Chapter 12 | Aster Classes

Chapter 12, Biotechnology, hsc, biology, maharashtra board, 12th std, balbharathi solution,

Chapter 12: Biotechnology

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Choose the correct option

1.The bacterium which causes a plant disease called crown gall is _______________.

OPTIONS

  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Agrobacterium tumifaciens
  • Thermophilus aquaticus
  • Bacillus thuringienesis

2.The enzyme nuclease hydrolyses _____________ of polynucleotide chain of DNA.

OPTIONS

  • hydrogen bonds
  • phosphodiester bonds
  • glycosidic bonds
  • peptide bonds

3.In vitro amplification of DNA or RNA segment is known as ___________.

OPTIONS

  • chromatography
  • Southern blotting
  • polymerase chain reaction
  • gel electrophoresis

4.Which of the following is the correct recognition sequence of restriction enzyme hind III?

OPTIONS

  • 5′—A-A-G-C-T-T—3′
    3′—T-T-C-G-A-A—5′
  • 5′—G-A-A-T-T-C—3′
    3′—C-T-T-A-A-G—5′
  • 5′—C-G-A-T-T-C—3′
    3′—G-C-T-A-A-G—5′
  • 5′—G-G-C-C—3′
    3′—C-C-G-G—5′

5.Recombinant protein ……………… is used to dissolve blood clots present in the body.

OPTIONS

  • insulin
  • tissue plasminogen activator
  • relaxin
  • erythropoietin

6.The recognition sequence of restriction enzymes is generally __________ nucleotide long.

OPTIONS

  • 2 to 4
  • 4 to 8
  • 8 to 10
  • 14 to 18

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Very short answer type question

1.Name the vector which is used in the production of human insulin through recombinant DNA technology.

SOLUTION

pBR322 vector is used in the production of human insulin through recombinant DNA technology.

2.Which cells from Langerhans of the pancreas do produce a peptide hormone insulin?

SOLUTION

Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by β-cells of islets of Langerhans of the pancreas.

3.Give the role of Ca++ ions in the transfer of the recombinant vector into the bacterial host cells.

SOLUTION

Ca++ ions assist the transfer of the recombinant vector into a bacterial host cell.

4.Expand the following acronym which is used in the field of protechnology.

YAC

SOLUTION

YAC: Yeast Artificial Chromosome

4.1.Expand the following acronym which is used in the field of protechnology.

RE

SOLUTION

RE: Restriction Enzyme

4.2.Expand the following acronym which is used in the field of protechnology.

dNTP

SOLUTION

dNTP: Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate

4.3.Expand the following acronym which is used in the field of protechnology.

PCR

SOLUTION

PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction

4.4.Expand the following acronym which is used in the field of protechnology.

GMO

SOLUTION

GMO: Genetically Modified Organism

4.5.Expand the following acronym which is used in the field of protechnology.

MAC

SOLUTION

MAC: Mammalian Artificial Chromosome


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Very short answer type question

Fill in the blanks and complete the chart.

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GMOPurpose
i. Bt cotton____________
ii. _____________Delay the softening of tomato during ripening.
iii. Golden rice____________
iv. Holstein cow____________

SOLUTION

GMOPurpose
i. Bt cottonInsect pest resistance
ii. Flavr savr tomatoDelay the softening of tomato during ripening.
iii. Golden riceHigh vitamin A content
iv. Holstein cowHigh milk yield capacity
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Short answer type question

1.Explain the properties of a good or ideal cloning vector for rDNA technology.

SOLUTION

Following characteristic properties, a cloning vector must possess in order to be used in rDNA technology:

i. A good vector should have the ability of independent replication so that as the vector replicates (through ori gene) and a large number of copies of the DNA insert will be formed.

ii. The vector should be able to easily introduce into host cells.

iii. A vector should have marker genes for antibiotic resistance.

iv. A vector must contain a unique cleavage site in one of the marker genes for the restriction enzyme.

v. It should have at least suitable control elements like a promoter, operator, ribosomal binding sites, etc.

vi. The plasmids obtained naturally do not possess all the characteristics. Hence, they are constructed by inserting a gene for antibiotic resistance.

e.g. pBR322, pBR320, pACYC177 are the constructed plasmids. pBR322 is mostly used in rDNA technology in plants.

2.A PCR machine can raise the temperature up to 100°C but after that, it is not able to lower the temperature below 70°C automatically. Which step of PCR will be hampered first in this faulty machine? Explain why?

SOLUTION

i. If a PCR machine fails to lower the temperature below 70°C then the annealing step (in which primers attach to the respective ends of the DNA template) would be affected.

ii. The annealing step of PCR requires temperature ranging between 40°C to 60°C therefore if a PCR machine fails to lower the temperature below 70°C, primers will not attach to the DNA templates.

3.In the process of rDNA technology, if two separate restriction enzymes are used to cut vector and donor DNA then which problem will arise in the formation of rDNA or chimeric DNA? Explain.

SOLUTION

i. Restriction enzymes cut the DNA at a specific recognition site and produce either sticky ends or blunt ends.

ii. For e.g., if we use the restriction enzyme EcoR I to cut vector DNA then it will produce vector DNA having sticky ends and if we use the Hind II restriction enzyme to cut donor DNA then it will produce donor DNA with blunt ends.

iii. A vector DNA to get ligated to the desired gene, they both must possess similar kind of ends i.e. both should have either blunt ends or sticky ends.

iv. If two separate restriction enzymes are used to cut vector and donor DNA then they will fail to form complementary base pairing and chimeric DNA will not be formed.

Short answer type question

Match and write the pairs.

Recombinant proteinIt’s used in or for
i. platelet-derived growth factora. Anemia
ii. α-antitrypsinb. cystic fibrosis
iii. Relaxinc. Haemophilia A
iv. Erythropoietind. Diabetes
v. Factor VIIIe. Emphysema
vi. DNasef. Parturition
 g. Atherosclerosis

SOLUTION

Recombinant proteinIt’s used in or for
i. platelet-derived growth factorg. Atherosclerosis
ii. α-antitrypsine. Emphysema
iii. Relaxinf. Parturition
iv. Erythropoietina. Anemia
v. Factor VIIIc. Haemophilia A
vi. DNaseb. cystic fibrosis
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Long answer type question

Define and explain the term

1.Biopiracy

SOLUTION

Biopiracy is defined as ‘theft of various natural products and then selling them by getting a patent without giving any benefits or compensation back to the host country’.

i. For proper and lawful working of biopatent, the nation should be rich in bio-diversity, people residing there should have traditional knowledge and the nation should also have sufficient financial resources.

ii. However, it is generally observed that industrialized nations are rich in financial resources and technology but lack bio-diversity, whereas developing countries are rich in biodiversity and traditional knowledge but are short of financial resources and advanced technology. These situations lead to biopiracy.

iii. Industrialized nations have always been enjoying immense profits by patenting the indigenous biomedical knowledge and bioresources of third world communities without paying any compensation to the indigenous group who originally developed such knowledge.

Example:

i. Texmati case: A strain of Basmati rice was patented by Texas-based company Rice Tec Inc with trade name Texmati. This patenting was illegal and unethical as Basmati is a long-grained, aromatic variety of rice indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. India fought a long legal battle after which the patent was canceled.

ii. Turmeric: Since ancient times, Indians have been using Haldi (Turmeric powder) as an antiseptic for healing wounds for killing pests and medicinal purposes. However, American companies have patented Turmeric and many medicinal plants of India. After a long legal battle, most of the patents have been revoked.

iii. Neem (Azadirachta indica): The patenting of the fungicidal properties of Neem was an example of biopiracy. The USDA and an American MNC W.R. Grace in the early 90s sought a patent from the European Patent Office (EPO) on the “method for controlling on plants by the aid of hydrophobic extracted neem oil.”

Define and explain the termwww.asterclasses.com

2.Biopatent

SOLUTION

i. Biopatent is a biological patent awarded for strains of microorganisms, cell lines, genetically modified strains, DNA sequences, biotechnological processes, product processes, products, and product applications.

ii. Biopatents are awarded to recognize real innovative contributions made by the inventor to the cause of human welfare.

iii. The awards are given to inculcate encouragement and values in developing scientific culture and in emphasizing the role of biology in shaping human society.

iv. Indian patent allows ‘process patent’ and not the ‘product patent’. Biopatent allows the patent holder to exclude others from making, using, selling, or importing a protected invention for a limited period of time.

v. The duration of biopatents is five years from the date of the grant or seven years from the date of filing the patent application, whichever is less.

Define and explain the termwww.asterclasses.com

3.Bioethics

SOLUTION

i. Bioethics helps to study moral vision, decisions, and policies of human behaviour in relation to biological phenomena or events.

ii. Ethics deals with ‘Life’ e.g. in vitro fertilization, sperm bank, gene therapy, cloning, gene manipulations, euthanasia, death, maintaining those who are in a comatose state, prenatal genetic selection, etc.

iii. The era of biotechnology has brought a wide spectrum on new topics like cloning, transgenic, gene therapy, eugenics, rDNA technology, etc.

iv. The use of all these has drawn a wide range of reactions in the society.

v. Ethical aspects pertaining to the use of biotechnology seems to be more controversial and frightening.

vi. These concerns are broadly summarized below: Use of animals causes great sufferings to them; violation of integration of species caused due to transgenesis; transfer of human genes into animals and vice versa; indiscriminate use of biotechnology poses risk to the environment, health, and biodiversity.

vii. The introduction of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) has led to a wider debate on bioethical concerns affecting social, economic, and environmental spheres.

viii. These include the effects on non-target organisms, insect resistance crops, gene flow, and the loss of diversity as well as the issue of interfering with nature.

ix. Ethics in biotechnology also includes the general subject of what should and should not be done in using recombinant DNA techniques.

2.Explain the steps in process of rDNA technology with suitable diagrams.

SOLUTION

The steps involved in gene cloning are as follows:

i. Isolation of DNA (gene) from the donor organism:

a. The desired gene to be cloned is obtained from the source organism (donor).

b. Initially, the cells of the donor organism are sheared with the blender and treated with a suitable detergent.

c. Genetic material from the donor is isolated and purified using several techniques.

d. Isolated DNA can be spooled on to a glass rod.

ii. Cutting of the desired gene:

a. Isolated purified DNA is then cleaved by using restriction enzymes i.e. restriction endonucleases.

b. These enzymes cleave DNA at restriction sites and break the DNA into fragments.

c. There are several types of restriction endonucleases.

d. Cleaved DNA fragments have cohesive, sticky, staggered ends or blunt ends.

e. From cleaved DNA fragments, a fragment containing the desired gene is isolated and selected for cloning. This is now called foreign DNA or passenger DNA.

f. The desired gene can also be obtained directly from genomic library or cDNA library.

iii. Insertion of a desired foreign gene into a cloning vector (vehicle DNA):

a. The foreign DNA or passenger DNA is now inserted into a cloning vector or vehicle DNA.

b. The most commonly used cloning vectors are plasmids of bacteria and bacteriophage viruses like lambda phage and M13.

c. The most commonly used plasmid is pBR322.

d. Plasmids are isolated from the vector organisms i.e. bacterium.

e. By using the same restriction enzyme (which is used in the isolation of the desired gene from the donor), plasmid i.e. vector DNA is cleaved.

f. Now by using enzyme DNA ligase, foreign DNA is inserted/ integrated into the vector DNA.

g. The combination of vector DNA and foreign DNA is now called Recombinant DNA or Chimeric DNA and the technology is referred to as rDNA technology.

iv. Transfer of rDNA into suitable competent host or cloning organism:

a. Finally, the recombinant DNA is transferred for expression into a competent host cell which is usually a bacterium.

b. The host cell takes up naked rDNA by process of ‘transformation’ and incorporates into its own chromosomal DNA which finally expresses the trait controlled by passenger DNA.

c. The transfer of rDNA into a bacterial cell is assisted by divalent Ca++ .

d. The cloning organisms used in plant biotechnology are E. coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

e. The host/ competent cell which has taken up rDNA is now called a transformed cell.

f. Foreign DNA can also be transferred directly into the naked cell or protoplast of the competent host cell, without using vector.

g. This is done by using techniques like electroporation, microinjection, lipofection, shotgun, ultra-sonification, biolistic method, etc. But in plant biotechnology, the transformation is through Ti plasmids of A. tumefaciens.

v. Selection of the transformed host cell:

a. The transformation process generates a mixed population of transformed (recombinant) and non-transformed (non-recombinant) host cells.

b. For the isolation of recombinant cells from non-recombinant cells, the marker gene of the plasmid vector is employed.

c. For example, the pBR322 plasmid vector contains different marker genes (Ampicillin resistant gene and Tetracycline resistant gene).

d. When the PstI restriction enzyme is used, it knocks out Ampicillin resistant gene from the plasmid, so that the recombinant cell becomes sensitive to Ampicillin.

vi. Multiplication of transformed host cell:

a. Once transformed, host cells are separated by the screening process.

b. In this step, the transformed host cells are introduced into fresh culture media.

c. At this stage, the host cells multiply along with the replication of the recombinant DNA carried by them.

vii. Expression of the gene to obtain the desired product:

a. The next step involves the production of desired products like alcohol, enzymes, antibiotics, etc.

b. Finally, the desired product is separated and purified through downstream processing using a suitable bioreactor.

