) O3.

Answer:

(a) H2

Question 15.

The percentage of nitrogen in urea is about:

(a) 38.4

(b) 46.6

(c) 59.1

(d) 61.3

Answer:

(b) 46.6

Question 16.

Out of the following the largest number of atoms are contained in:

(a) 11 g of CO2

(b) 4 g of H2

(C) 5 g of NH3

(d) 8 g of SO2

Answer:

(b) 4 g of H2

Question 17.

Which of the following is an example of a homo triatomic molecule?

(a) Phosphorous

(b) Sulphur

(c) Bromine

(d) Ozone.

Answer:

(d) Ozone.

Question 18.

For the reaction A + 2B → C, 5 moles of A and 8 moles of B will produce:

(a) 5 moles of C

(b) 4 moles of C

(c) 8 moles of C

(d) 13 moles of C

Answer:

(b) 4 moles of C

Question 19.

The vapour density of a gas is 32. Its relative molecular mass will be:

(a) 32

(b) 16

(c) 64

(d) 96

Answer:

(c) 64

Question 20.

Find the odd one out _____.

(a) Silver

(b) Potassium

(c) Iron

(d) Phosphorous.

Answer:

(d) Phosphorous.

II. Fill in the blanks.

The volume occupied by 16 g of oxygen is ………..

One mole of a triatomic gas contains ………… atoms.

Equal volume of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of …………

The mass of an atom can be converted into energy by using the formula …………

The percentage composition is useful to determine the ………… formula and ………… formula.

Answer:

11.2 L

3 × 6.023 × 1023

molecules

E = me²

empirical, molecular

III. Match the following:

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column II.

13

Answer:

A. (ii)

B. (iii)

C. (i)

D. (v)

E. (iv)

Question 2.

Match the Column I with Column II.

14

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (i)

C. (iv)

D. (v)

E. (ii)

Question 3.

Match the Column I with Column II.

15

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (v)

C. (ii)

D. (iii)

E. (i)

Question 4.

Match the Column I with Column II.

16

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iii)

C. (iv)

D. (i)

E. (ii)

IV. True or False: (If false give the correct statement)

Atoms always combine in a simple whole number ratio.

2 × RMM = VD

The average atomic mass of Beryllium is 9.012 because of the presence of isotopes.

The noble gases are diatomic.

The number of atoms present in one mole of phosphorus(P4) is 4 × 6.023 × 1023

Answer:

False -Atoms may not combine always in a simple whole number ratio.

False – 2 × VD = RMM

True

False – The noble gases are mono atomic.

True

V. Assertion and Reason:

Answer the following questions using the data given below:

Question 1.

Assertion: The standard unit for expressing mass of atom is amu.

Reason: Atomic mass unit is one-twelth of the mass of a C-12 atom

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

(b) Assertion is correct, Reason is wrong.

(c) Assertion is wrong, Reason is correct.

(d) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason doesn’t explains Assertion.

Answer:

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

Question 2.

Assertion: The volume occupied by 44 g of CO2 is 22.4 L

Reason: The volume occupied by one mole of any gas is 22.4 L

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

(b) Assertion is correct, Reason is wrong.

(c) Assertion is wrong, Reason is correct.

(d) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason doesn’t explains Assertion.

Answer:

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

VI. Short answer questions:

Question 1.

Define vapour density.

Answer:

Vapour density is the ratio of the mass of certain volume of a gas or vapour, to the mass of an equal volume of hydrogen measured under the same condition of temperature and pressure.

[OR]

Question 2.

What are isobars? Give an example.

Answer:

Atoms of different elements that have same atomic masses but different atomic numbers are called isobars.

e.g.,

18

.

Question 3.

Write the differences between an atom and a molecule.

Answer:

Question 4.

What is artificial transmutation?

Answer:

Atoms of one element can be transmuted into atoms of other elements. In other words, the atom is no longer indestructible. It is known as artificial transmutation.

Question 5.

Classify the following based on atomicity.

Answer:

(i) Bromine

2 – Diatomic

(ii) Argon

1 – Monoatomic

(iii) Ozone

3 – Triatomic

(iv) Sulphur

8 – Polyatomic

Question 6.

Define atomic mass unit.

Answer:

Atomic mass unit is one-twelfth of the mass of carbon – 12 atom, as an isotope of carbon which contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons. It is amu.

VII. Long answer questions:

Question 1.

Explain how Avogadro hypothesis is used to derive the value of atomicity.

Answer:

(i) The Avogadro’s law states that “equal volumes of all gases under similar conditions of temperature and pressure contain the equal number of molecules”.

(ii) Let us consider the reaction between hydrogen and chlorine to form hydrogen chloride gas.

H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) → 2HCl (g)

⇒ 1 volume + 1 volume → 2 volumes.

(iii) According to Avogadro’s law, 1 volume of any gas is occupied by “n” number of molecules,

“n” molecules + “n” molecules → “2n” molecules

If “n” = 1, then

1 molecule + 1 molecule → 2 molecules.

12

molecule +

(v)

12

molecule of hydrogen contains 1 atom.

So, 1 molecule of hydrogen contains 2 atoms.

So, hydrogen atomicity is 2. Similarly, chlorine atomicity is also 2.

So, H2 and Cl2 are diatomic molecules.

Question 2.

Write a note on the following,

(i) Isotopeos

(ii) Isobars

(iii) Relative atomic mass.

Answer:

(i) Isotopes : Atoms of same element with different mass number. Eg: 17Cl35, 17Cl37.

(ii) Isobars : Atoms of different elements with same mass number. Eg: 18Ar40, 20Ca40

(iii) Relative Atomic Mass (RAM) :

Question 3.

Sodim bicarbonate breaks down on heating as follows:

2NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

(Atomic mass of Na = 23, H = 1, C = 12, O = 16)

(i) How many moles of NaHCO3 are there in the equation?

Answer:

2 moles.

(ii) What is the mass of CO2 produced in the equation?

Answer:

44 g

(iii) How many moles of water molecules are produced in the equation?

Answer:

1 mole.

(iv) What is the mass of NaHCO3 used in this equation?

Answer:

= 2[23 + 1 + 12 + 3(16)]

= 2[84]

= 168 g

(v) What is the volume occupied by CO2 in this equation?

Answer:

22.4 lit.

VIII. Hot Questions

Question 1.

Why do we take an atomic mass of Carbon – 12 as standard?

Answer:

Carbon – 12 is the standard while measuring the atomic masses. Because no other nuclides other than C – 12 have exactly whole-number masses in this scale. This is due to the different mass of neutrons and protons acting to change the total mass in nuclides with proton/neutron ratio other than 1 : 1 ratio of carbon – 12.

Question 2.

The cost of common salt (NaCl) is Rs 18 per kg. Calculate the cost of the salt per mole.

Answer:

Gram molar mass of NaCl = 23 + 35.5

= 58.5 g

1000 g of NaCl costs = Rs 18

∴ 58.5 g of NaCl costs =

181000

× 58.5

= Rs 1.053

The cost of one mole of NaCl = Rs 1.053

Question 3.

What will be the mass of one

12C

atom in g?

Answer:

1 mol of

12C

atoms = 6.022 × 1023 atoms = 12 g

Thus, 6.022 × 1023 atoms of

12C

have mass = 12 g

∴ 1 atom of

12C

will have mass =

× 7 × 10-3

18.82 × 1022 NH3 molecule

Question 6.

