Chapter 6 Population | Aster Classes

1.What could be the reasons of lower sex ratio in any region?

SOLUTION

Sex ratio refers to the number of females per thousand males in a region. India has a low sex ratio.

The reasons for lower sex ratio are as follows:

a. Illiteracy:

People are not aware of the role of women in modern society. This is because of child marriages where girls get married at an early age without having a chance to study and educate themselves.

b. Female infanticide:

Even though the Government has passed many Acts to stop this inhuman act, people still prefer to have a male child due to many reasons. Hence, girl babies are killed as soon as they are born.

c. Domestic violence:

Women are considered to be weaker sex and hence crimes and violence against women is still a common feature in many of the rural households. This makes even the mother stop having a girl child.

d. Female foeticide:

Due to socio-economic issues like dowry, people destroy the girl foetus in the womb itself. Many laws have been made to prevent this.

e. Poverty:

Poverty is a major reason for the declining sex ratio. Families living under Below Poverty Line(BPL) generally do not want to have girl children.

f. Lack of women empowerment:

Due to lack of education, women do not enjoy equal opportunities in many of the rural areas, especially in northern India.

The lower sex ratio, even in the twenty-first century is really a cause of concern.

2.In India, number of men outnumber women. Is this condition found in all the States of India? Find out!

SOLUTION

In a country like India where we have a patriarchal society, the number of men outnumbers women.

This condition is found in almost all the states of India with Kerala as an exception.

3.Study the indices of density maps of both the countries. What difference do you find? What conclusions can you draw?

SOLUTION

The study of the indices of density maps of Brazil and India clearly explains the distribution of population among the various states of both the countries.

Brazil is three times bigger than India in terms of its area. But it accounts for only 2.8 per cent of the world’s population whereas India has 16.8 per cent of the world’s population.

The northern and southern states of India are densely populated whereas the central states have comparatively less population. The northeastern states are sparsely populated.

It can be understood that the total population of states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana and Punjab is almost equal to that of Brazil’s total population.

The country of Brazil has a denser population in its eastern states. The western and northern states are very sparsely populated.

4.Considering the above discussion, what should be done so that our manpower is utilized properly, sex ratio improves and population growth is controlled? Write two to three sentences on each.

SOLUTION

Manpower refers to the human resource of a country.

The higher the population, the greater the manpower.

The increased population can be a great asset if it is used properly and productively.

Steps to utilize manpower:

1. Providing education and improving the standard of education enables the people of a country to gain appropriate skills and knowledge.

2. Based on the skills, the manpower can be classified as skilled and unskilled sector and can be placed in various industries.

3. Providing basic health facilities to all sections of labourers aid in increased productivity and prevents employees refraining from work due to health issues.

4. In large scale sectors, many training programmes can be conducted to improve the talent hidden in the employees.

The number of females per thousand men is referred to as the Sex ratio. Generally, in a country like India, the sex ratio is very poor.

Steps to improve sex ratio:

1. Educating and creating awareness among the masses about the role of women in the development of a country may improve the sex ratio.

2. Making sure that the laws against female foeticide and infanticide are followed properly.

3. Preventing child marriages to avoid the mortality of young girls.

4. Granting equal rights to women and making them enjoy equal opportunities on par with men.

5. Increasing the self-esteem of women through education, employment and independence.

Increasing population is always a concern and poses a serious threat to the economic development of the country.

Steps to control population:

1. Making people, especially the rural masses understand about the problems faced due to increased population.

2. Adopting various birth control methods.

3. Providing education and eradication of poverty which indirectly helps in population control. An educated person can understand the consequences of having too many children. Similarly, if poverty is eradicated, there will be an end to child labour. Child labour persuades a poor man to have children and send them to jobs to earn for himself and his family.

These are some of the steps that can be taken to utilize manpower, improve the sex ratio and control the population of a country.

Are the following sentence right or wrong? Correct the wrong one.

1.Literacy Rate is higher in Brazil than India.

SOLUTION

Right

As per UNESCO, literacy rate is total number of literate persons in a given age group, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group.

Literacy rate has always been higher in Brazil but the rate of growth of literacy rate is higher in India. The difference in the literacy rate comes mainly because of population difference between the countries.

2.In Brazil, people prefer living in the southeast as compared to the northeast.

SOLUTION

Right

In the south east, there are coastal lowlands where agriculture and industries have flourished and there are more human settlements.

While the north east has unfavourable conditions due to the dense forests.

3.The life expectancy of Indians is decreasing.

SOLUTION

Wrong

Correct: The life expectancy of Indians is increasing.

Life expectancy of India has kept on increasing due to development, access to medical facilities and increased food security.

After independence, focus has been increased on improving healthcare facilities.

This has increased the life expectancy and decreased the death rate especially due to diseases like TB, etc.

4.The north-western part of India is densely populated.

SOLUTION

Wrong

Correct: The northern plains and certain other areas of India are densely populated.

Population in India is unevenly distributed.

The northern plains have been densely populated since centuries due to fertile land, availability of water and economic activities.

Rivers like Ganga, Yamuna provide large tracts of fertile land apart from water.

Also, the terrain is not a difficult one to travel.

Due to availability of even fertile land and water, prefer settling in the northern plains as opposed to the desert areas of northwest India

5.The western part of Brazil is densely populated.

SOLUTION

Wrong.

Correct: The eastern coastal areas of Brazil are densely populated.

The north western part of Brazil is mostly covered with dense tropical forests which makes human settlements difficult.

Agriculture and industries have flourished in south eastern parts majorly.

People prefer areas which provide even terrain, open land, water and areas which provide employment opportunities to settle

Answer the question as per the instructions.

1.Arrange the following states of India in descending order of their population.