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Outline of the process of recombinant DNA technology


3.Explain the gene therapy.

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SOLUTION

Gene therapy is the treatment of disease by replacing, altering, or supplementing a gene that is absent or abnormal and whose absence or abnormality is responsible for the disease.

The following are the different ways through which gene therapy is being used for the treatment of a disease or disorder:

i. Replace missing or defective genes;

ii. Deliver genes that speed up the destruction of cancer cells;

iii. Supply genes that cause cancer cells to revert back to normal cells;

iv. Deliver bacterial or viral genes as a form of vaccination;

v. Deliver DNA to antigen expression and generation of immune response;

vi. Supply of gene for impairing viral replication;

vii. Provide genes that promote or impede the growth of new tissue; and

viii. Deliver genes that stimulate the healing of damaged tissue. www.asterclasses.com


4.Give two types of gene therapy.

SOLUTION

There are two forms of gene therapy based on the types of cells in which genes are delivered:

i. Germline gene therapy:

a. In this method, healthy genes can be introduced into germ cells like sperms, eggs, early embryos.

b. It allows the transmission of the modified genetic information to the next generation.

c. Though it is highly effective in counteracting genetic disorders, it is not encouraged for application in human beings due to a variety of technical and ethical reasons.

ii. Somatic cell gene therapy:

a. In this type the gene is introduced only in somatic cells like bone marrow cells, hepatic cells, fibroblasts endothelium, and pulmonary epithelial cells, central nervous system, endocrine cells, and smooth muscle cells of blood vessel walls.

b. Modification of somatic cells only affects the person being treated and the modified chromosomes cannot be passed on the future generations.

c. Somatic cell gene therapy is the only feasible option and the clinical trials have already employed for the treatment of acquired disorders such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis and blood disorders including SCID, Gaucher’s disease, familial hypercholesterolemia, haemophilia, phenylketonuria, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, emphysema, thalassemia, etc.

5.How are the transgenic mice used in cancer research?

SOLUTION

Transgenic mice:

a. Transgenic mice that have been modified using a particular oncogene (cancer-causing gene) and thus developed a certain type of cancer, is useful to answer questions concerning the relationship between oncogenes and cancer development.

b. Theoretically, such animals can also be used for research into cancer treatment and prevention of malignancy.

c. In the laboratory, one such a transgenic mouse model for the investigation of breast cancer was developed. The oncogenes Myc and ras were analyzed to find out if they lead to breast cancer in mice transformed with these genes.

6.Give the steps in PCR or polymerase chain reaction with suitable diagrams.

SOLUTION

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is the process of in vitro amplification of the gene of interest using a PCR machine.

i. PCR can generate a billion copies of the desired segment of DNA or RNA, with high accuracy and specificity, in a few hours.

ii. The process of PCR is completely automated and involves automatic thermal cycles for denaturation and renaturation of double-stranded DNA.

iii. The device required for PCR is called a thermal cycler.

iv. Requirements for polymerase chain reaction:

a. DNA containing the desired segment to be amplified

b. several molecules of four deoxyribonuclueoside triphosphates (dNTPs)

c. excess of two primer molecules

d. heat-stable DNA polymerase and

e. appropriate quantities of Mg++ ions.

Mechanism of PCR:

At the start of PCR, all the requirements are mixed together in ‘eppendorf tube’ and the following operations are performed sequentially:

Step i: Denaturation

The reaction mixture is heated to a temperature (90–98oC) to separate two strands of desired DNA. This is called denaturation.

Step ii: Annealing

The mixture is allowed to cool (40–60oC) that permits the pairing of the primer to the complementary sequences in DNA. This step is called annealing.

Step iii: Primer extension / Polymerization

The temperature (70–75°C) allows thermostable Taq DNA polymerase to use single-stranded DNA as a template and adds nucleotides. This is called primer extension. It takes around two minutes duration.

v. One cycle takes around 3 to 4 minutes.

vi. To begin the second cycle, DNA is again heated to convert double-stranded DNA into single strands.

vii. In an automatic thermal cycler, the above three steps are automatically repeated 20-30 times. Thus, at the end of ‘n’ cycles, 2n copies of DNA segments are produced.

viii. The machine performs the entire operations automatically and precisely.

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DNA replication through a polymerase chain reaction.


7.What is a vaccine?

SOLUTION

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity against a certain disease.

8.Give advantages of oral vaccines or edible vaccines.

SOLUTION

The benefit of such vaccines is the comfort of administration, low cost, and ease of storage.

9.Enlist different types of restriction enzymes commonly used in rDNA technology? Write about their role.

SOLUTION

There are three types of restriction enzyme:

i. Type I – These enzymes function simultaneously as endonuclease and methylase e.g. EcoK.

ii. Type II – These enzymes have separate activities for cleaving and methylation; they are more stable and are used in rDNA technology

e.g. EcoRI, BglII; these enzymes cut DNA at specific sites within the palindrome. There are thousands of type II restriction enzymes that are recognized/ discovered.

iii. Type III – These enzymes cut DNA at specific non-palindromic sequences e.g. HpaI, MboII.

Role of restriction enzymes:

Restriction enzymes either cut straight across the DNA in the region of palindrome to give blunt ends or cuts producing short, single-stranded projections at each end of DNA to produce, cohesive or sticky ends or staggered ends.

10.Enlist and write in brief about the different biological tools required in rDNA technology.

SOLUTION

The different biological tools required in rDNA technology:

i. Instruments: PCR, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE 

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is the process of in vitro amplification of the gene of interest using a PCR machine.

i. PCR can generate a billion copies of the desired segment of DNA or RNA, with high accuracy and specificity, in a few hours.

ii. The process of PCR is completely automated and involves automatic thermal cycles for denaturation and renaturation of double-stranded DNA.

iii. The device required for PCR is called a thermal cycler.

iv. Requirements for polymerase chain reaction:

a. DNA containing the desired segment to be amplified

b. several molecules of four deoxyribonuclueoside triphosphates (dNTPs)

c. excess of two primer molecules

d. heat-stable DNA polymerase and

e. appropriate quantities of Mg++ ions.

DNA replication through a polymerase chain reaction.

ii. Biological tools: Enzymes, Cloning Vectors, Competent host

Different enzymes used in rDNA technology are as follows: Lysozymes, Nucleases such as exonucleases, endonucleases, restriction endonucleases, DNA ligases, DNA polymerases, alkaline phosphatases, reverse transcriptase, etc.

i. Enzymes that cut the phosphodiester bonds of polynucleotide chains are called nuclease.

ii. These are of two types- exonuclease and endonuclease.

iii. Exonucleases cut nucleotides from the ends of DNA strands whereas endonuclease cut DNA from within.

iv. The phosphodiester backbone at highly specific sites on both strands of the duplex is cut by these enzymes called restriction endonucleases or simply restriction enzymes.

v. The restriction enzymes are thus the molecular scissors that are used to recognize and cut DNA at specific sequences.

vi. The sites recognized by them, are called recognition sequences or recognition sites.

vii. Different restriction enzymes found in different organisms recognize different nucleotide sequences and therefore cut DNA at different sites.

The following characteristic properties a cloning vector must possess in order to be used in rDNA technology:

i. A good vector should have the ability of independent replication so that as the vector replicates (through ori gene) and a large number of copies of the DNA insert will be formed.

ii. The vector should be able to easily introduce into host cells.

iii. A vector should have marker genes for antibiotic resistance.

iv. A vector must contain a unique cleavage site in one of the marker genes for the restriction enzyme.

v. It should have at least suitable control elements like a promoter, operator, ribosomal binding sites, etc.

vi. The plasmids obtained naturally do not possess all the characteristics. Hence, they are constructed by inserting a gene for antibiotic resistance.

e.g. pBR322, pBR320, pACYC177 are the constructed plasmids. pBR322 is mostly used in rDNA technology in plants.

Competent hosts (cloning organisms) used are usually bacteria like Bacillus haemophilus, Helicobacter pylori, and E. coli. Mostly E. coli is used for the transformation with recombinant DNA.

COMPLETED


Chapter 12, Have you Earned your Tomorrow, english, hsc, maharashtra board, latest edition, full solution,

Chapter 12: Have you Earned your Tomorrow

1.Complete the following web.

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SOLUTION

  1. Care for the elderly
  2. Plant saplings to benefit the whole community
  3. Help our a friend/relative
  4. Provide financial aid to the needy

2.Discuss with your partner about the different idioms/proverbs related to word ‘tomorrow’. One is done for you

  1. Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.
  2. ________________________
  3. ________________________
  4. ________________________

SOLUTION

  1. Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.
  2. Tomorrow belongs to people who prepare for it today.
  3. Every tomorrow is an outcome of what I do today, and the beauty of it all is that today is happening all the time.
  4. The best preparation for tomorrow is doing your best today.
  5. Seize the day, and put the least possible trust in tomorrow.

3.When you make your future plans you think of:

  1. Career
  2. ___________
  3. ___________
  4. ___________

SOLUTION

  1. Career
  2. Education
  3. Travel
  4. Money

4.Plan your tomorrow’ by completing the table given below. One is done for you.

ExaminationCollege FunctionFunction at your home
 Preparing the list of dutiesCleaning the house
   
Revision  

SOLUTION

ExaminationCollege FunctionFunction at your home
Focusing on the difficult conceptsPreparing the list of dutiesCleaning the house
Making a list of all the important questionsFinalising the budget for the functionPutting up the decorations
RevisionAssigning the duties to the various teams and ensuring that they are carried outArranging for food and beverages for the guests and planning some fn activities for the gathering

1.Discuss with your friend how she/he spent the whole day that was beneficial for others.

  1. _____________
  2. _____________
  3. ______________

SOLUTION

Do it yourself.

1.‘was it well or sorely spent’? Explain the meaning and give illustrations.

SOLUTION

This is one of the interrogative statements that the poet uses to ask the reader whether he has lived his life well for the day, or whether he has wasted the day by spending it bitterly. In the light of the poem, a well-spent day is one when we make others happy, when we are remembered by someone when someone says a few kinds words about us when we greet others cheerfully when our deeds make others feel grateful when we help even a single person out of the many that we meet when even a single heart rejoices because of us, and when we instil courage in someone who is losing hope. On the other hand, a day is sorely spent when we don’t even greet a friend properly as we go on about our day, or when we are purely selfish in our rush to get to the next task, thus ignoring the needs of others around us. It is the way we spend our day that decides whether we have earned our tomorrow or not. If we have helped even one person to minimize his problems, we have earned ourselves a good future. However, a day spent serving only the self, might not earn us our tomorrow.