What is the mass in grams of the following?

(a) 3 moles of NaOH

(b) 6.023 × 1022 atoms of Ca

(c) 224 L of CO2

Answer:

Formula:

(a) 3 moles of NaOH

Mass of 3 moles of NaOH = 3 × mol. mass of NaOH

GMM of NaOH = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40 g

Mass of 3 moles of NaOH = 3 × 40 = 120 g

(b) 6.023 × 1022 atoms of Ca = n × atomic mass of ca

= 4 g

(c) 224 L of CO2

Mass of 224 L of CO2

= 10 × 44

= 440 g

Question 7.

How many grams are therein:

(i) 5 moles of water

(ii) 2 moles of Ammonia

(iii) 2 moles of Glucose

Solution:

(i) 5 moles of water.

Mass of 1 mole of water (H2O) = 18 g (2 + 16)

Mass of 5 moles of H2O = 18 × 5 = 90 g.

(ii) 2 moles of ammonia.

Mass of 1 mole of ammonia (NH3) = 17 g (14 + 3)

Mass of 2 moles of ammonia = 17 × 2 = 34 g.

(iii) 2 moles of glucose.

Mass of 1 mole of glucose (C6H12O6) = 180 g (72 + 12 + 96)

Mass of 2 moles of glucose = 180 × 2 = 360 g.

Question 8.

Calculate tbe molar mass of the following compounds.

(a) Urea (NH2CONH2)

(b) Ethanol(C2H5OH);

(c) Boric acid (H3BO3)

[Atomic mass of N – 14, H – 1, C – 12, B – 11, O – 16]

Answer:

(a) Urea (NH2CONH2) = 2(14) + 4(1) + 1(16) + 1(12)

= 28 + 4 + 16 + 12

= 60 g

(b) Ethanol(C2H5OH) = 2(12) + 6(1) + 1(16)

= 24 + 6 + 16 = 46 g

(c) Boric acid (H2BO3) = 3(1) + 1(11) + 3(16)

= 3 + 11 + 48

= 62 g

Question 9.

Mass of one atom of an element is 6.645 × 10-23 g. How many moles of element are there in 0.320 kg.

Answer:

Mass of one atom of an element = 6.645 × 10-23 g

∴ Mass of 1 mol of atom = 6.645 × 10-23 × 6.023 × 1023 = 40 g

Number of moles =

I. Choose the best answer:

Question 1.

Which of the following has the smallest mass?

(a) 6.023 × 1023 atoms of He

(b) 1 atom of He

(c) 2 g of He

(d) 1-mole atoms of He

Answer:

(b) 1 atom of He

Question 2.

Which of the following is a triatomic molecule?

(a) Glucose

(b) Helium

(c) Carbon dioxide

(d) Hydrogen.

Answer:

(c) Carbon dioxide

Hint:

(a) Glucose = C6H12O6 (Polyatomic molecule)

(b) Helium = He (Monoatomic molecule)

(c) Carbon dioxide = CO2 (Triatomic molecule)

(d) Hydrogen = H2 (Diatomic molecule)

So, (c) is the correct answer.

Question 3.

The volume occupied by 4.4 g of CO2 at S.T.P:

(a) 22.4 litre

(b) 2.24 litre

(c) 0.24 litre

(d) 0.1 litre

Answer:

(b) 2.24 litre

Question 4.

Mass of 1 mole of Nitrogen atom is _____.

(a) 28 amu

(b) 14 amu

(c) 28 g

(d) 14 g.

Answer:

(b) 14 amu

Hint: Atomic mass of Nitrogen is 14.00674 grams. It is equal to 1 mole of Nitrogen atoms.

So, answer (b) is correct.

Question 5.

Which of the following represents 1 amu?

(a) Mass of a C – 12 atom

(b) Mass of a hydrogen atom

(c) 1/12 th of the mass of a C – 12 atom

(d) Mass of O – 16 atom

Answer:

(c) 1/12 th of the mass of a C – 12 atom

Question 6.

Which of the following statement is incorrect?

(a) One gram of C – 12 contains Avogadro’s number of atoms.

(b) One mole of oxygen gas contains Avogadro’s number of molecules.

(c) One mole of hydrogen gas contains Avogadro’s number of atoms.

(d) One mole of electrons stands for 6.023 × 1023 electrons.

Answer:

(a) One gram of C – 12 contains Avogadro’s number of atoms.

Hint: 12 g of Carbon contains 6.023 × 1023 atoms,

1 g of Carbon contain

6.023×12

= 5.018 × 1022 atoms and its is not Avogadro’s number of atoms.

So (a) is the incorrect statement.

Question 7.

The volume occupied by 1 mole of a diatomic gas at S.T.P is:

(a) 11.2 litre

(b) 5.6 litre

(c) 22.4 litre

(d) 44.8 litre

Answer:

(c) 22.4 litre

Question 8.

In the nucleus of 20Ca40, there are

(a) 20 protons and 40 neutrons

(b) 20 protons and 20 neutrons

(c) 20 protons and 40 electrons

(d) 40 protons and 20 electrons

Answer:

(b) 20 protons and 20 neutrons

Question 9.

The gram molecular mass of oxygen molecule is_____.

(a) 16 g

(b) 18 g

(c) 32 g

(d) 17 g.

Answer:

(c) 32 g

Hint: By definition, the gram molecular mass of oxygen molecule O2 is 32 g.

So the answer (c) is correct.

Question 10.

1 mole of any substance contains molecules.

(a) 6.023 × 1023

(b) 6.023 × 10-23

(c) 3.0115 × 1023

(d) 12.046 × 1023

Answer:

(a) 6.023 × 1023

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Atoms of different elements having ……… mass number, but ………. atomic numbers are called isobars.

2. Atoms of different elements having same number of ………. are called isotones.

3. Atoms of one element can be transmuted into atoms of other element by ………….

4. The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons of an atom is called its …………

5. Relative atomic mass is otherwise known as …………

6. The average atomic mass of hydrogen is ……….. amu.

7. If a molecule is made of similar kind of atoms, then it is called ……….. atomic molecule.

8. The number of atoms present in a molecule is called its ………….

9. One mole of any gas occupies ………… ml at S.T.P

10. Atomicity of phosphorous is …………

Answer:

1. same, different

2. neutrons

3. artificial transmutation

4. mass number

5. standard atomic weight

6. 1.008

7. homo

8. atomicity

9. 22, 400

10. four

III. Match the following:

Answer:

A. (ii)

B. (iii)

C. (v)

D. (i)

E. (iv)

IV. True or False: (If false give the correct statement)

Two elements sometimes can form more than one compound.

Nobel gases are diatomic.

The gram atomic mass of an element has no unit.

1 mole of Gold and Silver contain same number of atoms.

Molar mass of CO2 is 42 g.

Answer:

True

False – Noble gases are Monoatomic.

False – The unit of gram atomic mass of an element is gram.

True

False – Molar mass of CO2 is 44 g.

V. Assertion and Reason:

Answer the following questions using the data given below:

Question 1.

Assertion: Atomic mass of aluminium is 27

Reason: An atom of aluminium is 27 times heavier than 1/12 th of the mass of the C-12 atom.

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

(b) Assertion is correct, Reason is wrong.