Himachal Pradesh,

Uttar Pradesh,

Arunachal Pradesh,

Madhya Pradesh,

Andhra Pradesh

SOLUTION

 Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh.

Their respective population are as below:

Uttar Pradesh – 199,812,341

Madhya Pradesh – 72,597,565

Andhra Pradesh – 49,386,799

Himachal Pradesh – 6,864,602

Arunachal Pradesh – 1,382,611

2.Arrange the states of Brazil in ascending order of their population.

 Amazonas, Rio de Janeiro, Alaguas, Sao Paulo, Parana

SOLUTION

Alaguas, Amazonas, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo

Alaguas – 3,321,730

Amazonas – 3,873,743

Parana – 11,081,692

Rio de Janeiro – 16,461,173

Sao Paulo – 44,035,304

3.Classify the factors affecting the distribution of population into favourable and unfavourable.

Nearness to sea,

lack of roads,

temperate climate,

lack of industries,

new cities and towns,

tropical moist forests,

Population,

minerals,

semi-arid climate,

cultivable land.

SOLUTION

FAVOURABLEUNFAVOURABLE
Temperate climateLack of roads
Nearness to seaLack of industries
New cities and townsTropical moist forest
Mineralssemi-arid climate 
Cultivables land 

Answer the following question.

1.Explain the similarities and differences between the population distribution in Brazil and India.

SOLUTION

Similarities:

  1. In both Brazil and India, the population is unevenly distributed depending on the physiography with densely forested areas having lesser density.
  2. Brazil is least populated around the Amazon basin while India is least populated along with the Himalayan mountain range.

Differences:

  1. India is the second most populated country in the world while Brazil is the fifth.
  2. The highest concentration of the population in India is in the northern plains while Brazil is the southeastern coastal lowlands.

2.Giving examples, correlate climate and population distribution.

SOLUTION

Relation between climate and population:

1. High rainfall causes growth of dense forests where human settlements are very less like the Amazon basin in Brazil and north eastern states in India.

2. Extreme climatic conditions like arid and cold areas reduce human population. For example, savannah in Brazil and high altitudes of Himalayas in India are less populated.

3. Areas with climate that supports agriculture are most populated like northern plains in India and coastal lowlands in Brazil.

4. Areas with moderate climate are also well populated like the deciduous and coastal areas.

Give geographical reason.

1.Population is an important resource.

SOLUTION

Population is an important resource as it is the human resources that ultimately affect the progress of a country.

Its qualitative aspects like literacy and life expectancy contributes to the economic and social progress of a nation.

More educated the population, more is the skill supply which will be used by industries to manufacture products.

Apart from that, it will lead to more development of technology.

This will eventually contribute to the economic prosperity of the country.

2.Brazil’s population density is very less.

SOLUTION

Brazil’s population density is very less because almost half of its area is covered by the tropical rainforests of the Amazon basin.

The dense forest makes human settlements very difficult in those areas.

Extreme climatic conditions like arid and cold areas reduce human population.

For example, savannah in Brazil. In both Brazil and India, population is unevenly distributed depending on the physiography with densely forested areas having lesser density.

3.India’s population density is high.

SOLUTION

India’s population density is high because most of the areas have natural resources that support agriculture and industries.

Other factors like water availability and numerous cities have also caused growth of population.

Population in India is unevenly distributed.

The northern plains have been densely populated since centuries due to fertile land, availability of water and economic activities.

Rivers like Ganga, Yamuna provide large tracts of fertile land apart from water.

Also, the terrain is not a difficult one to travel.

Due to availability of even fertile land and water, prefer settling in the northern plains as opposed to the desert areas of northwest India.

4.The density of population is sparse in Amazon basin.

SOLUTION

The Amazon basin in Brazil has tropical rainforests as it is closer to the equator and it rains throughout the year.

It has dense and diverse flora and fauna which is unfavourable for human inhabitation.

Almost half of Brazil area is covered by the tropical rainforests of the Amazon basin.

The dense forest makes human settlements very difficult in those areas.

In both Brazil and India, population is unevenly distributed depending on the physiography with densely forested areas having lesser density.

5.Population density is high in the Ganga plains.

SOLUTION

The Ganga plains of India have a high population density due to many reasons.

The northern plains have been densely populated since centuries due to fertile land, availability of water and economic activities.

Rivers like Ganga, Yamuna provide large tracts of fertile land apart from water.

Also, the terrain is not a difficult one to travel.

The moderate climate, fertile land supporting extensive agriculture.

The topography is good for transport and industries.

Due to availability of even fertile land and water, prefer settling in the northern plains as opposed to the desert areas of northwest India.

(A) Compare and classify the population densities shown in the squares ‘a’ and ‘b’ representing 1 sq.km of area.

(B) If in figure B, one sign = 100, then what will be the sex ratio?

SOLUTION

(A) The population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume.

The population density of Figure (a) is 7 persons per sq. km

and of Figure (b) is 18 persons per sq. km.

Figure (a) has a lower sex ratio while Figure (b) has a higher sex ratio.  

(B) The sex ratio of Figure B would 1250.

Explanation: The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. In the figure, there are 10 females and 8 males. If one figure represents 100 people (given in the question), then there are 1000 females and 800 males. Since sex ration refers to the number of females per 100 males, it is 1250 for Figure B.

Comment upon the popuqlation density of fig.

SOLUTION

The population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume.

In Figure the population density is unevenly distributed:

1. The northern-most areas like Jammu and Kashmir and the northeastern states like Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh have the least population density.

2. The northern stretch from Punjab to West Bengal has the highest population density.

3. The central, western and northeastern states have a moderate population density.

4. Southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu also have a high population density.

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