2.‘As you close your eyes in slumber do you think that God would say, You have earned one more tomorrow by the work you did today?’

Elaborate the idea expressed in these lines.

SOLUTION

These lines mean that at the end of the day, we should know it in our heart that we have made a difference in someone else’s life by helping them out or by just making them happy. Once we know that we have genuinely contributed positively to other people’s lives, will we be able to hear God’s voice telling us that we have earned our tomorrow because of the good deeds that we did today.

3.The poet suggests that one should do good to others. Complete the table by giving examples of doing good to following people.

Family membersFriendsNeighbours
   
   

SOLUTION. www.asterclasses.com

Family membersFriendsNeighbours
Be loving towards themBe supportiveBe helpful and polite
Participate in solving issues concerning the familyBe honest and loyalBe respectful

1.Pick out the describing words from the poem and add a noun of your own. One is done for you.

Toiling (time)Toiling (day)
  
  
  
  

SOLUTION

Describing Word with NounDescribing Word with New Noun
Toiling (time)Toiling (day)
kindly (word)kindly (neighbour)
cheerful (greeting)cheerful (smile)
churlish (Howdy)churlish (remark)
single (brother/heart)single (ticket)

2.Match the words given in column A with their meaning in column B.

Column AColumn B
1. Cheerfula. With feeling of disappointment
2. Selfishb. Lack of satisfaction
3. Sorelyc. Happy
4. Discontentd. Concerned with one’s own pleasure

SOLUTION

Column AAnswers
1. Cheerfulc. Happy
2. Selfishd. Concerned with one’s own pleasure
3. Sorelya. With a feeling of disappointment
4. Discontentb. Lack of satisfaction

3.There are a few examples of homonyms in the poem. For example ‘spoke’. List homonyms from the poem and give their meanings.

SOLUTION

 WordMeaning
1.passed (v)cleared, as in a test
passed (v)went past
2.through (adv)from one side to the other
through (adj)finished
3. trail (n)a path
trail (n)a series of visible marks or invisible signs left by someone or something
4.waste (v)to not make good use of
waist (n)a part of human body
5.lose (v)to miss or to not take full advantage of
loose (adj)(of clothes) baggy; not tight or firmly fixed
6.would (v)past tense of ‘will’
wood (n)the fibrous material that forms the branches and trunks of the trees
7.utter (v)to say something
utter (adj)sheer; thorough; complete

4.Find out expressions/phrases which denote, ‘going away’, from each stanza. One is given below. “Vanish in the throng”.

SOLUTION

  1. Stanza 1 – passed his way
  2. Stanza 2 – rushed along
  3. Stanza 3 – parting with, slipping fast, passed
  4. Stanza 4 – leave a trail

1.The poet has used different poetic devices like Alliteration and Interrogation in the poem. Identify them and pick out the lines.

Poetic DeviceLines
(a) Alliteration 
(b) Interrogation 

SOLUTION

Poetic Device – Alliteration

Alliteration (a poetic device where words beginning with consonant sounds repeated for poetic effect)

Lines:

  1. This day is almost over, and its toiling time is through;
  2. and then vanish in the throng
  3. Were you selfish pure and simple as you rushed along the way,
  4. deed you did
  5. Can you say tonight, in parting with the days that’s slipping fast,
  6. Is a single heart rejoicing over what you did or said;
  7. Did you waste the day, or lose it, was it well or sorely spent?

Poetic Device – Interrogation

Interrogation (a poetic device where the poet asks a question, not to obtain an answer, but to emphasise a point)

Lines:

  1. Is anybody happier because you passed his way?
  2. Does anyone remember that you spoke to him today?
  3. Is there anyone to utter now a kindly word of you?
  4. Did you give a cheerful greeting to the friend who came along?
  5. Or a churlish sort of “Howdy” and then vanish in the throng?
  6. Or is someone mighty grateful for a deed you did today?
  7. Can you say tonight, in parting with the days that’s slipping fast, That you helped a single brother of the many that you passed?
  8. Does a man whose hopes were fading now with courage look ahead?
  9. Does a man whose hopes were fading now with courage look ahead?
  10. Did you leave a trail of kindness or a scar of discontent?
  11. As you close your eyes in slumber do you think that God would say, You have earned one more tomorrow by the work you did today?

2.The rhyme scheme of the first stanza is ‘aabb’. Find the rhyme scheme of other stanzas

SOLUTION

  1. Stanza 2 – ccaa
  2. Stanza 3 –  ddee
  3. Stanza 4 –  ffaa

1.Write an appreciation of the poem considering the following points.

  • About the poem/poet and the title
  • The theme
  • Poetic style
  • The language/poetic devices used in the poem
  • Special features
  • message, values, morals in the poem
  • Your opinion about the poem

SOLUTION

Appreciation of the poem

‘Have You Earned Your Tomorrow’

‘Have You Earned Your Tomorrow’ by Edgar Guest is an inspirational poem written in rhyming couplets and contains four quatrains (four stanzas of four lines each). The theme or the central idea of the poem is the importance of living each day by being kind and helpful towards others and by making small contributions to improve their lives; as the good deeds done by us today will earn us our tomorrow. It is set to a rhyme scheme of ‘aabbccaaddeeffaa’. The language of the poem is simple and straightforward, which leaves no room for subjectivity. The use of rhetoric questions by the poet, to convey his ideas and inspire the readers, add gravity to the poem and make a unique literary impact. The poet employs a number of poetic devices in the poem like Alliteration, Antithesis, Consonance, Interrogation, Inversion, Metaphor, Personification, Repetition, Synecdoche, Tautology and Transferred Epithet. The most prominent figure of speech used throughout the poem is Interrogation, wherein the poet asks simple questions to the reader about how he/she treats the people he comes across in his/her life. All these poetic devices serve to impart an earthy sense to the verse and hence enhance its poetic appeal. The tone and type of the poem are inspirational and didactic as the poet tries to urge the readers to be good towards others. A special feature of the poem is the use of visual imagery in “vanish in the throng”, “rushed along the way”, “slipping fast” and “close your eyes in slumber”, which add to the overall appeal of the poem. The other special features are the interrogative lines in which the poem has been written and the repetitive sounds of “ay” in the first, second and fourth stanzas, which add an element of unification in the poem. The message being conveyed by the poem is that even the smallest good deed on one’s part is enough to guarantee a better tomorrow for oneself. In my opinion, this poem as a brilliant effort by the poet to prod the readers into questioning their own goodness and help others in any way possible; thereby earning themselves a well-deserved future.

2.Prepare a mind map on ‘How to plan a goal for tomorrow’ or ‘My future goal’. Take the help of points given in ‘Writing Skills Section’ for preparing a mind map.

SOLUTION

The future is uncertain for each one of us. The least we can do, though, is plan for the best yet be prepared for any outcome. We can have a road map which we apply to all walks of life, so that we have a plan that moves us closer toward our desired milestones.

2. A Mind Map on ‘How to Plan a Goal for Tomorrow’ or ‘My Future Goal’

Solution

3.Write a set of 8 to 10 interview questions to be asked to a social worker. Take the help of the following points.

  • Childhood
  • Education
  • Service
  • Difficulties
  • Future plans
  • Achievements
  • Message

SOLUTION

Good Afternoon, Miss Pooja Joshi. I, Miss Minali Chopra, welcome you on behalf of our college. We would like to get to know you better, so let me begin the interview.

  1. Where did you spend your childhood years? Tell us about any fond memories or incidents of that time.
  2. Help us understand your academic background. What subjects did you study in college? What was the course like and what were your major subjects?
  3. Also, what has been the impact of your academic experiences in your life so far?
  4. Help us understand if getting into the social sector was a planned move or did it happen due to some trigger, later in life?
  5. What is the cause that you work for?
  6. Why is this cause close to your heart?
  7. There are many constraints with regard to working in the social sector. Can you share few of the most pressing challenges during a normal day?
  8. How do you plan to work towards achieving these milestones for your cause?
  9. If you had to leave us with a message, what would that be?

It was a real pleasure speaking with you, Miss Joshi. Thank you for your time.

4.Compose 4-6 lines on your own on ‘Good deeds’.

SOLUTION

Good Deeds

That I shall reach out to my brother in need,

To the one without nothing to hold but a reed,

Shun I shall all the material greed,

My bit of humanity I will seed,

In emancipating him, I must take the lead.

1.Find out different career opportunities in the field of social work.

SOLUTION

The field of social work is quite extensive and spans multiple career opportunities. Depending upon one’s qualification, career goals, and the type of people one wants to work for, one can choose an area of specialization in the field of social work:

  1. Mental Health Counsellors
  2. Social and Community Service Managers
  3. Psychologists
  4. Teachers
  5. Sociologists
  6. Labour Welfare Specialist
  7. Criminology Specialist
  8. Corporate Social Responsibility Specialist
  9. Human Rights Specialist
  10. Administrative roles in old age homes and orphanages.

2.Collect information of the NGOs working for the underprivileged section of the society.

SOLUTION

NameCategoryHeadquarters
1. Akshaya Patra FoundationChildrenBangalore
2. Butterflies IndiaChildren, Human RightsNew Delhi
3. Child Rights and You (CRY)Children, Human RightsMumbai
4. Pathway IndiaChildren, Disabled, EducationMumbai
5. Meer FoundationWomen empowerment, ChildrenMumbai
6. GiveIndiaHumanitarian AidBangalore
7. GoonjCommunity Development Humanitarian AidsNew Delhi
8. HelpAge IndiaCommunity Development, ElderlyNew Delhi
9. KathaChildren, EducationChennai
10. MaherChildren, WomenPune

COMPLETED


Samacheer Kalvi, 10th, sslc, Science, Solutions, Chapter 12, Plant Anatomy and Plant Physiology, biology, tamilnadu board,

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
Casparian strips are present in the ______ of the root.
(a) cortex
(b) pith
(c) pericycle
(d) endodermis.
Answer:
(d) endodermis

Question 2.
The endarch condition is the characteristic feature of:
(a) root
(b) stem
(c) leaves
(d) flower
Answer:
(b) stem

Question 3.
The xylem and phloem arranged side by side on same radius is called ______.
(a) radial
(b) amphivasal
(c) conjoint
(d) none of these.
Answer:
(c) conjoint

Question 4.
Which is formed during anaerobic respiration?
(a) Carbohydrate
(b) Ethyl alcohol
(c) Acetyl CoA
(d) Pyruvate.
Answer:
(b) Ethyl alcohol

Question 5.
Kreb’s cycle takes place in:
(a) chloroplast
(b) mitochondrial matrix
(c) stomata
(d) inner mitochondrial membrane
Answer:
(b) mitochondrial matrix

Question 6.
Oxygen is produced at what point during photosynthesis?
(a) when ATP is converted to ADP
(b) when CO2 is fixed
(c) when H2O is splitted
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(b) when CO2 is fixed

II. Fill in the blanks

Question 1.
Cortex lies between ______.
Answer:
Epidermis and endodermis.

Question 2.
Xylem and phloem occur on the same radius constitute a vascular bundle called ______.
Answer:
Conjoint.

Question 3.
Glycolysis takes place in ______.
Answer:
The cytoplasm of the cell.

Question 4.
The source of O2 liberated in photosynthesis is ______.
Answer:
Byproduct.

Question 5.
________ is ATP factory of the cells.
Answer:
Mitochondria.

III. State whether the statements are true or false. Correct the false statement

Question 1.
Phloem tissue is involved in the transport of water in a plant.
Answer:
False.
Correct Statement: Phloem tissue is involved in the transport of food in plants.