(c) Assertion is wrong, Reason is correct.

(d) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason doesn’t explains Assertion.

Answer:

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

Question 2.

Assertion: The Relative Molecular Mass of Chlorine is 35.5 a.m.u.

Reason: The natural abundance of Chlorine isotopes are not equal.

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

(b) Assertion is correct, Reason is wrong.

(c) Assertion is wrong, Reason is correct.

(d) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason doesn’t explains Assertion.

Answer:

(c) Assertion is wrong, Reason is correct.

VI. Short answer questions:

Question 1.

Define: Relative atomic mass.

Answer:

Relative atomic mass of an element is the ratio between the average mass of its isotopes to

1

part of the mass of a carbon-12 atom. It is denoted as Ar.

[OR]

Question 2.

Write the different types of isotopes of oxygen and its percentage abundance.

Answer:

Oxygen has three stable isotopes. They are

Question 3.

Define Atomicity.

Answer:

The number of atoms present in the molecule is called its ‘Atomicity’.

Question 4.

Give any two examples for heteroatomic molecules.

Answer:

HI, HCl, CO, HBr, HF.

Question 5.

What is Molar volume of a gas?

Answer:

One mole of any gas occupies 22.4 litres.

(or)

22400 ml at S.T.R This volume is called as molar volume.

Question 6.

Find the percentage of nitrogen in ammonia.

Answer:

Molar mass of NH3 = 1(14) + 3(1) = 17 g

VII. Long answer questions:

Question 1.

Calculate the number of water molecule present in one drop of water which weighs 0.18 g.

Answer:

The molecular mass of water (H2O) is 18.

18 g of water molecule = 1 mole.

0. 18 g of water =

118×0.18

= 0.01 mole.

1 mole of water (Avogadro’s number) contains 6.023 × 1023 water molecules.

0. 01 mole of water contain

6.023×

= 6.023 × 1021 molecules.

Question 2.

N2 + 3 H2 → 2 NH3

(The atomic mass of nitrogen is 14, and that of hydrogen is 1)

1 mole of nitrogen (……..g) +

3 moles of hydrogen (………g) →

2 moles of ammonia (………g)

Answer:

1 mole of nitrogen (28 g) +

3 moles of hydrogen (6 g) →

2 moles of ammonia (34 g)

Question 3.

Calculate the number of moles in

(i) 27 g of Al;

(ii) 1.51 × 1023 molecules of NH4Cl.

Answer:

(i) 27 g of Al

Given mass atomic mass =

GivenMassAtomicMass

=

= 1 mole

(ii) 1.51 x 1023 molecules of NH4Cl

Number of moles

Question 4.

Give the salient features of “Modern atomic theory”.

Answer:

The salient features of “Modem atomic theory” are,

An atom is no longer indivisible.

Atoms of the same element may have different atomic mass.

Atoms of different elements may have the same atomic masses.

Atoms of one element can be transmuted into atoms of other elements. In other words, an atom is no longer indestructible.

Atoms may not always combine in a simple whole-number ratio.

Atom is the smallest particle that takes part in a chemical reaction.

The mass of an atom can be converted into energy [E = mc2].

Question 5.

Derive the relationship between Relative molecular mass and Vapour density.

Answer:

Relative molecular mass : The relative molecular mass of a gas or vapour is the ratio between the mass of one molecule of the gas or vapour to mass of one atom of hydrogen.

Vapour density : Vapour density is the ratio of the mass of certain volume of a gas or vapour, to the mass of an equal volume of hydrogen, measured under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.

According to Avogadro’s law equal volumes of all gases contain equal number of molecules.

Let the number of molecules in one volume = n, then

When cancelling ‘n’ which is common at STP, we get

Since hydrogen is diatomic,

2 × Vapour density = Relative Molecular mass of a gas

[OR]

Relative Molecular Mass = 2 × Vapour density

VIII. HOT Question:

Question 1.

Calcium carbonate is decomposed on heating in the following reaction

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2

How many moles of Calcium carbonate is involved in this reaction?

Calculate the gram molecular mass of calcium carbonate involved in this reaction.

How many moles of CO2 are there in this equation?

Answer:

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2

1 mole of CaCO3 is involved in this reaction.

Gram molecular mass of calcium carbonate

CaCO3 = (40 + 12 + 3 × 16) = 52 + 48 = 100 g

1 mole of CO2 is in this equation.

IX. Solve the following problems:

Question 1.

How many grams are there in the following?

(i) 2 moles of a hydrogen molecule, H2

(ii) 3 moles of chlorine molecule, Cl2

(iii) 5 moles of sulphur molecule, S8

(iv) 4 moles of a phosphorous molecule, P4

Solution:

(i) 2 moles of a hydrogen molecule, H2

Mass of 1 mole of hydrogen molecule = 2 g

Mass of 2 moles of hydrogen molecule = 2 × 2 = 4 g.

(ii) 3 moles of chlorine molecule, Cl2

Mass of 1 mole of chlorine molecule = 71 g

Mass of 3 moles of chlorine molecules = 71 × 3 = 213 g.

(iii) 5 moles of sulphur molecule, S8

Mass of 1 mole of sulphur molecule = 32 g

Mass of 5 moles of sulphur molecules = 32 × 5 = 160 g.

(iv) 4 moles of the phosphorous molecule, P4

Mass of 1 mole of phosphorous molecule = 30.97 g

Mass of 4 moles of phosphorous molecules = 30.97 × 4 = 123.88 g.

Question 2.

Calculate the % of each element in calcium carbonate. (Atomic mass: C – 12, O – 16, Ca – 40)

Answer:

Formula to find % of each element

Question 3.

Calculate the % of oxygen in Al2(SO4)3.

(Atomic mass: Al – 27, O – 16, S – 32)

Answer:

Formula:

Molar mass of Al2(SO4)3 = [2(Atomic mass of Al) + 3(Atomic mass of S) + 12(Atomic mass of O)]

= 2(27) + 3(32) + 12(16) = 342 g

% of Oxygen =

12(16)342

× 100 = 56.14%.

Question 4.

Calculate the % relative abundance of B – 10 and B – 11, if its average atomic mass is 10.804 amu.

Answer:

% of relative abundance can be calculated by the formula.

Average atomic mass of the element

= Atomic mass of 1st isotope × abundance of 1st isotope + Atomic mass of 2nd isotope × abundance of 2nd isotope

∴ Average atomic mass of Boron

= Atomic mass of B – 0 × abundance of B -10 + Atomic mass of B – 11 × abundance of B – 11

Let the abundance of B – 10 be ‘x’ and B – 11 be (1 – x)

So, 10.804 = 10 × x + 11 (1 – x)

10.804 = 10x + 11 – 11x

x = 11 – 10.804

x = 0.196

1 -x = 1 – 0.196 = 0.804

Therefore % abundance of B – 10 is 19.6% and B – 11 is 80.4%

[OR]

Let the % of the isotope B – 10 = x

Then the % of the isotope B – 11 = 100 – x

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Guide Chapter 7 Atoms and Molecules 12

1100 – x = 1080.4

x = 19.6

% abundance of B – 10 = 19.6%

% abundance of B – 11 = 80.4%

Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.

The first scientific theory of an atom was proposed by:

(a) Ruther Ford

(b) Newland

(c) John Dalton

(d) Neils Bohr

Answer:

(c) John Dalton

Question 2.