Question 2.
The waxy protective covering of a plant is called cuticle.
Answer:
True.

Question 3.
In monocot, stem cambium is present in between xylem and phloem.
Answer:
False.
Correct Statement: In monocot stem, the cambium is absent in between xylem and phloem.

Question 4.
Palisade parenchyma cells occur below the upper epidermis in dicot root.
Answer:
False.
Correct Statement: Palisade parenchyma cells occur below the upper epidermis in dicot leaf.

Question 5.
Mesophyll contains chlorophyll.
Answer:
True.

Question 6.
Anaerobic respiration produces more ATP than aerobic respiration.
Answer:
True.

IV. Match the following

Question 1.

1. Amphicribal(a) Dracaena
2. Cambium(b) Translocation of food
3. Amphivasal(c) Fern
4. Xylem(d) Secondary growth
5. Phloem(e) Conduction of water

Answer:
1. (c) Fem
2. (d) Secondary growth
3. (a) Dracaena
4. (e) Conduction of water
5. (b) Translocation of food.

V. Answer in a Sentence

Question 1.
What is the collateral vascular bundle?
Answer:
When xylem lies towards the centre and phloem lies towards the periphery, it is called the collateral vascular bundle.

Question 2.
Where does the carbon that is used in photosynthesis come from?
Answer:
Carbondioxide present in atmosphere.

Question 3.
What is the common step in the aerobic and anaerobic pathway?
Answer:
Glycolysis is the common step in the aerobic and anaerobic pathway.

Question 4.
Name the phenomenon by which carbohydrates are oxidized to release ethyl alcohol.
Answer:
Fermentation (Anaerobic respiration)

VI. Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Give an account on a vascular bundle of dicot stem.
Answer:
The vascular bundles of dicot stem are:

  • Conjoint: Xylem and phloem lie on the same radius.
  • Collateral: Xylem lies towards the centre and phloem lies towards the periphery.
  • Endarch: Protoxylem lies towards the centre and metaxylem lies towards the periphery.
  • Open: The cambium is present in between xylem and phloem.

The vascular bundles are arranged in the form of a ring around the pith.

Question 2.
Write a short note on mesophyll.
Answer:
The tissue present between the upper and lower epidermis in leaf is called mesophyll. It is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.

Question 3.
Draw and label the structure of oxysomes.
Answer:

Question 4.
Name the three basic tissues system in flowering plants.
Answer:
The three basic tissue system in flowering plants are:

  1. Dermal or Epidermal tissue system
  2. Ground tissue system
  3. Vascular tissue system

Question 5.
What is photosynthesis and wherein a cell does it occur?
Answer:
Photosynthesis is a process in which the green plants use sunlight and the green pigment chlorophyll, to synthesize, nutrients from carbon dioxide from air and water. The photosynthesis occurs in green parts of the plant such as leaves, stems and floral buds.

Question 6.
What is respiratory quotient?
Answer:
The ratio of volume of carbon dioxide liberated and the volume of oxygen consumed, during respiration is called Respiratory Quotient (R.Q)
R.Q.= Volume of CO2 liberated  Volume of O2consumed

Question 7.
Why should the light dependent reaction occur before the light independent reaction?
Answer:
During light dependent reaction photosynthesis pigment absorb the light energy and convert it into chemical energy ATP and NADPH2.
During light independent CO2 is reduced into carbohydrates with the help of ATP and NADPH2 produced during light dependent reaction.

Question 8.
Write the reaction for photosynthesis.
Answer:


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Plant Anatomy and Plant Physiology 2

VII. Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Differentiate the following
(a) Monocot root and Dicot root
(b) Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration.
Answer:
(a) Monocot root and Dicot root

Dicot RootMonocot Root
1. The Xylem is Tetrarch1. The Xylem is Polyarch.
2. The conjunctive tissue is made up of parenchyma cells.2. The conjunctive tissue is made up of sclerenchyma cells.
3. The young root contains a path, but in the old root, pith is absent.3. Pith cells are made of parenchyma cells with intercellular spaces and contain abundant starch grains.
4. Cambium is present during secondary growth.4. Cambium is absent.
5. Secondary growth is present.5. Secondary growth is absent.

(b) Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration

AerobicAnaerobic
1. Occur in the presence of oxygen.1. Occurs, when oxygen is absent.
2. Carbon dioxide, water and ATP are produced.2. Lactic acid, Ethanol and ATP are produced.
3. It consists of 3 steps:GlycolysisKreb’s cycleElectron transport chain3. It consists of 2 steps:GlycolysisFermentation
(Ethyl alcohol or Lactic acid are produced)

Question 2.
Describe and name three stages of cellular respiration that aerobic organisms use to obtain energy from glucose.
Answer:
The three stages of Aerobic respiration are:
(i) Glycolysis (Glucose splitting): It is the breakdown of one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. It is the first step of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

(ii) Krebs Cycle: This cycle occurs in the mitochondria matrix. At the end of glycolysis, 2 molecules of pyruvic acid enter into mitochondria. The oxidation of pyruvic acid into CO2 and water takes place through this cycle. It is also called the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA).

(iii) Electron Transport Chain: This is accomplished through a system of electron carrier complex called electron transport chain (ETC) located on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. NADH2and FADH2 molecules formed during glycolysis and Krebs cycle are oxidised to NAD+ and FAD+ to release the energy via electrons. As they move, the electron release energy which is trapped by ADP to synthesis ATP. This is called oxidative phosphorylation. In this O2 gets reduced to water.

Question 3.
How does the light – dependent reaction differ from the light – independent reaction? What are the end products and reactants in each? Where does each reaction occur within the chloroplast?
Answer:
Light – dependent photosynthesis is called Hill reaction or Light reaction. The Light independent reactions are called Biosynthetic phase.

Light-dependent reactionLight independent reaction
1. It is called Hill reaction or Light reaction.1. It is called Dark reaction or Biosynthetic pathway or the Calvin cycle.
2. The reaction is carried out in Thylakoid membranes (Grana) of the chloroplast.2. This reaction is carried out in the stroma of the chloroplast.
3. Photosynthetic pigments absorb the light energy and convert it into chemical energy ATP and NADPH2.3. CO2 is reduced into carbohydrates with the help of light generated ATP and NADPH2.
4. It is carried out in the presence of light.4. It is carried out in the absence of light.

In the light – dependent reaction, the chlorophyll absorbs the light energy and convert it into chemical energy ATP and NADPH2. In the light – independent reaction, CO2 is reduced into carbohydrates with the help of light generated ATP and NADPH2. The light – dependent reaction is carried out in the Grana of the chloroplast. The Light independent reaction is carried out in the stroma of the chloroplast.

VIII. Higher Order Thinking Skills(HOTS) Questions

Question 1.
The reactions of photosynthesis make up a biochemical pathway.
(A) What are the reactants and products for both light and dark reactions?
(B) Explain how the biochemical pathway of photosynthesis recycles many of its own reactions and identify the recycled reactants.
Answer:
(a) Light reactions are carried out in the Thylakoid membranes (Grana) of the chloroplast which use water and energy from the Sun to produce NADPH, ATP and Oxygen. The Dark reaction is carried out in the stroma of the chloroplast. It uses NADPH, ATP and CO2 and produces NADP + ADP + P and high energy sugars.

(b) The Light reactions use light to synthesize ATP and NADPH. The dark reaction or Calvin cycle uses these reactants to produce sugar from additional CO2 molecule. This cycle then produces NAP + ADP + P; (inorganic phosphate) which is used in the light reactions, with water molecules to produce ATP and NADPH again.

Question 2.
Where do the light-dependent reaction and the Calvin cycle occur in the chloroplast?
Answer:
Light-dependent reaction takes place in the presence of light energy in thylakoid membranes (grana) of the chloroplast Calvin cycle occurs at the stroma of the chloroplast.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Plant Anatomy and Plant Physiology

Additional Questions Solved

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
The father of Plant Anatomy is _____.
(a) Melvin Calvin
(b) C.N.R. Rao
(c) Robin Hill
(d) Nehemiah Grew.
Answer:
(d) Nehemiah Grew.

Question 2.
The passage cells are found in endodermis of:
(a) dicot stem
(b) monocot stem
(c) dicot root
(d) dicot leaf
Answer:
(c) dicot root

Question 3.
The vascular bundle consists of _____.
(a) Xylem and Phloem
(b) Hypodermis and Endodermis
(c) Cortex and Pericycle
(d) Pith and Stele.
Answer:
(a) Xylem and Phloem

Question 4.
The vascular bundles are skull shaped in:
(a) dicot root
(b) monocot root
(c) dicot stem
(d) monocot stem
Answer:
(d) monocot stem

Question 5.
The protoxylem lacuna is present in the vascular bundles of:
(a) dicot root
(b) monocot root
(c) dicot stem
(d) monocot stem
Answer:
(d) monocot stem

II. Fill in the blanks

Question 1.
The epidermis has many minute pores called _____.
Answer:
Stomata.

Question 2.
Epiblema, the outermost layer of the root is called ____ or _____ layer.
Answer:
Rhizodermis or Piliferous.

Question 3.
All the tissues, inner to Endodermis constitute _____.
Answer:
Stele.

Question 4.
______ provides mechanical support to plants.
Answer:
Sclerenchyma.

Question 5.
The barrel-shaped innermost layer of Dicot stem Endodermis is also called _____.
Answer:
Starch Sheath.

Question 6.
Each vascular bundle of monocot stem is surrounded by a few-layer of sclerenchyma cells called _____.
Answer:
Bundle Sheath

Question 7.
______ consists of sieve tubes and elements of companion cells.
Answer:
Phloem.

III. State whether the statements are true or false. Correct the false statement.

Question 1.
Pith is differentiated in monocot stems.
Answer:
False.
Correct Statement: Pith is not differentiated in monocot stems.

Question 2.
In monocot leaves, the mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.
Answer:
True.

Question 3.
Dicot leaf is an isobilateral leaf.
Answer:
False.
Correct Statement: Monocot leaf is an isobilateral leaf.

Question 4.
The lateral roots of dicot plant originate from the stele.
Answer:
False.
Correct Statement: The lateral roots of dicot plant originate from the pericycle.

Question 5.
Cuticle and Stomata are absent in Epiblema of Dicot root.
Answer:
True.

IV. Match the following

Question 1.

1. Leukoplast(a) Photosystems
2. Accessory pigments(b) Inner mitochondrial membrane
3. Chlorophyll(c) Chlorophyll and Carotenoids
4. Cristae(d) Colourless plastids
5. Chl.a and Accessory pigments(e) Green pigment

Answer:
1. (d) Colourless plastids
2. (c) Chlorophyll and Carotenoids
3. (e) Green pigment
4. (b) Inner mitochondrial membrane
5. (a) Photosystems.

V. Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Where does the break down of pyruvate to give carbondioxide, water and energy takes place?
Answer:
The break down of pyruvate to give carbondioxide. water and energy takes place in Mitochondria.

Question 2.
Draw the overview of Hill and Calvin Cycle.
Answer:

Question 3.
Name the energy currency in the living organism. When and where it is produced?
Answer:
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is called the energy currency in the living organism. It is produced in mitochondria during the process of respiration.

Question 4.
What are Bulliform cells?
Answer:
Some of the upper epidermal cells of monocot leaves are large and thin-walled. So they are called Bulliform cells.

Question 5.
Label the parts of the transverse section of Dicot Root.
Answer:

Question 6.
Define conjuctive tissue.
Answer:
The tissue present between xylem and phloem is called conjuctive tissue. In monocot the conjuctive tissue is sclerenchymatous tissue and in dicot it is parenchymatous tissue.

Question 7.
List out the two important factors which affect photosynthesis.
Answer:

  1. Internal Factors:
    1. Pigments
    2. Leafage
    3. Accumulation of carbohydrates
    4. Hormones
  2. External Factors:
    1. Light
    2. Carbon dioxide
    3. Temperature
    4. Water
    5. Mineral elements

Question 8.
Mention the components and functions of different Tissue Systems.
Answer:

Tissue SystemComponentsFunctions
Dermal Tissue SystemEpidermis and Periderm (in older stems and roots)ProtectionPrevention of water loss
Ground Tissue SystemParenchyma tissueCollenchyma tissueSclerenchyma tissuePhotosynthesisFood storageRegenerationSupportProtection
Vascular Tissue SystemVascular tissuesPhloem tissueXylem tissueTransport of water and mineralsTransport of food

VI. Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
(a) Label the parts of the Transverse section of a monocot stem.
(b) Mention the differences between Dicot and Monocot stem.
Answer:
(a)

(b)

TissuesDicot StemMonocot stem
1. HypodermiscollenchymatousSclerenchymatous
2. Ground tissueDifferentiated into cortex, endodermis, pericycle and pithUndifferentiated
3. Vascular bundlesLess in numberUniform in sizeArranged in a ringOpenBundle sheath absentNumerousSmaller near periphery, bigger in the centreScatteredClosedBundle sheath present
4. Secondary growthPresentMostly absent
5. PithPresentAbsent
6. Medullary raysPresentAbsent

Question 2.
With a labelled diagram, explain the structure and function of mitochondria.
Answer:
Mitochondrial Membranes: It consists of two membranes called inner and outer membrane. Each membrane is 60 – 70 A° thick. The outer mitochondrial membrane is smooth and freely permeable to most small molecules. It contains enzymes, proteins and lipids. It has porin molecules (proteins) which form channels for passage of molecules through it.

The inner mitochondrial membrane is semi – permeable membrane and regulates the passage of materials into and out of the mitochondria. It is rich in enzymes and carrier proteins. It consists of 80% of proteins and lipids.

Cristae: The inner mitochondrial membrane gives rise to finger-like projections called cristae. These cristae increase the inner surface area (fold in the inner membrane) of the mitochondria to hold a variety of enzymes.

Oxysomes: The inner mitochondrial membrane bear minute regularly spaced tennis racket shaped particles known as oxysomes (F1 particle). They involve in ATP synthesis.

Mitochondrial matrix: It is a complex mixture of proteins and lipids. The matrix contains enzymes for Krebs cycle, mitochondrial ribosomes(70 S), tRNAs and mitochondrial DNA.

Question 3.
(a) Draw and label the ultrastructure of a chloroplast.
(b) Write the structure and function of the chloroplast.
Answer:
(a) Ultra Structure of a Chloroplast.

(b) Structure and function of Chloroplast.
Chloroplasts are green plastids, containing the green pigment called Chlorophyll. It has the following structures:

  1. Envelope: It has outer and inner membranes, which are separated by intermembrane space.
  2. Stroma: Matrix present inside to the membrane is called stroma, which contains DNA, 70 S ribosomes and other molecules needed for protein synthesis.
  3. Thylakoids: It consists of thylakoid membrane that encloses thylakoid lumen. Thylakoid forms a stack of disc – like structures called granum.
  4. Grana: Some of the thylakoids are arranged in the form of discs, stacked one above the other called grana. These stacks are termed as grana, they are interconnected to each other by membranous lamellae called Fret channels.

Functions:

  • Photosynthesis
  • Storage of starch
  • Synthesis of fatty acids
  • Storage of lipids
  • Formation of chloroplasts.

VIII. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions

Question 1.
What are non – green plants? Give an example.
Answer:
The plants, which do not have the green pigment, Chlorophyll and so they cannot prepare their food independently are called non-green plants. Eg. Orchids lack Chlorophyll.

Question 2.
Protophloem is the first formed phloem. If the protophloem surrounds by xylem, what kind of arrangement of phloem would you call it Give example.
Answer:
If the protophloem is surrounded by xylem the vascular bundle is said to be Concentric Amphivasal Vascular bundles. Eg: Dracaena

Question 3.
How does photosynthesis take place on plants that have, red, brown and yellow leaves, and are not green? How do they prepare food?
Answer:
These leaves have a much larger concentration of chromoplasts, which synthesize and store pigments such as orange carotenes, yellow xanthophylls and other red pigments. But these leaves, still possess chlorophyll ‘a’ and chlorophyll ‘b’ and can synthesize food. But these leaves have more chromoplasts and so the leaves do not appear green. Yet they can prepare food.

Question 4.
The cross-section of a plant material shown the following features on viewing under the microscope.
(a) Radially arranged Vascular bundles
(b) Xylem is exarch and polyarch
(c) Metaxylem is polygonal in shape.
Identify the slide.
Answer:
The given features are characters of dicot root.


Chapter 12, Stock Exchange, hsc, sp, secretarial practice, maharashtra board, full solution,

Chapter 12: Stock Exchange

Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statement.

1.A stock exchange is where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell ______.

Options
  • gold
  • securities
  • goods

2.The ______ is the first stock exchange to be recognized by the Indian Government under the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act.

Options
  • BSE
  • NSE
  • OTCEI

3.______ is a dealer in stock exchange who carries on trading of securities in his own name.

Options
  • Jobber
  • Broker
  • Bull

4.A ______ who expects fall in the price of a securities.

Options
  • bull
  • bear
  • jobber

5.The practice of buying and selling within the same trading day before the close of the market on that day is called ______.

Options
  • insider trading
  • day trading
  • auction

Match the pairs.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) SEBI1) Expects the price of shares rise in future.
b) Day Trading2) Expects the price of shares fall in future.
c) Bull3) Buying and selling of securities within the same trading day
d) Bear4) To protect the interest of investors in securities market.
e) BSE5) Buying and selling of securities to particular investors.
 6) One of the oldest stock exchange in India.
 7) To protect the interest of companies in securities market.
 8) Buying and selling of securities within a week.
 9) Newest Stock Exchange in India.
 10) One who invests in new issues of securities.

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) SEBI4) To protect the interest of investors in the securities market.
b) Day Trading3) Buying and selling of securities within the same trading day
c) Bull1) Expects the price of shares rise in the future.
d) Bear2) Expects the price of shares fall in the future.
e) BSE6) One of the oldest stock exchange in India.

Write a word or a term or a phrase which can substitute the following statement.

1.A specific place where trading of securities is arranged in an organized method.

SOLUTION

A specific place where trading of securities is arranged in an organized method. – Stock exchange/ Share market

2.The first stock exchange to be recognized by the Indian Government under the Securities Contracts Regulation Act.

SOLUTION

The first stock exchange to be recognized by the Indian Government under the Securities Contracts Regulation Act. – Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)

3.A dealer in stock exchange who carries on trading of securities in his own name.

SOLUTION

A dealer in stock exchange who carries on trading of securities in his own name. – Jobber

4.A speculator who expects the price of shares rise in the future.

SOLUTION

A speculator who expects the price of shares rise in the future. – Bull

State whether the following statement is true or false.

1.A stock exchange is a reliable barometer to measure the economic condition of a country.

Options
  • True
  • False

2.Bombay Stock Exchange is the oldest stock exchange in India.

Options
  • True
  • False

3.A broker is a dealer in stock exchange who carries on trading of securities in his own name.

Options
  • True
  • False

4.Bear is a speculator who expects the prices of shares rise in the future.

Options
  • True
  • False

Complete the sentence.

1.The oldest Stock Exchange in India is the ____________

SOLUTION

The oldest Stock Exchange in India is the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).

2.The largest and most modern stock exchange in India is the ____________.

SOLUTION

The largest and most modern stock exchange in India is the National Stock Exchange (NSE).

3.A person who buys or sells shares on behalf of his clients is called as ______.

SOLUTION

A person who buys or sells shares on behalf of his clients is called as broker.

4.A speculator who expects fall in prices of shares ___________.

SOLUTION

A speculator who expects fall in prices of shares bear.

1.Select the correct option from the bracket.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Regulator of capital market1) _____________
b) ____________2) Nifty
c) Jobber3) ____________
d) ____________4) Oldest Stock Exchange in the world.

(London Stock Exchange, Index of NSE, SEBI, trades in securities in his own name)

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Regulator of capital market1) SEBI
b) Index of NSE2) Nifty
c) Jobber3) Trades securities in his own name
d) London Stock Exchange4) Oldest Stock Exchange in the world.

Answer in one sentence.

1.What is Stock Exchange?

SOLUTION

Stock exchange is a specific place where various types of securities are purchased and sold.

2.Who is Broker?

SOLUTION

A broker is a member of a stock exchange who is licensed by stock exchange to buy or sell securities on his client’s behalf.

3.Who is Jobber?

SOLUTION

A jobber is a dealer in the stock exchange who carries on the trading of securities in his own name.

4.Who is Bull?

SOLUTION

A bull is a speculator who expects the price of shares to rise in the future and buys with the hope of selling them at higher prices to earn a profit.

5.Who is Bear?

SOLUTION

A bear is a speculator who expects the prices of shares to fall in the future and sells his securities at the prevailing prices to avoid loss.

6.Who is Lame Duck?

SOLUTION

A lame duck is a bear broker whose expectations have gone wrong and makes a loss in his dealings.

7.What is Trading Ring?

SOLUTION

The trading or auction of shares takes place on the floor of the stock exchange which is also known as trading ring.

8.What is Sensex?

SOLUTION

Sensex is the index of the BSE which represents the increase or decrease in prices of stocks of a selected group of companies.

9.What is Rally?

SOLUTION

If the Sensex or Nifty moves in an upward direction over a period of 14 to 20 trading sessions, it is called as a rally.

10.What is Crash?

SOLUTION

If the Sensex or Nifty moves in a downward direction, it is called as a crash.

Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentence.

1.One of the functions of SEBI is to protect the interest of issuers of securities in the securities market.

SOLUTION

One of the functions of SEBI is to protect the interest of investors in the securities market.

2.A Broker cannot directly deal with investors.

SOLUTION

A jobber cannot directly deal with investors.

3.A Bear expects the prices of shares to rise in future.

SOLUTION

A bull expects the prices of shares to rise in future.

4.A Bull buys new issues of securities from primary market.

SOLUTION

A stag buys new issues of securities from primary market.

5.A stock market is an important constituents of money market.

SOLUTION

A stock market is an important constituents of capital market.

Explain the following term/concept.

1.Stock exchange

SOLUTION

Stock Exchange is a specific place where various securities are bought and sold. The securities include equity shares, preference shares, debentures, government securities and bonds, units of mutual funds, etc. Stock markets act as intermediaries between investors and borrowers and are regulated by SEBI.

2.Broker

SOLUTION

A broker is a member of a stock exchange who is licensed by the stock exchange to buy or sell shares on his client’s behalf. He is an agent between the investors and the jobber. He earns income ins the form of commission or brokerage.

3.Jobber

SOLUTION

A jobber is a dealer in the stock exchange who carries on the trading of securities in his own name. He buys securities as an owner and sells them at a higher price. He is a professional speculator in the stock exchange and is not permitted to deal with investors directly. The profit he makes is his income.

4.Bull

SOLUTION

A bull is a speculator who expects the prices of shares to rise in the future. He buys shares with the hopes of selling them at a higher price in the future with the aim of earning profit. His views are optimistic. The actions of the bulls increase the prices of securities as there is excess of purchases over the sales.

5.Bear

SOLUTION

A bear is a speculator who expects the prices of shares to fall in the future. Hence, he sells his shares at the current prices in order to avoid losses as he expects a further fall in prices. The actions of bears reduce the prices of securities as there is an excess of sales over a purchase.

1.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

Mr. Y is a practising Co. Secretary offering advisory services to companies, institutions, etc. on corporate laws including companies Act. He has received few queries from his clients, please assist Mr. Y in answering them.