Identify the pair that indicates isobars among the following _____.

(a)

1Ca40

Question 3.

Which one of the following represents 180 g of water?

(a) 5 moles of water

(b) 90 moles of water

(c) 6.023 × 1024 molecules of water

(d) 6.023 × 1022 molecules of water

Answer:

(c) 6.023 × 1024 molecules of water

Question 4.

The isotope of Carbon-12 contains _____.

(a) 6 protons and 7 electrons

(b) 6 protons and 6 neutrons

(c) 12 protons and no neutrons

(d) 12 neutrons and no protons.

Answer:

(b) 6 protons and 6 neutrons

Question 5.

Which contains the greatest number of moles of oxygen atoms?

(a) 1 mol of water

(b) 1 mole of NaOH

(c) 1 mole of Na2CO3

(d) 1 mole of CO

Answer:

(c) 1 mole of Na2CO3

Question 6.

The mass of proton or neutron is approximately _____.

(a) 1 amu

(b) 1.609 × 10-19 g

(c) 1 g

(d) 6.023 × 10-23 g.

Answer:

(a) 1 amu

Question 7.

The natural abundance of C-12 and C-13 are 98.90% and 1.10% respectively. The average atomic mass of carbon is:

(a) 12 amu

(b) 12.011 amu

(c) 14 amu

(d) 12.90 amu

Answer:

(b) 12.011 amu

Question 8.

The relative atomic mass of magnesium-based on C – 12 scale is _____.

(a) 24 g

(b) 24

(c) 24 amu

(d) 24 kg

Answer:

(b) 24

Question 9.

If 1.5 moles of oxygen combine with Al to form Al2O3, the mass of Al in g (atomic mass of Al = 27) used in the reaction is:

(a) 2.7

(b) 54

(c) 40.5

(d) 81

Answer:

(b) 54

Question 10.

The atomicity of methane is:

(a) 5

(b) 4

(c) 3

(d) 6

Answer:

(a) 5

Question 11.

Find the odd one out _____.

(a)

8

.

Answer:

(c)

O12

Question 12.

The volume occupied by 3 moles of HCl gas at STP is:

(a) 22.4 L

(b) 44.8 L

(c) 2.24 L

(d) 67.2 L

Answer:

(d) 67.2 L

Question 13.

The mass percentage of hydrogen in ethane (C2H6) is:

(a) 25%

(b) 75%

(c) 80%

(d) 20%

Answer:

(d) 20%

Question 14.

Which one of the following is a homo diatomic molecule?

(a) H2

(6) CO

(c) NO

(d) O3.

Answer:

(a) H2

Question 15.

The percentage of nitrogen in urea is about:

(a) 38.4

(b) 46.6

(c) 59.1

(d) 61.3

Answer:

(b) 46.6

Question 16.

Out of the following the largest number of atoms are contained in:

(a) 11 g of CO2

(b) 4 g of H2

(C) 5 g of NH3

(d) 8 g of SO2

Answer:

(b) 4 g of H2

Question 17.

Which of the following is an example of a homo triatomic molecule?

(a) Phosphorous

(b) Sulphur

(c) Bromine

(d) Ozone.

Answer:

(d) Ozone.

Question 18.

For the reaction A + 2B → C, 5 moles of A and 8 moles of B will produce:

(a) 5 moles of C

(b) 4 moles of C

(c) 8 moles of C

(d) 13 moles of C

Answer:

(b) 4 moles of C

Question 19.

The vapour density of a gas is 32. Its relative molecular mass will be:

(a) 32

(b) 16

(c) 64

(d) 96

Answer:

(c) 64

Question 20.

Find the odd one out _____.

(a) Silver

(b) Potassium

(c) Iron

(d) Phosphorous.

Answer:

(d) Phosphorous.

II. Fill in the blanks.

The volume occupied by 16 g of oxygen is ………..

One mole of a triatomic gas contains ………… atoms.

Equal volume of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of …………

The mass of an atom can be converted into energy by using the formula …………

The percentage composition is useful to determine the ………… formula and ………… formula.

Answer:

11.2 L

3 × 6.023 × 1023

molecules

E = me²

empirical, molecular

III. Match the following:

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (ii)

B. (iii)

C. (i)

D. (v)

E. (iv)

Question 2.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (i)

C. (iv)

D. (v)

E. (ii)

Question 3.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (v)

C. (ii)

D. (iii)

E. (i)

Question 4.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iii)

C. (iv)

D. (i)

E. (ii)

IV. True or False: (If false give the correct statement)

Atoms always combine in a simple whole number ratio.

2 × RMM = VD

The average atomic mass of Beryllium is 9.012 because of the presence of isotopes.

The noble gases are diatomic.

The number of atoms present in one mole of phosphorus(P4) is 4 × 6.023 × 1023

Answer:

False -Atoms may not combine always in a simple whole number ratio.

False – 2 × VD = RMM

True

False – The noble gases are mono atomic.

True

V. Assertion and Reason:

Answer the following questions using the data given below:

Question 1.

Assertion: The standard unit for expressing mass of atom is amu.

Reason: Atomic mass unit is one-twelth of the mass of a C-12 atom

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

(b) Assertion is correct, Reason is wrong.

(c) Assertion is wrong, Reason is correct.

(d) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason doesn’t explains Assertion.

Answer:

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

Question 2.

Assertion: The volume occupied by 44 g of CO2 is 22.4 L

Reason: The volume occupied by one mole of any gas is 22.4 L

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

(b) Assertion is correct, Reason is wrong.

(c) Assertion is wrong, Reason is correct.

(d) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason doesn’t explains Assertion.

Answer:

(a) Assertion and Reason are correct, Reason explains the Assertion.

VI. Short answer questions:

Question 1.

Define vapour density.

Answer:

Vapour density is the ratio of the mass of certain volume of a gas or vapour, to the mass of an equal volume of hydrogen measured under the same condition of temperature and pressure.

[OR]

Question 2.

What are isobars? Give an example.

Answer:

Atoms of different elements that have same atomic masses but different atomic numbers are called isobars.

e.g.,

18

.

Question 3.

Write the differences between an atom and a molecule.

Answer:

Question 4.

What is artificial transmutation?

Answer:

Atoms of one element can be transmuted into atoms of other elements. In other words, the atom is no longer indestructible. It is known as artificial transmutation.

Question 5.

Classify the following based on atomicity.

Answer:

(i) Bromine

2 – Diatomic

(ii) Argon

1 – Monoatomic

(iii) Ozone

3 – Triatomic

(iv) Sulphur

8 – Polyatomic

Question 6.

Define atomic mass unit.

Answer:

Atomic mass unit is one-twelfth of the mass of carbon – 12 atom, as an isotope of carbon which contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons. It is amu.

VII. Long answer questions:

Question 1.

Explain how Avogadro hypothesis is used to derive the value of atomicity.

Answer:

(i) The Avogadro’s law states that “equal volumes of all gases under similar conditions of temperature and pressure contain the equal number of molecules”.

(ii) Let us consider the reaction between hydrogen and chlorine to form hydrogen chloride gas.

H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) → 2HCl (g)

⇒ 1 volume + 1 volume → 2 volumes.

(iii) According to Avogadro’s law, 1 volume of any gas is occupied by “n” number of molecules,

“n” molecules + “n” molecules → “2n” molecules

If “n” = 1, then

1 molecule + 1 molecule → 2 molecules.

12

molecule +

(v)

12

molecule of hydrogen contains 1 atom.

So, 1 molecule of hydrogen contains 2 atoms.

So, hydrogen atomicity is 2. Similarly, chlorine atomicity is also 2.

So, H2 and Cl2 are diatomic molecules.

Question 2.

Write a note on the following,

(i) Isotopeos

(ii) Isobars

(iii) Relative atomic mass.

Answer:

(i) Isotopes : Atoms of same element with different mass number. Eg: 17Cl35, 17Cl37.

(ii) Isobars : Atoms of different elements with same mass number. Eg: 18Ar40, 20Ca40

(iii) Relative Atomic Mass (RAM) :

Question 3.

Sodim bicarbonate breaks down on heating as follows:

2NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

(Atomic mass of Na = 23, H = 1, C = 12, O = 16)

(i) How many moles of NaHCO3 are there in the equation?

Answer:

2 moles.

(ii) What is the mass of CO2 produced in the equation?

Answer:

44 g

(iii) How many moles of water molecules are produced in the equation?

Answer:

1 mole.

(iv) What is the mass of NaHCO3 used in this equation?

Answer:

= 2[23 + 1 + 12 + 3(16)]

= 2[84]

= 168 g

(v) What is the volume occupied by CO2 in this equation?

Answer:

22.4 lit.

VIII. Hot Questions

Question 1.

Why do we take an atomic mass of Carbon – 12 as standard?

Answer:

Carbon – 12 is the standard while measuring the atomic masses. Because no other nuclides other than C – 12 have exactly whole-number masses in this scale. This is due to the different mass of neutrons and protons acting to change the total mass in nuclides with proton/neutron ratio other than 1 : 1 ratio of carbon – 12.

Question 2.

The cost of common salt (NaCl) is Rs 18 per kg. Calculate the cost of the salt per mole.

Answer:

Gram molar mass of NaCl = 23 + 35.5

= 58.5 g

1000 g of NaCl costs = Rs 18

∴ 58.5 g of NaCl costs =

181000

× 58.5

= Rs 1.053

The cost of one mole of NaCl = Rs 1.053

Question 3.

What will be the mass of one

12C

atom in g?

Answer:

1 mol of

12C

atoms = 6.022 × 1023 atoms = 12 g

Thus, 6.022 × 1023 atoms of

12C

have mass = 12 g

∴ 1 atom of

12C

will have mass =

× 7 × 10-3

18.82 × 1022 NH3 molecule

Question 6.

What is the mass in grams of the following?

(a) 3 moles of NaOH

(b) 6.023 × 1022 atoms of Ca

(c) 224 L of CO2

Answer:

Formula:

(a) 3 moles of NaOH

Mass of 3 moles of NaOH = 3 × mol. mass of NaOH

GMM of NaOH = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40 g

Mass of 3 moles of NaOH = 3 × 40 = 120 g

(b) 6.023 × 1022 atoms of Ca = n × atomic mass of ca

= 4 g

(c) 224 L of CO2

Mass of 224 L of CO2

= 10 × 44

= 440 g

Question 7.

How many grams are therein:

(i) 5 moles of water

(ii) 2 moles of Ammonia

(iii) 2 moles of Glucose

Solution:

(i) 5 moles of water.

Mass of 1 mole of water (H2O) = 18 g (2 + 16)

Mass of 5 moles of H2O = 18 × 5 = 90 g.

(ii) 2 moles of ammonia.

Mass of 1 mole of ammonia (NH3) = 17 g (14 + 3)

Mass of 2 moles of ammonia = 17 × 2 = 34 g.

(iii) 2 moles of glucose.

Mass of 1 mole of glucose (C6H12O6) = 180 g (72 + 12 + 96)

Mass of 2 moles of glucose = 180 × 2 = 360 g.

Question 8.

Calculate tbe molar mass of the following compounds.

(a) Urea (NH2CONH2)

(b) Ethanol(C2H5OH);

(c) Boric acid (H3BO3)

[Atomic mass of N – 14, H – 1, C – 12, B – 11, O – 16]

Answer:

(a) Urea (NH2CONH2) = 2(14) + 4(1) + 1(16) + 1(12)

= 28 + 4 + 16 + 12

= 60 g

(b) Ethanol(C2H5OH) = 2(12) + 6(1) + 1(16)

= 24 + 6 + 16 = 46 g

(c) Boric acid (H2BO3) = 3(1) + 1(11) + 3(16)

= 3 + 11 + 48

= 62 g

Question 9.

Mass of one atom of an element is 6.645 × 10-23 g. How many moles of element are there in 0.320 kg.

Answer:

Mass of one atom of an element = 6.645 × 10-23 g

∴ Mass of 1 mol of atom = 6.645 × 10-23 × 6.023 × 1023 = 40 g

Number of moles =

Chapter 7, Correspondence with Debenture holders, hsc, sp, secretarial practice, maharashtra board, full solution,

Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statement.

1.Debenture capital is a ______ capital of a company.

Options
  • borrowed
  • owned
  • permanent

2.Debenture holders are ______ of the company.

Options
  • Owners
  • Creditors
  • Debtors

3.Borrowed Capital is provided to the company by ______.

Options
  • Equity shareholder
  • Debenture holder
  • Preference shareholder

4.Interest on Registered Debentures is given through ______.

Options
  • Interest coupons
  • Interest warrant
  • Refund order

5.______ are the creditors of the company.

Options
  • Shareholders
  • Debenture holders
  • Directors

6.Bearer Debentureholders get interest through ______.

Options
  • Interest Warrants
  • Refund orders
  • Interest coupons

7.Return of income on debentures is ______ at fixed rate.

Options
  • Dividend
  • Loan
  • Interest

8.______ is an acknowledgement of debt issued by the company under common seal.

Options
  • Debentures
  • Shares
  • Reserve

9.Debentures repayable after a certain period are ______ debentures.

Options
  • Convertible
  • Registered
  • Redeemable

10.The rate of interest payable on debentures is ______.

Options
  • uncertain
  • floating
  • fixed

11.Debenture holders receive ______certificate from the company.

Options
  • Share
  • Bond
  • Debenture

12.Interest warrants are sent to ______ of the company.

Options
  • Shareholders
  • Debenture holders
  • Owners

Match the pairs.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Debentureholder1) Borrowed Capital
b) Interest on Debentures2) Interest coupons
c) Convertible Debentures3) Evidence of Loan
d) Debenture Certificate4) Safe and secured investment
e) Investment in Debentures5) Interest warrant
f) Redeemable Debentures6) Conversion into Debentures
g) Debentures7) Risky investment
 8) Evidence of shares
 9) Creditor
 10) Conversion into equity shares
 11) Redeemed after fixed period
 12) Redeemed at winding up of company
 13) Owner
 14) Owned Capital

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Debentureholder9) Creditor
b) Interest on Debentures5) Interest warrant
c) Convertible Debentures10) Conversion into equity shares
d) Debenture Certificate3) Evidence of Loan
e) Investment in Debentures4) Safe and secured investment
f) Redeemable Debentures11) Redeemed after fixed period
g) Debentures1) Borrowed Capital

Write a word or a term or a phrase which can substitute the following statement.

1.Return on investment in debentures.