  1. BDl bank wants to offer DP services. Whom should they approach for registering as DP?
  2. KM Financial wants to offer Debenture Trustee services. Where should they apply for getting registered?
  3. TT Ltd. Co. wants to issue an IPO. Should it get itself registered with SEBI?

SOLUTION

  1. For registering as a depository participant (DP), BDI bank has to approach the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)
  2. KM Financial should apply to SEBI for getting registered.
  3. SEBI issues rules and regulations to be followed by issuers of securities. Thus, TT Ltd. Co. has to get itself registered with SEBI as it wants to issue an IPO.

2.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

Mr. P has a recently got his B.Sc. degree. He has enrolled for a course in securities market. As a new student of this subject, he has few queries as follows :

  1. Does a Company need to be listed on a stock exchange to sell its securities through the stock exchange.
  2. What is the term used for referring to a stock exchange’s ability to reflect the economic conditions of a country?
  3. What is the term which refers to the functions of the stock exchange as a provider of a ready market for sale and purchase of security?

SOLUTION

  1. Yes, a company needs to be listed on a stock exchange to sell its securities through the stock exchange.
  2. ‘Economic mirror’ is the term used for referring to a stock exchange’s ability to reflect the economic conditions of a country
  3. ‘Liquidity’ is the term which refers to the functions of the stock exchange as a provider of a ready market for sale and purchase of the security.

Distinguish between the following.

1.Jobber and Broker.

SOLUTION

PointsJobberBroker
(1) MeaningJobber is one who buys and sells securities in his own name.Broker is an agent who deals in buying and selling of securities on behalf of his client.
(2) Nature of TradingA jobber carries out trading activities only with the broker.A broker carries out trading activities with the jobber on behalf of his investors.
(3) Restrictions on DealingsA jobber is prohibited to directly buy or sell securities in the stock exchange. Also, he cannot directly deal with the investors.A broker acts as a link between the jobber and the investors. He trades i.e. buys and sells securities on behalf of its investors.
(4) AgentA jobber is a special mercantile agent.A broker is a general mercantile agent.
(5) Form of ConsiderationA jobber gets consideration in the form of profit.A broker gets consideration in the form of commission or brokerage.

Answer in brief.

1.State the functions of SEBI.

SOLUTION

SEBI was set up with the objective of promoting the securities market, protecting the interest of the investors in the securities market, and to regulate the securities market. SEBI issues rules and regulations to be followed by the issuers of securities, the market intermediaries, and the investors. It is a regulator of all the Stock exchanges in India.

The various functions of SEBI are –

  1. To protect the interest of investors in the securities market.
  2. To promote the development of securities markets.
  3. To regulate the business in stock exchanges and any other securities market.
  4. To register and regulate the working of stockbrokers, sub-brokers, share transfer agents, bankers to an issue, trustee of trust deeds, registrars to an issue, merchants bankers, underwriters, and such other intermediaries who may be associated with the securities market.
  5. To register and regulate the working of the Depositories, Depository Participants, Custodians of securities, foreign institutional investors, credit rating agencies.
  6. To register and regulate the working of venture capital funds and collective investment schemes including mutual funds.
  7. To promote and regulate self-regulatory organizations.
  8. To prohibit fraudulent and unfair trade practices relating to securities markets.
  9. To promote investors’ education and training of intermediaries of the securities market.
  10. To prohibit insider trading in securities.

2.State any four features of Stock Exchange.

SOLUTION

The important features of the Stock Exchange are as follows:

  1. The market for securities:
    Stock Exchange is a market where all types of corporate securities and securities of government and semi-government bodies are traded.
  2. Second-hand securities:
    The securities that are traded on the stock exchange are those securities that are already issued by the companies. In other words, second-hand securities are bought and sold among the investors in a stock exchange.
  3. Listed securities:
    Only the securities that are listed on the stock exchange can be traded on a stock exchange. The companies that are listed on the stock exchange have to strictly comply with the rules laid down by the exchange.
  4. Organised and Regulated Market:
    All companies listed on the stock exchange have to comply with the guidelines of SEBI. Companies will also have to function as per the rules and regulations laid by the stock exchange.
  5. Specific Location:
    The stock exchange is a specific physical place where brokers and intermediaries meet to trade in securities. Today, all trading is done electronically on a stock exchange.
  6. Trading only through members:
    In a stock exchange, securities can be traded only by the members of the exchange on their own behalf or through authorized brokers.

Justify the following statement.

1.The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulator for the securities market in India.

SOLUTION

  1. SEBI was set up with the objective of promoting the securities market, protecting the interest of the investors in the securities market, and to regulate the securities market.
  2. SEBI issues rules and regulations which are to be followed by the issuers of securities, the intermediaries, and the investors.
  3. It is the regulator of all stock exchanges in India.
  4. SEBI also registers and regulates the working of stockbrokers, sub-brokers, share transfer agents, bankers to an issue, trustee of trust deeds, registrars to an issue, merchants, bankers, underwriters, venture capital funds, mutual funds, depositories, and other such intermediaries who may be associated with securities market.
  5. Thus, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulator for the securities market in India.

2.Stock exchanges work for the growth of the Indian economy.

SOLUTION

  1. The stock exchange is a place where various types of securities are purchased and sold.
  2. Securities of various companies are traded on the stock exchange.
  3. Investors invest in those companies which give good return on investment.
  4. Hence, companies also try to invest in the most productive investment projects so as to give good return on investors’ money.
  5. This leads to capital formation and economic growth.
  6. Thus, stock exchanges work for the growth of the Indian economy.

3.Explain the functions of Stock Exchange.

SOLUTION

  1. Mobilisation of Savings: Stock markets are organised and regulated market which protects the interests of the investors. This encourages small and big investors to invest in securities through the stock exchange. It thus provides a ready market for buying and selling securities.
  2. Capital formation: Investors in securities are attracted due to good returns on investments and capital appreciation. This attracts more investors to invest through the stock exchange. Corporates too can easily raise funds by offering various types of securities to meet the needs of different types of investors. Thus Stock exchange serves as a tool for capital formation.
  3. Pricing of Securities: The stock market helps to value the securities on the basis of demand and supply factors. The securities of profitable and growth-oriented companies are valued higher as there is more demand for such securities. The valuation of securities is useful for investors, government, and creditors. The investors can know the market value of their investment. The creditors can estimate the credit worthiness of a company.
  4. Economic Barometer: A stock exchange is a reliable barometer to measure the economic condition of a country. Every major change in the country and economy is reflected in the prices of shares. The rise or fall in the share prices indicates the boom or recession cycle of the economy. The stock exchange is also known as a pulse of the economy or economic mirror as it reflects the economic conditions of a country.
  5. Protecting Interest of Investors: Stock exchange protects the interest of investors. In the stock market, only the listed securities are traded. The stock exchange allows listing only after verifying the soundness of the company. The companies which are listed have to operate within the strict rules and regulations laid down by the stock exchange. This ensures the safety of dealing through the stock exchange.
  6. Liquidity: The main function of the stock market is to provide a ready market for the sale and purchase of securities. The presence of the stock market gives assurance to investors that their investment can be converted into cash whenever they want. Investors can invest in long-term investment projects without any hesitation, as because of the stock exchange they can convert the long-term investment into short-term and medium-term or even liquidate their investments whenever they want.
  7. Better Allocation of Capital: The shares of profit-making companies are quoted at higher prices and are actively traded so such companies can easily raise fresh capital from the stock market. The prices of securities traded in the exchange indicate the opportunities for investments. So stock exchange facilitates the allocation of investors’ funds to productive and profitable channels.
  8. Contributes to Economic Growth: In the stock exchange, securities of various companies are bought and sold. Investors invest in companies which give a good return on investments. Hence companies, too, try to invest in the most productive investment projects. This leads to the capital formation as well as economic growth.
  9. Providing Scope for Speculation: To ensure liquidity and demand or supply of securities the stock exchange permits healthy speculation of securities.
  10. Promotes the Habit of Savings and Investment: The stock market offers attractive opportunities for investment in various securities. These attractive opportunities encourage people to save more and invest in securities of the corporate sector rather than investing in unproductive assets such as gold, silver, etc.

Chapter 12, Correspondence with Statutory Authorities, fyjc, 11th std, sp, secretarial practice, maharashtra board,

Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statement.

1._________ is the main authority to regulate the administration of Companies Act, 2013 in India.

Options
  • MCA
  • Company Secretary
  • Board of Directors

2.The headquarters of MCA is at __________.

Options
  • Mumbai
  • New Delhi
  • Pune

3.To administer the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 is the objective of ___________.

Options
  • MCA
  • ROC
  • Directors

4.________ is responsible for registering companies.

Options
  • ROC
  • SEBI
  • Auditors

5.The Certificate of Incorporation is issued by _________.

Options
  • ROC
  • MCA
  • NCLT

6.___________ can strike off or remove the name of a company from the Register of Companies.

Options
  • MCA
  • ROC
  • SEBI

7. Central Government exercises administrative control over ROCs through the __________

Options
  • MCA
  • SEBI
  • Regional Director

8.________ is the Quasi judicial body set up by Central Government to grant certain approval and deicide disputes under the provisions of Companies Act.

Options
  • MCA
  • ROC 
  • NCLT

9._________ can hear appeals against the orders issued by NCLT.

Options
  • NCLAT
  • SEBI
  • MCA

10.An appeal against the order of NCLAT can be filed in the_____________.

Options
  • MCA
  • SEBI
  • Supreme Court

11.________ was established as a statutory body to regulate the securities market in India.

Options
  • NCLT
  • MCA
  • SEBI

12.________ regulates the functioning of Stock Exchange in India.

Options
  • SEBI
  • MCA
  • ROC

Match the pairs:

 Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
a)Administration of Companies Act, 20131)SEBI
b)ROC2)Hears appeals against orders of NCLT
c)NCLAT3)NCLT
d)Regulator of Securities Market4)Incorporation of companies
e)Quasi-judicial body5)MCA
  6)Board of directors
  7)Companies Act 2013
  8)Regional Director
  9)Chennai
  10)Liquidator

SOLUTION

 Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
a)Administration of Companies Act, 20135)MCA
b)ROC4)Incorporation of companies
c)NCLAT2)Hears appeals against orders of NCLT
d)Regulator of Securities Market1)SEBI
e)Quasi-judicial body3)NCLT

Write a word or a term or a phase which can substitute for the following:

1.The main authority concerned with administration of Companies Act.

SOLUTION

Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA)

2.Organization responsible for administering Companies Act and regulating professional bodies like ICAI, ICSI, etc.

SOLUTION

Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA)

3.Authority which issues Certificate of Incorporation to company.

SOLUTION

Registrar of Companies (ROC)

4.Every company has to apply for incorporation to this authority situated in the state where its head office is to be located.

SOLUTION

Registrar of Companies (ROC)

5.Authority that handles corporate civil disputes in India.

SOLUTION

National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT)

6.An appeal against the orders of NCLT is heard by this authority.

SOLUTION

National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT)

7.Regulator of securities market in India.

SOLUTION

Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

8.Institution that regulates functioning of stock exchanges and intermediaries in the securities market.

SOLUTION

Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI).


State whether the statement is true or false:

1.MCA regulates the functioning of corporate sector as well as administers the Companies Act.

Options
  • True
  • False

2.MCA has no supervisory authority over professional bodies like ICSI, ICAI, etc.

Options
  • True
  • False

3.ROC is concerned with registration of companies.

Options
  • True
  • False

4.On payment of fees, ROC allows the public to inspect certain documents filed with it.

Options
  • True
  • False

5.NCLT has jurisdiction over proceedings on matters of disputes arising under Companies Act.

Options
  • True
  • False

6.NCLAT can hear appeals against order of NCLT.

Options
  • True
  • False

7.NCLAT may confirm, modify or reject the orders passed by the NCLT.

Options
  • True
  • False

8.SEBI protects the interest of investors in securities market.