SOLUTION

Return on investment in debentures. – Interest

2.Documentary evidence of holding the debentures.

SOLUTION

Documentary evidence of holding the debentures. – Debenture Certificate

3.Status of debenture holders.

SOLUTION

Status of debenture holders. – Creditors

4.Debentures which can be converted into equity shares.

SOLUTION

Debentures which can be converted into equity shares. – Convertible Debentures

5.The person who purchases debentures of the company.

SOLUTION

The person who purchases debentures of the company. – Debenture holder

6.An acknowledgement of debt issued by the company under its common seal.

SOLUTION

An acknowledgement of debt issued by the company under its common seal. – Debenture

7.Debentures whose name is mentioned in the Register of debenture holders.

SOLUTION

Debentures whose name is mentioned in the Register of debenture holders. – Registered Debentures


State whether the following statement is true or false.

1.Debenture holders get regular dividend.

Options
  • True
  • False

2.Debenture is a loan capital of the company.

Options
  • True
  • False

3.Convertible Debentures can be converted into equity shares.

Options
  • True
  • False

4.Interest on debentures is paid notwithstanding the volume of profit.

Options
  • True
  • False

5.Debenture holders enjoy full membership rights of the company.

Options
  • True
  • False

6.Dividend warrants are used to pay interest to the debenture holders.

Options
  • True
  • False

7.All types of debentures are eligible for conversion into equity shares.

Options
  • True
  • False

8.Debentures are never redeemed by the company.

Options
  • True
  • False

9.Debenture holders are the owners of the company.

Options
  • True
  • False

10.Debentures are always fully paid-up.

Options
  • True
  • False

Complete the sentence.

1.Debenture holder is a ______ of the company.

SOLUTION

Debenture holder is a creditor of the company.

2.Company issues ______ certificate to the debenture holder after allotment of debentures.

SOLUTION

Company issues debenture certificate to the debenture holder after allotment of debentures.

3.Debenture holder gets ______ at fixed rate as a return or income.

SOLUTION

Debenture holder gets interest at fixed rate as a return or income.

4.In case of Registered Debentures, Interest ______ are used to pay interest.

SOLUTION

In case of Registered Debentures, Interest warrants are used to pay interest.

5.The ______has to correspond with debenture holders on important occasions.

SOLUTION

The company secretary has to correspond with debenture holders on important occasions.

6.The person who purchases the debentures of a company is called ______

SOLUTION

The person who purchases the debentures of a company is called debenture holder.

7.Interest does not depend upon ______ of the company.

SOLUTION

Interest does not depend upon profits of the company.

8.Company cannot issue debentures with ______ rights.

SOLUTION

Company cannot issue debentures with voting rights.

9.Debenture certificate should be issued within a period of ______ months, from the date of allotment of debentures.

SOLUTION

Debenture certificate should be issued within a period of six months, from the date of allotment of debentures.

10.A company cannot issue debentures to more than 500 people without appointing a ______.

SOLUTION

A company cannot issue debentures to more than 500 people without appointing a Debenture Trustee.

11.The power to issue debentures has been vested with the ______.

SOLUTION

The power to issue debentures has been vested with the Board of Directors.


Select the correct option from the bracket.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Return on Debentures1) __________________
b) Debenture certificate2) __________________
c) __________________3) Debentureholders
d) __________________4) Debenture
e) __________________5) Power to issue debentures

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Return on Debentures1) Interest
b) Debenture certificate2) Issued within 6 months
c) Creditors3) Debenture holders
d) Debt capital4) Debenture
e) Board of Directors5) Power to issue debentures

Answer in one sentence.

1.Who is debenture holder?

SOLUTION

Debenture holder is a person who subscribes to the debentures of a company.

2.What is the income of debenture holder?

SOLUTION

The debenture holder earns income in the form of a fixed rate of interest.

3.What is debenture?

SOLUTION

Debentures are debt instruments issued by a company to raise capital.

4.What is convertible debentures?

SOLUTION

Convertible Debentures are the debentures which are converted into equity shares on the expiry of specified period and at a specified rate mentioned in the terms of issue.

5.Who takes decision to allot the debentures?

SOLUTION

The Board of Directors takes decision to allot the debentures.

6.Which form is enclosed along with the letter of redemption of debentures?

SOLUTION

Debenture Redemption Form is issued along with the letter of redemption of debentures.

7.Which certificate will be issued after allotment of debentures?

SOLUTION

Debenture Certificate is issued after the allotment of debentures.


Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentence.

1.The person who purchases debentures of the company is called shareholder.

SOLUTION

The person who purchases debentures of the company is called debenture holder.

2.Debenture holders get regular dividend at fixed rate.

SOLUTION

Debenture holders get regular interest at fixed rate.

3.A Share Certificate must be issued after allotment of debentures.

SOLUTION

A Debenture Certificate must be issued after allotment of debentures

4.A Debenture Redemption Reserve Fund is created by the company for the redemption of Shares.

SOLUTION

A Debenture Redemption Reserve Fund is created by the company for the redemption of Debentures.

5.A Demat Request Form is sent along with the letter of Redemption of Debentures

SOLUTION

A Debenture Redemption Form is sent along with the letter of Redemption of Debentures.

6.A company must issue Debenture Certificate within 8 months of allotment of debentures.

SOLUTION

A company must issue Debenture Certificate within 6 months of allotment of debentures.


1.Arrange in proper order.

  1. Board Resolution
  2. Allotment of Debentures
  3. Board meeting

SOLUTION

  1. Board Meeting
  2. Board Resolution
  3. Allotment of Debentures

2.Arrange in proper order.

  1. Interest warrant
  2. Allotment of Debentures
  3. Board meeting

SOLUTION

  1. Board meeting
  2. Allotment of Debentures
  3. Interest warrant

Explain the following term/concept.

1.Debentures

SOLUTION

Debentures are debt instruments issued by a company to raise capital. Debenture capital is the borrowed capital of a company. A debenture is an acknowledgement of the debt. Debentures are issued for a specific period and it carries a fixed rate of interest as a return on the investment in debentures.

2.Debenture holder

SOLUTION

Debentures are debt instruments issued by a company to raise capital. The registered holders of such debentures are called debenture holders. The debenture holder is a creditor of the company. They get a fixed rate of interest for the amount they have invested in the debentures.

3.Interest on Debentures

SOLUTION

Debenture capital is a loan or borrowed capital of the company. Debenture holders are the creditors of the company. They get a fixed rate of interest as a return on their investment in debentures. Interest is a debt. It is not dependent on profits. The company pays interest on debentures either through interest warrant or via electronic mode i.e. NEFT, ECS, etc.

4.Redemption of debentures

SOLUTION

Redemption of debentures means repayment of the debentures by the company to the debenture holders. Debentures are redeemed on maturity or expiry of the period for which they were issued. A Debenture Redemption Reserve Fund (DRRF) is created by the company for the purpose of redemption of debentures.

5.Conversion of Debentures

SOLUTION

Conversion of debentures means debentures are converted into equity shares on the expiry of a specified period and at a specified rate mentioned in the terms of the issue. The company has to get the approval of shareholders by passing a special resolution at the Extra Ordinary General Meeting for the conversion of debentures into equity shares.

6.Interest warrant

SOLUTION

A fixed-rate of interest is paid by the company on the investment made by the debenture holders. This interest is paid by the company by means of an interest warrant. The interest warrant is attached to the letter for payment of interest which is sent to debenture holders by the secretary.