Options
  • True
  • False

9.ROC is the regulator of securities market.

Options
  • True
  • False

Complete the sentence.

1.Administration of Companies Act and other Laws related to corporate world is the responsibility of _______

SOLUTION

Administration of Companies Act and other Laws related to corporate world is the responsibility of Ministry of corporate affairs

2.Registration of companies is done by __________.

Fill in the Blank

SOLUTION

Registration of companies is done by Register of companies 

3.The authority which handles corporate civil disputes is called as ___________.

SOLUTION

The authority which handles corporate civil disputes is called as National company law Tribunal

4.The authority which handles corporate civil disputes is called as ___________.

SOLUTION

The authority which hears appeals against the orders of NCLT is called as National company law appellate tribunal


1.Select the correct option form the bracket.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
Regulator of Securities Market______________
Options
  • NCLAT
  • Administers Companies
  • SEBI

2.Select the correct option form the bracket.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
MCA______________
Options
  • NCLAT
  • Administers Companies Act
  • SEBI

3.Select the correct option form the bracket.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
________Hears appeals against orders of NCLT
Options
  • NCLAT
  • Administers Companies Act
  • SEBI

Answer in one sentence.

1.Name the authority which administers Companies Act and Partnership Act.

SOLUTION

Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) is the authority that administers Companies Act and Partnership Act.

2.Name the authority attached to High Court which helps in winding-up of companies

SOLUTION

Official Liquidator is the authority that is attached to High Court and helps in winding-up of companies.


Correct the underline word and rewrite the following statement:

supervises and controls the operations of stock exchanges in India.

One line Answer

SOLUTION

SEBI supervises and controls the operations of stock exchanges in India.

Chapter 12, The Planners, english, fyjc, 11th std, maharashtra board, yuvakbharathi,

You have heard the proverb ‘Plan your work, work your plan’. It means – ________________.
Options
  • Planning of the work is important.
  • Without planning work cannot be accomplished.
  • Make planning and work according to that plan.
  • Planning and work are two sides of the same coin.

SOLUTION

You have heard the proverb ‘Plan your work, work your plan’. It means – Make planning and work according to that plan.

Choose the proper alternatives from the statements given below which would explain why town planning is essential – _______________.

  1. To develop the city according to the guidelines.
  2. To get the ‘Best City Award’.
  3. To attract tourists.
  4. To use and develop the land available in the city for the interest of the citizens.

SOLUTION

why town planning is essential – 
  1. To develop the city according to the guidelines.
  2. To use and develop the land available in the city for the interest of the citizens.

Given below are various professions in column A and in column B, the nature of work in respective professions. Match the columns.

AB
(i) Anaesthetist(a) Specialist in the treatment of problems concerning the position of teeth and jaws.
(ii) Pharmacist(b) A person who designs buildings and supervises the process of constructing them.
(iii) Orthodentist(c) A person who is in charge of a newspaper or of a part of a newspaper.
(iv) Dermitologist(d) The medical study of the skin and its diseases.
(v) Architect(e) A person who has been trained to prepare medicines and sell them to the public.
(vi) Chartered Accountant(f) A person whose job is to give drugs which makes the person not feel pain especially in preparation for a medical operation.
(vii) Editor(g) A person who is engaged in the profession of accounting and examining the statements and records of accounts.

SOLUTION

AB
(i) Anaesthetist(f) A person whose job is to give drugs which makes the person not feel pain especially in preparation for a medical operation.
(ii) Pharmacist(e) A person who has been trained to prepare medicines and sell them to the public.
(iii) Orthodentist(a) Specialist in the treatment of problems concerning the position of teeth and jaws.
(iv) Dermatologist(d) The medical study of the skin and its diseases.
(v) Architect(b) A person who designs buildings and supervises the process of constructing them.
(vi) Chartered Accountant(g) A person who is engaged in the profession of accounting and examining the statements and records of accounts.
(vii) Editor(c) A person who is in charge of a newspaper or of a part of a newspaper.

Read the poem and complete the web about the activities the planners do.

SOLUTION

The Planners

  1. Plan and build.
  2. Grid all the spaces and fill them with permutations of possibilities.
  3. Rearrange buildings with roads that meet at desired points.
  4. Kick aside useless blocks with dental dexterity.
  5. Erase the flaws and blemishes of the past.
  6. Drill right through the fossils of the last century.
  7. Pile non-stop.

Go through the poem and state whether the following statement is true or false.

1.Planners plan to construct buildings wherever they find a place.
Options
  • True
  • False
2.Planners take public consent for the alterations they make in the old structures of the city.
Options
  • True
  • False
3.Planners are concerned about the environment of the area.
Options
  • True
  • False
4.Planners make their plans mathematically perfect, at the same time they calculate their profit.
Options
  • True
  • False
5.Planners deliberately find drawbacks in the old city planning.
Options
  • True
  • False
6.The newly planned city looks modern and amazingly beautiful.
Options
  • True
  • False
7.Planners paint beautiful pictures of the upcoming changes in the city that charm the citizens.
Options
  • True
  • False
8.Planners make tactful changes so that citizens do not recognize familiar landmarks.
Options
  • True
  • False

Read the expression:

‘the blueprint of our past’s tomorrow’. Consider in a group why the poet has not mentioned ‘the present’. It is because of the planners who have possessed our ‘present’ in order to change ‘our past’ into the ‘future’ they desire. Go through the poem and write the lines which support this thought.
  1. The buildings are in alignment with the roads which meet at desired points.
  2. ____________________________________________
  3. ____________________________________________
  4. ____________________________________________
  5. ____________________________________________
  6. ____________________________________________.

SOLUTION

The lines which support the thought mentioned in the question are as follows:
  1. The buildings are in alignment with the roads which meet at desired points.
  2. They build and will not stop.
  3. Even the sea draws back and the skies surrender.
  4. They erase the flaws, the blemishes of the past.
  5. So history is new again
  6. The drilling goes right through the fossils of the last century.

The term ‘Anaesthesia’ in the poem means – ‘The planner gives beautiful pictures of the new modern city’. Now find out what is Amnesia and Hypnosis in the given context.

SOLUTION

The poet uses the words ‘Anaesthesia’, ‘Amnesia’ and ‘Hypnosis’ to convey that the planners have all the means to distract the people from the pain of their history being replaced in order to give way for the planners’ vision of modernisation.

The word ‘Amnesia’, in the given context, means the various incentives offered by the planners, so that the people lose any sentimental attachment to the past. They brainwash people so that they forget the importance of their country’s history and nature’s bounty.
The word ‘hypnosis’, in the given context, refers to the manipulation of the people’s thoughts by the planners, so that the people conform to the developments made and the policies laid down by the planners. They hypnotise people into welcoming the new world by making it seem perfect.

Pick out the statements which aptly depict the theme of the poem.

  1. In the poem, the speaker memorises the past.
  2. In ‘The Planners’ the poet describes the unstoppable force of modernisation.
  3. The poet talks about the replacement of the natural environment with the concrete jungle.
  4. The poet proposes to stop modernisation.
  5. The poet laments helplessly.

SOLUTION

  1. In the poem, the speaker memorializes the past.
  2. In ‘The Planners’ the poet describes the unstoppable force of modernisation.
  3. The poet talks about the replacement of the natural environment with the concrete jungle.
  4. The poet laments helplessly.

The tone of the poet is sarcastic. When he writes ‘All spaces are gridded filled with permutations of possibilities’ he intends to indicate the efforts made by the planner to exploit every available piece of land without any consideration of harming nature or violating attachments of people to places. Make pairs/groups and find out some more sarcastic lines having the same effect.

SOLUTION

Some more sarcastic lines from the extract are as follows:
…linked by bridges all hang in the grace of mathematics. Though these lines seem appreciative of the planners, they are actually not intended as praise. The fact, that the poet means the opposite of what he has written, makes these lines sarcastic.

Write the appreciation of the poem.

  • About the poem / poet / title
  • Theme
  • Poetic devices, language, style
  • Special features / novelties / focusing elements
  • Values, message
  • Your opinion about the poem.

SOLUTION

Appreciation of the poem ‘The Planners’
The poem, ‘The Planner’, is a criticism of modernisation at the cost of the country’s history and heritage. The poet, Boey Kim Cheng, is an Australian poet of Chinese descent, born in Singapore. He expresses his disapproval of the unyielding building projects carried out by the planners. The poet’s country, Singapore, is being turned into a concrete jungle and losing its past in the process. The poem revolves around the theme of the preservation of history and nature against the onslaught of urbanisation. Though improvement is essential for a country, it should not come at the expense of losing its roots. And this is precisely what the poet is trying to convey through the poem. The poet has used a number of poetic devices like Alliteration, Antithesis, Inversion, Irony, Onomatopoeia, Oxymoron, Paradox, Personification, Repetition, and Tautology.
The language used by the poet is positive, but the tone is that of sarcasm. By portraying history and heritage as flawed, blemished, and useless, the poet is, in reality, mocking the planners; because it is the planners who are thoughtlessly destroying the past in their craze for a perfect future. The poet has written the poem in short lines, which show his curtness in criticising the planners and also the planners’ desire to build ceaselessly. The line ‘They plan. They build’ is an example of this as it shows the inconsiderate action of the planners implementing their plans without factoring in the people’s opinion.
The poet has used literary devices imagery and extended metaphor to clearly convey his emotions. The mathematical reference in the first stanza creates the visual image of all the structures being crammed into grids of various sizes, making them appear confined. The extended metaphor of dentistry in the second stanza conveys that the planners’ treatment of the ancient structures in the city is the same as a dentist’s treatment of a rotten tooth. The planners are adept at erasing blemishes and filling gaps to create a country with perfectly aligned buildings and numbing the people’s senses so that they don’t feel the pain of this transformation. In the last stanza, the poet says in a melancholic yet sarcastic tone that the new city does not inspire his creativity and that is why he would not stain this perfectly-structured world with his poetry.
The poet conveys the message of not losing the past in this day and age of modernisation, because without the past, a country would be nothing but a cluster of lifeless structures.
In my opinion, this poem is a fine read as it focuses on the severe consequences of rapid urbanisation on the history of a country, rather than the more commonly known effects on the environment.

Write a summary of the poem.

  • Title
  • Introductory paragraph (about the poem, type, nature, tone)
  • Main body (central idea, the gist of the poem)
  • Conclusion (opinion, views, appeal).

SOLUTION

The Planners

The title of the poem is ‘The Planners’ and it focuses on the planners’ need for perfection and uniformity, which leads to the loss of history as well as nature.
The poem is a satire as it mocks the planners’ desire to build a flawless world. The poet has written this poem in a free-verse format as he strongly opposes structural uniformity. The tone of the poet throughout the poem is sarcastic, except for the last stanza where it changes to melancholic. The poet’s reference to the city’s structures as rigid mathematical designs and his comparison of the planners to dentists convey his sarcastic tone with great clarity.
The poet expresses how his country, the island-state of Singapore, is being torn down by the planners for building perfectly measured and confined structures that erase Singapore’s history and push nature away from its landscape. The planners destroy the ancient structures that form a part of Singapore’s past by terming them as ‘flawed’ and ‘useless’. The poet stresses how the skyscrapers built by the planners resemble perfect rows of teeth, which symbolize artificiality, just like a dentist straightens crooked teeth to create the perfect smile. Though aesthetically appealing, the smile is not real. Similarly, Singapore’s scene has also lost its originality. The planners want to reinvent history and therefore recklessly drill to build sky-high structures without being sensitive to the country’s heritage. At the end of the poem, in a state of acceptance, the poet declares that he shall not stain with his poetry, the immaculate world that the planners have built. This is ironic because the poet is writing the poetry while declaring that he won’t write one.
The poem’s appeal lies in its unique stance on the destruction caused by modernisation, as it emphasizes the consequences of urbanisation on history, as opposed to just nature. In my opinion, this makes the poem stand out from the others that talk about the ill-effects of building a concrete jungle.

Read the first and second stanza of the poem. We understand that the poet wants to suggest the powerful dominance of the planners who shape the town according to their selfish desires. Make a list of such expressions. You may begin with –

  1. All the spaces are gridded, filled with permutations of possibilities.
  2. ________________________________
  3. ________________________________
  4. ________________________________

SOLUTION

  1. All the spaces are gridded, filled with permutations of possibilities.
  2. The buildings are in alignment with the roads which meet at desired points linked by bridges all hang in the grace of mathematics.
  3. They build and will not stop.

Read the expression ‘permutation of possibility’. The consonant sound ‘P’ at beginning of the successive words creates a sonorous effect. This is an example of Alliteration. Find out more examples of Alliteration from the poem.

SOLUTION

  1. “…knock off useless blocks with dental dexterity.”
    Alliteration – The sound of the letter „d‟ has been repeated for poetic effect.
  2. All gaps are plugged
    with gleaming gold.

    Alliteration – The sound of the letter „g‟ has been repeated for poetic effect.
  3. “But my heart would not bleed poetry.”
    Alliteration –
    The sound of the letter „b‟ has been repeated for poetic effect.

Explain the extended metaphor related to dentistry in the poem.

SOLUTION

The poet has compared the skill and precision of the planners with that of a dentist. This comparison starts with the
They erase the flaws,
the blemishes of the past, knock off
useless blocks with dental dexterity.
All gaps are plugged.
with gleaming gold.
The country wears perfect rows
of shining teeth.
Anaesthesia, amnesia, hypnosis.
They have the means.
They have it all so it will not hurt.
so history is new again.
The piling will not stop.
The drilling goes right through
the fossils of the last century.
A comparison of this kind which continues through a series of lines and forms a dominant part of the poem is known as an Extended Metaphor.
The poet says that the planners erase the flaws and blemishes of the past, just like a dentist removes the imperfections and stains from the teeth. The planners even knock off useless blocks the same way a dentist would extract a rotten tooth because it doesn’t serve its purpose anymore. The skillful uprooting of the past by the planners has been compared to the expertise possessed by a dentist. The poet goes on to say that like the dentist, the planners, too, plug the gaps of the city with gleaming gold, that is, they build glassy skyscrapers which are so flawlessly aligned, that they resemble perfect rows of shining teeth. The poet further adds that the planners also have the means to anaesthetise the people, so that they don’t feel the pain of their history being taken away from them, which is similar to the dentist using anesthesia to numb the sensation during a dental procedure. Even the drilling is done for building new structures is compared to the drilling done by a dentist to remove all that is old and unwanted, just like the planners remove the traces of history by digging right through the fossils of the last century. The planners and the dentists perform similar tasks of replacing the old with the new and substituting imperfections for artificial perfection.

Give suggestions to protect our national heritage monuments.

SOLUTION

The following are some of the measures we can take in order to protect our national heritage monuments:
  1. Trespassing should be prohibited and access to heritage sites must be closely monitored.
  2. Local administrative bodies in charge of their upkeep must be held accountable for their maintenance.
  3. Littering or damaging such sites should invite a hefty fine.
  4. Local residents must be involved in the preservation efforts.
  5. A periodic survey of their structural integrity should be undertaken and restoration should be scheduled as and when required.

Complete the following table.

No.Figure of SpeechLine of the poemExplanation
1.________________________________The sky is imagined to art like a human being.
2.________________with gleaming gold________________
3.Oxymoron________________________________
4.________________The country wears a perfect smile. Anaesthesia, Amnesia, Hypnosis________________
5.Paradox________________________________

SOLUTION

No.Figure of SpeechLine of the poemExplanation
1.Personification, and the skies surrender.The sky is imagined to art like a human being.
2.AlliterationImagerywith gleaming goldAdjacent words begin with the same consonant.An Image of things shiny and new comes to mind.
3.OxymoronSo history is new againThe old is wiped out or changed to appear new
4.ClimaxThe country wears a perfect smile. Anaesthesia, Amnesia, HypnosisThe words increase in intensity for creating a strong impact.
5.Paradoxour past’s tomorrowOpposite ideas – past and tomorrow – create a dramatic effect for meaning.


Compose four lines expressing the grief of having lost nature due to modernisation.

SOLUTION

The feeling of gloom enveloped me,
As I witness the concrete consume my city.
Not a green sight visible for miles,
All I see around me are glossy bright tiles,
Not a mountain, stream, or even waterfalls,
I’m only surrounded by big grey walls.
There is no way for nature to come back,
To this city shut with fences that just don’t crack.

Imagine that a person who has returned to his native place after a long time is talking to his old friend about the changes that have taken place in the village. Write a dialogue between two friends who have become nostalgic about their old village.

SOLUTION

Anish:Hello, Omkar!
Omkar:Hello, Anish! It is so nice to see you after such a long time.
Anish:Yes, many years have passed since we last met. It is good to see you too. How have you been?
Omkar:I’ve been doing well. After high school, I started assisting my father on the farm. Farming is my occupation now.
Anish:I’m glad to hear that. You know, Omkar, I see a lot of changes in the village. A big concrete building stands in the place of our old school.
Omkar:Yes, a lot of developmental projects have been carried out here.
Anish:I see. That is why the greenery has reduced. I can’t spot any of the trees that we used to climb as children.
Omkar:Yes, those trees were cut down to make a place for a few factories.
Anish:I don’t think it’s right to cut down trees to build factories that would cause pollution.
Omkar:You are right. But a lot of things have changed in the past few years. The muddy and twisted paths have been replaced with roads made of tar, the two huge grounds in the village are now factory sites. The marketplace has also changed. It is now an endless row of shops as opposed to the cluster of carts that it used to be.
Anish:Wow! That is why it seems as if I’ve come to a completely different place. Do you remember how we used to chase each other all around the village?
Omkar:Hahaha! Yes, but that is history now. The increasing traffic on these new roads does not allow for a person to walk freely anymore. However, I do miss those days. We could roam around freely, without having to be on the lookout for vehicles speeding down the road.
Anish:I agree. Also, is there a college in the village now?
Omkar:Yes, and there is a good primary healthcare centre with qualified doctors and nurses.
Anish:That’s very nice.
Omkar:Although a lot of these changes are good for us, I don’t like the way they have altered our life.
Anish:I think so too. The village does not look like a village anymore. The extensive fields, the greenery, the humble houses – they are all gone! Everything seems dull and grey now, just like an urban city.
Omkar:Yes, even I miss the lush green fields and the open spaces. It appears as though this development has taken the life out of our village.
Anish:I wish we could go back to the good old days and enjoy them again.
Omkar:Well, that’s one dream that will never come true. But at least we had the opportunity to experience the scenic beauties of this place, long before it was modernised.
Anish:I completely agree. We still have memories of those bygone decades. I should get going now. Bye!
Omkar:Bye!

Write in short about at least five cities in India that are considered to be the most developed cities.

SOLUTION

  1. Mumbai:
    Mumbai is regarded as the economic capital of India as well as its industrial hub. Financial institutions like the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, and the National Stock Exchange have their headquarters in Mumbai. Several prominent Indian companies like the Tata Group, the Reliance Industries, and the Essel Group have their base in Mumbai. This city of dreams also boasts of India’s largest film industry. With its rich, beautiful colonial architecture, well-connected rail routes, and endless job opportunities, the city attracts migrants from all over the country. Once merely a cluster of seven islands, Mumbai transformed into a city when these islands were connected by concrete.
  2. New Delhi:
    It is the second-most developed city in India. It houses the Indian Central Government and chief institutions that form the basis of the Indian economy. It has a well-formed network of all modes of transport. New Delhi is also famous for its booming retail industry. Delhi also attracts a lot of foreign investment in various sectors such as construction, power, etc.
  3. Kolkata:
    Kolkata, formerly Calcutta, used to be the British capital of India. Several industrial units like mining, steel, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and textile have led to Kolkata’s economic growth. It is one of the most important financial centres of East & Northeast India and also houses the Calcutta Stock Exchange. Kolkata attracts several tourists due to its splendid architecture. As the sole eastern city to have an international airport, Kolkata plays a major role in connecting the eastern part of India to the world. The network of the Metro-rails plays a major role in the city’s transport system along with the cycle-rickshaws.
  4. Bangalore:
    Bangalore is also known as the IT hub or the Silicon Valley of India. Various IT companies like Infosys, Wipro, and Mphasis have their headquarters in this city. The space agency ISRO and aerospace company Hindustan Aeronautics Limited also have their headquarters in Bangalore. The city boasts of a pleasant climate, which attracts a lot of tourists.
  5. Hyderabad:
    Hyderabad is also known as the city of pearls. However, with the largest number of Special Economic Zones in the country, this city is attracting a lot of national and international companies to set up base here. It has already attracted Apple to open a development centre and Microsoft India to set up its headquarters here. The technological park, Genome Valley, situated in this city is very well-known. The city’s unique culture, interesting monuments, museums, and bazaars attract lots of tourists. Home to many educational institutes, this city is well-known for educational excellence.

Your examinations are only two months ahead. Plan your schedule of studies and write in your notebook.

SOLUTION

Do it yourself.


Read ‘The City Planners’ by Margaret Atwood.

SOLUTION

Do it yourself.

Options
  • Planning of the work is important.
  • Without planning work cannot be accomplished.
  • Make planning and work according to that plan.
  • Planning and work are two sides of the same coin.

SOLUTION

You have heard the proverb ‘Plan your work, work your plan’. It means – Make planning and work according to that plan.

Choose the proper alternatives from the statements given below which would explain why town planning is essential – _______________.

  1. To develop the city according to the guidelines.
  2. To get the ‘Best City Award’.
  3. To attract tourists.
  4. To use and develop the land available in the city for the interest of the citizens.

SOLUTION

why town planning is essential – 
  1. To develop the city according to the guidelines.
  2. To use and develop the land available in the city for the interest of the citizens.

Write a summary of the poem.

  • Title
  • Introductory paragraph (about the poem, type, nature, tone)
  • Main body (central idea, the gist of the poem)
  • Conclusion (opinion, views, appeal).

SOLUTION

The Planners

The title of the poem is ‘The Planners’ and it focuses on the planners’ need for perfection and uniformity, which leads to the loss of history as well as nature.
The poem is a satire as it mocks the planners’ desire to build a flawless world. The poet has written this poem in a free-verse format as he strongly opposes structural uniformity. The tone of the poet throughout the poem is sarcastic, except for the last stanza where it changes to melancholic. The poet’s reference to the city’s structures as rigid mathematical designs and his comparison of the planners to dentists convey his sarcastic tone with great clarity.
The poet expresses how his country, the island-state of Singapore, is being torn down by the planners for building perfectly measured and confined structures that erase Singapore’s history and push nature away from its landscape. The planners destroy the ancient structures that form a part of Singapore’s past by terming them as ‘flawed’ and ‘useless’. The poet stresses how the skyscrapers built by the planners resemble perfect rows of teeth, which symbolize artificiality, just like a dentist straightens crooked teeth to create the perfect smile. Though aesthetically appealing, the smile is not real. Similarly, Singapore’s scene has also lost its originality. The planners want to reinvent history and therefore recklessly drill to build sky-high structures without being sensitive to the country’s heritage. At the end of the poem, in a state of acceptance, the poet declares that he shall not stain with his poetry, the immaculate world that the planners have built. This is ironic because the poet is writing the poetry while declaring that he won’t write one.
The poem’s appeal lies in its unique stance on the destruction caused by modernisation, as it emphasizes the consequences of urbanisation on history, as opposed to just nature. In my opinion, this makes the poem stand out from the others that talk about the ill-effects of building a concrete jungle.

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