7.Conciseness

SOLUTION

The secretary has to communicate the decisions of the management and other information to the debenture holders. The letters to debenture holders should be concise i.e. brief, short, and to the point. Unnecessary and irrelevant information must be avoided.

8.Precise information

SOLUTION

The secretary has to communicate the decisions of the management and other information to the debenture holders by conducting correspondence. The secretary should take care that precise and up to date information is provided to the debenture holders. The information provided must be factual and true.

9.Courtesy

SOLUTION

The secretary has to be cautious and careful while corresponding with the debenture holders. Being the creditors, due respect should be given to the debenture holder in secretarial correspondence. The tone of the letter to debenture holders must be polite. Rude language should be strictly avoided while corresponding with the debenture holder

10.Debenture certificate

SOLUTION

Debenture Certificate is a document that certifies that the holder is the creditor of the company for the amount mentioned in the certificate. It is issued to all debenture holders. It is issued within a period of six months from the date of allotment of debentures.


Answer in brief.

1.Which are the precautions to be taken by the Secretary while corresponding with debenture holders?

SOLUTION

A secretary has to communicate the decisions taken by the management and other information to the debenture holders of the company through correspondence. While corresponding, he has to be cautious and careful. The secretary has to keep the following precautions in mind while corresponding with the Debenture holders.

  1. CORRECT & PRECISE INFORMATION: The secretary should always provide correct, up-to-date, and factual information to the debenture holders. The secretary should take due care while providing facts and figures.
  2. CONCISENESS: The letter to the debenture holders should be concise i.e. it should be brief, short, and to the point. Any unnecessary and irrelevant information must be avoided.
  3. POLITENESS (COURTESY): Politeness means the use of courteous language in the letter. Being the creditors, due respect should be given to the debenture holders in secretarial correspondence. The tone of the letter to debenture holders must be polite. Rude language should be strictly avoided while corresponding with the debenture holders.
  4. SECRECY: As a confidential officer of the company, the secretary should not disclose any important and confidential information related to the company while corresponding with debenture holders.
  5. PROMPT RESPONSE: The secretary should promptly reply to any queries and complaints of the debenture holders. There should not be any delay in the correspondence.
  6. IMAGE & GOODWILL OF THE COMPANY: While corresponding with debenture holders, the secretary should always try to maintain goodwill and create a good image of the company in the mind of debenture holders.
  7. LEGAL PROVISIONS: The secretary should follow all the statutory provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, and any other relevant laws while corresponding with the debenture holders. The secretary should be cautious and careful while corresponding with debenture holders on legal matters.
  8. TRANSPARENCY: To maintain greater transparency with the debenture holders, it is necessary to disclose all correct and accurate information of the company, credit rating of the company, true facts of the company’s affairs, etc. in the correspondence.

2.What are the circumstances under which correspondence can be made with debenture holders?

SOLUTION

Debenture holders are the creditors of the company. They have the right to know about the decisions taken by the management of the company and other information. The secretary corresponds with the debenture holders under various circumstances. The following are the few circumstances under which the secretary enters into correspondence with the debenture holders:

  1. Informing the applicant about the allotment of debentures.
  2. Informing about payment of interest through:
    i. Interest Warrant
    ii. Electronic Mode
  3. Letter for the conversion of debentures into equity share
  4. Informing the debenture holders about the redemption of their debentures.

Justify the following statement.

1.The company secretary should take certain precautions while corresponding with debenture holders.

SOLUTION

  1. Debenture holders are creditors of the company.
  2. The company secretary has to communicate the decisions of the management and other information to debenture holders through correspondence.
  3. While writing letters, a secretary should provide correct, up-to-date, and factual information to the debenture holders.
  4. He should be prompt in replying to any queries or complaints of debenture holders.
  5. He should not give out sensitive and confidential information about the company. He should always strive to maintain a good image of the company.
  6. The secretary should follow the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, and its latest amendments.
  7. Most importantly, he must use courteous language during all his correspondence.
  8. Thus, the company secretary should take certain precautions while corresponding with debenture holders.

2.There are certain circumstances when a secretary has to correspond with debenture holders.

SOLUTION

  1. Debenture capital is the borrowed capital of a company.
  2. The debenture holders are the creditors of the company.
  3. The secretary has to communicate the decisions of the management and other information to the debenture holders by conducting correspondence.
  4. The Secretary has to correspond with debenture holders under special circumstances, such as
    a. Allotment of debentures
    b. Payment of interest through interest warrant or electronically
    c. Conversion of debentures into equity shares
    d. Redemption of debentures etc.
  5. Thus, there are certain circumstances when a secretary has to correspond with debenture holders.

1.Draft a letter of allotment to debenture holder.

SOLUTION

  1. When a company allots debentures to the applicant, the letter of allotment is sent to the debenture holders.
  2. The debenture holders get the debenture certificate in exchange for this letter.
  3. This letter contains the details of issue of debentures i.e. Number of debentures applied, Number of debentures allotted, Distinctive numbers of debentures, Amount received, Types of debentures, Rate of Interest, Maturity date, etc.

HULK MOTORS LTD.

Registered office: Plot No. 05, Commercial Towers, P.K. Road,

Mumbai – 400067

CIN: R20020 MH 1000 PLC123456

Website: wwww.hulkmotors.in

Email: hulk4321@gmail.com

Date: 17th Oct, 2020

Phone: 022 12345678

Fax: 022 – 11112222

Ref. No.: C/2060/20-18

Mr. John Methiw

508, Lokesh Apartments,

AK.D. Road,

Mumbai – 4000089

Sub: Allotment of Debentures

Dear Sir,

        In response to your application No. V65432 dated 27th Sep 2020, I am directed by the Board of Directors to inform you that, you have been allotted 100, 10% Non-convertible secured debentures of ₹100/- each. The tenure of debentures is for 5 years.

       These debentures are allotted to you as per Board Resolution passed at Board Meeting held on 15th Oct 2020 and as per terms and conditions of Articles of Association of the company and Debenture Trust Deed.

The details of allotment of debentures are as follows:

12345
Folio No.No. of Debentures AppliedNo. of Debentures AllottedDistinctive NumbersAmount Received (₹)
   FromTo 
D-1231001009011000₹ 10,000

The Debenture Certificate is enclosed herewith.

Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully,

For Hulk Motors Ltd.

Sign

Mr. Kamlesh Gaikwad

Company Secretary

Encl: Debenture Certificate


2.Write a letter to the debenture holder regarding payment of interest through Interest Warrant.

SOLUTION

  1. Debenture capital is a loan or borrowed capital of a company.
  2. Debenture holders are the creditors and they get a fixed rate of interest as a return on their investment in debentures.
  3. The interest paid by the company is a debt and does not depend upon profits.
  4. The company pays interest through an Interest warrant which is sent along with this letter.
  5. This letter contains details such as No. of debentures, Distinctive numbers, Gross amount of interest payable, TDS deducted, Net amount of interest payable, etc.

HULK MOTORS LTD.

Registered office: Plot No. 05, Commercial Towers, P.K. Road,

Mumbai – 400067

CIN: R20020 MH 1000 PLC123456

Website: wwww.hulkmotors.in

Email: hulk4321@gmail.com

Date: 17th Oct, 2020

Phone: 022 12345678

Fax: 022 – 11112222

Ref. No.: C/2060/20-18

Mr. John Methiw

508, Lokesh Apartments,

AK.D. Road,

Mumbai – 4000089

Sub: Payment of Interest on Debentures.

Dear Sir,

I am directed to inform you that, the Board of Directors has passed a resolution in the Board Meeting held on 15th Oct, 2020 regarding payment of interest on your 100, 10% Non-convertible debentures of ₹ 100/- each for the year ending 31st March, 2020.

The details of payment of interest payable to you are as follows:

1234567
Folio No.No. of DebenturesDistinctive NumbersGross Amt. of InterestT.D.S (10% on interest)Net Amt. of InterestInterest Warrant No.
  FromTo    
D-1231009011000₹ 1,000NIL₹ 1,000C1234

The Interest Warrant is enclosed herewith. Please detach the Interest Warrant along the perforated line.

Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully,

For Hulk Motors Ltd.

 Sign           

Mr. Kamlesh Gaikwad

Company Secretary

Encl: Interest Warrant


3.Draft a letter to debentureholder informing him about redemption of debentures.

SOLUTION

  1. Letter of Redemption is sent to debentureholders whose debentures are to be redeemed after the specified period.
  2. A Debenture Redemption Reserve Fund (DRRF) is created by the company for the purpose of redemption of debentures.
  3. Debenture Redemption Form is sent along with this letter. This form along with necessary documents has to be submitted to the company by the debentureholders in order to redeem the shares.
  4. This letter is sent in order to inform the debentureholders that their debentures have become due for redemption.

HULK MOTORS LTD.

Registered office: Plot No. 05, Commercial Towers, P.K. Road,

Mumbai – 400067

CIN: R20020 MH 1000 PLC123456

Website: www.hulkmotors.in

Email: hulk4321@gmail.com

Date: 17th Oct, 2020

Phone: 022 12345678

Fax: 022 – 11112222

Ref. No.: C/2060/20-18

Mr. John Methiw

508, Lokesh Apartments,

AK.D. Road,

Mumbai – 4000089

Sub: Redemption of Debentures

Dear Sir,

      This is to inform you that 100000, 10% Non-convertible Debentures issued in June, 2015 are due for redemption on 15th June, 2020. According to Board Resolution No. 1234, passed at the Board Meeting held on 8th June, 2020, debentures shall be redeemed out of the ‘Debenture Redemption Reserve Fund’ of the company.

     Please arrange to submit the enclosed ‘Debenture Redemption Form’ along with the original Debenture Certificate to the company, on or before 3rd July, 2020  On completion of the above formalities, the redemption amount will be credited to your bank account.

     You are requested to provide us your Bank Account details.

      Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully,    

For Hulk Motors Ltd.

 Sign             

Mr. Kamlesh Gaikwad

Company Secretary

Encl: Debenture Redemption Form


4.Write a letter to debentureholder informing him about conversion of debentures into equity shares.

SOLUTION

  1. Convertible debentures are the debentures that are converted into equity shares on the expiry of a specified period at a specified rate mentioned in the terms of issue.
  2. After the receipt of the Letter of Option, the Secretary sends a letter informing the debenture holders that the debentures are converted into equity shares.
  3. The secretary either sends the share certificate along with the letter or states in the letter that the share certificate will be issued to them in due course.
  4. The company has to get the approval of shareholders by passing a special resolution at the Extra Ordinary General Meeting for the conversion of debentures into equity shares.
  5. After receiving the approval, the company sends a letter of conversion of debentures to the debenture holders.

HULK MOTORS LTD.

Registered office: Plot No. 05, Commercial Towers, P.K. Road,

Mumbai – 400067

CIN: R20020 MH 1000 PLC123456

Website: wwww.hulkmotors.in

Email: hulk4321@gmail.com

Date: 17th Oct, 2020

Phone: 022 12345678

Fax: 022 – 11112222

Ref. No.: C/2060/20-18

Mr. John Methiw

508, Lokesh Apartments,

AK.D. Road,

Mumbai – 4000089

Sub: Conversion of Debentures into Equity Shares

Dear Sir,

        I am directed to inform you that in accordance with the terms decided at the time of issue of 1,00,000, 10% fully convertible debentures, the debentures are due for conversion. In accordance with the above, a Special Resolution was passed by the shareholders in the Extra – Ordinary General Meeting held on 5th Oct, 2020 for approval of the conversion of debentures into equity shares in the ratio of 2 : 1.

        As per your Letter of Option you have been allotted 50 Equity shares in lieu of 100 Debentures. Details of your holding after conversion are as follows:

12345
Folio No.No. of Debentures heldNo. Of Equity Shares IssuedDistinctive NumbersShare Certificate No.
   FromTo 
D-123100509011005678

      Duly signed and executed share certificate is enclosed herewith. Debenture Certificate will be null and void w.e.f. 5th Oct, 2020.

      Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully,    

For Hulk Motors Ltd.

 Sign           

Mr. Kamlesh Gaikwad

Company Secretary

Encl: Share Certificate


5.Write a letter to debentureholder informing him about conversion of debentures into equity shares.

SOLUTION

  1. Convertible debentures are the debentures that are converted into equity shares on the expiry of a specified period at a specified rate mentioned in the terms of issue.
  2. After the receipt of the Letter of Option, the Secretary sends a letter informing the debenture holders that the debentures are converted into equity shares.
  3. The secretary either sends the share certificate along with the letter or states in the letter that the share certificate will be issued to them in due course.
  4. The company has to get the approval of shareholders by passing a special resolution at the Extra Ordinary General Meeting for the conversion of debentures into equity shares.
  5. After receiving the approval, the company sends a letter of conversion of debentures to the debenture holders.

HULK MOTORS LTD.

Registered office: Plot No. 05, Commercial Towers, P.K. Road,

Mumbai – 400067

CIN: R20020 MH 1000 PLC123456

Website: wwww.hulkmotors.in

Email: hulk4321@gmail.com

Date: 17th Oct, 2020

Phone: 022 12345678

Fax: 022 – 11112222

Ref. No.: C/2060/20-18

Mr. John Methiw

508, Lokesh Apartments,

AK.D. Road,

Mumbai – 4000089

Sub: Conversion of Debentures into Equity Shares

Dear Sir,

        I am directed to inform you that in accordance with the terms decided at the time of issue of 1,00,000, 10% fully convertible debentures, the debentures are due for conversion. In accordance with the above, a Special Resolution was passed by the shareholders in the Extra – Ordinary General Meeting held on 5th Oct, 2020 for approval of the conversion of debentures into equity shares in the ratio of 2 : 1.

        As per your Letter of Option you have been allotted 50 Equity shares in lieu of 100 Debentures. Details of your holding after conversion are as follows:

12345
Folio No.No. of Debentures heldNo. Of Equity Shares IssuedDistinctive NumbersShare Certificate No.
   FromTo 
D-123100509011005678

       Duly signed and executed share certificate is enclosed herewith. Debenture Certificate will be null and void w.e.f. 5th Oct, 2020.

      Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully,    

For Hulk Motors Ltd.

 Sign           

Mr. Kamlesh Gaikwad

Company Secretary

Encl: Share Certificate




Q.5. Draw human eye? and label them?


Q.4. Distinguish between


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