Chapter 11 | Aster Classes

Q1.खालील प्रश्नाचे एका वाक्यात उत्तरे लिहा.

1.कष्टाचे सामर्थ्य अपुरे केव्हा वाटते?

SOLUTION

सीमेवर लढायला जाणाऱ्या वीर जवानाप्रती कृतज्ञता भाव व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हातात धन नाही, शरीरात रक्त नाही, काय करावे तेही कळत नाही अशावेळी आपल्या कष्टाचेही सामर्थ्य अपुरे पडते असे कवयित्रीला वाटते.

2.सैनिकाचे पाऊल जिद्दीचे का वाटते?

SOLUTION

डोक्यावरून तोफगोळ्यांचा, बंदुकीतल्या गोळ्यांचा वर्षाव, पुढ्यात उसळणारे धुराचे लोट, धडाडणाऱ्या तोफा अशा परिस्थितीतही न डगमगता सैनिक पुढे पुढे जातच राहतो, म्हणून त्याचे पाऊल जिद्दीचे वाटते.

3.डोळे भरून पाहावे असे दृश्य कोणते?

SOLUTION

सैनिकाची विजयी घोडदौड डोळे भरून पाहावी, असे कवयित्रीला वाटते.

Q2.योग्य पर्याय निवडा.

1.सैनिकाचे औक्षण केले जाते _________

OPTIONS

  • भरलेल्या डोळ्यांनी/भरलेल्या अंत:करणाने
  • डोळ्यांतील आसवांच्या ज्योतींनी
  • तबकातील निरांजनाने
  • भाकरीच्या तुकड्याने

2.कवितेतील ‘दीनदुबळे’ म्हणजे _______

OPTIONS

  • कष्टाचे, पैसे नसलेले
  • सैनिकाबरोबर लढणारे
  • शारीरिकदृष्ट्या सक्षम नसलेले
  • सैनिकांच्या कार्याचा अभिमान बाळगणारे देशवासीय

Q3.खालील ओळींचे रसग्रहण करा.

1.‘अशा असंख्य ज्योतींची

तुझ्यामागून राखण;

दीनदुबळ्यांचे असें

तुला एकच औक्षण.’

SOLUTION

‘औक्षण’ म्हणजे ओवाळणे. सीमेवर लढायला जाण्यासाठी सुसज्ज झालेल्या जवानाला साऱ्या देशवासियांतर्फे केले जाणारे हे एक औक्षण आहे. त्या क्षणी मनात दाटून येणाऱ्या विविध भावभावना कवयित्री इंदिरा संत यांनी या कवितेत व्यक्त केल्या आहेत.

प्रस्तुत ओळींमध्ये कवयित्रीने डोळ्यांना निरांजनाची, तर अश्रूंना निरांजनातील ज्योतीची उपमा देऊन सैनिकाच्या रक्षणासाठी देशवासियांच्या असंख्य डोळ्यांतील असंख्य ज्योती त्याचे जणू औक्षण करत आहेत, अशी कल्पना येथे केलेली आहे. येथे पराक्रमी सैनिकाला सर्वार्थाने अक्षम, असमर्थ अशा सर्वसामान्यांकडून केले जाणारे हे औक्षण आहे, अशी भावना यात व्यक्त केली आहे. द्रव्यहीन, सामर्थ्यहीन असूनही सैनिकांप्रती कृतज्ञता व्यक्त करणाऱ्या सर्वसामान्यांचे नेमके या ओळींतून वर्णन केले आहे.

2.‘सैनिक सीमेवर तैनात असतो, म्हणून आपण सुरक्षित राहतो’, या विधानातील भाव स्पष्ट करा.

SOLUTION

आपले प्राण तळहातावर घेऊन देशाच्या रक्षणासाठी सीमेवर सुसज्ज असणाऱ्या जवानांमुळेच देशातील सर्वसामान्य जनता निर्धास्त जगू शकते, आपले रोजचे काम करू शकते, मुक्तपणे वावरू शकते. ते सीमेवर थंडी, ऊन, वारा, पाऊस कशाचीही पर्वा न करता, डोळ्यांत तेल घालून कार्यरत असतात, त्यामुळेच आपण सुख-समाधानाने, शांतपणे आपले आयुष्य जगू शकतो. ते आपले घरदार, कुटुंब सोडून देशाकरता प्राण देण्यास तयार असतात, त्यामुळे आपली घरेदारे, शेतीभाती, आपले परिवार सुरक्षित असतात.

म्हणूनच, या सैनिकांच्या सर्वोच्च त्यागाबद्दल आपल्या सर्वांच्याच मनात कृतज्ञतेची भावना असते. ही कृतज्ञतेची भावना ’सैनिक सीमेवर तैनात असतो, म्हणून आपण सुरक्षित राहतो“ या विधानातून व्यक्त होते.

3.कवितेच्या संदर्भात ‘दीनदुबळे’ याचा कवयित्रीला अभिप्रेत असलेला अर्थ स्पष्ट करा.

SOLUTION

कवयित्री इंदिरा संत यांच्या ‘औक्षण’ या कवितेत लढाईसाठी रणभूमीवर जाणाऱ्या सैनिकाला ओवाळताना मनात दाटून येणाऱ्या भावभावनांचे उत्कट चित्रण केले आहे. कवितेत ‘दीनदुबळे’ हा शब्द सर्वसामान्य देशवासियांसाठी वापरला आहे. सर्वसामान्य भारतीय नागरिकाकडे सैनिकांप्रती कृतज्ञताभाव व्यक्त करण्यासाठी पुरेसे धन, शक्ती किंवा कष्टाचे सामर्थ्य नसते. या सैनिकावरून स्वत:चा जीव ओवाळून टाकायचे म्हटले तरी हा सामान्य जीव त्याच्या कर्तृत्वापुढे कमीच पडतो. 

अगदी कठीण परिस्थितीतही-तोफगोळ्यांच्या, बंदुकीच्या गोळ्यांच्या वर्षावातही जिद्दीने पुढे पुढे जातच राहणाऱ्या या पराक्रमी वीर योद्ध्याच्या तुलनेत सर्व देशवासीय जनता दीनदुबळी आहे. सैनिकांचा अभिमान बाळगणाऱ्या, त्यांच्याप्रती आदर व कृतज्ञताभाव व्यक्त करण्याची मनोमन इच्छा धरणाऱ्या; पण निर्धन, सामर्थ्यहीन असणाऱ्या सर्वसामान्य लोकांना उद्देशून कवितेत ‘दीनदुबळे’ हा शब्द वापरला आहे.

4.‘देशसेवा हीच ईश्वरसेवा’ असे समजून कार्य करणाऱ्या सैनिकांसाठी तुम्हांला काय करावेसे वाटते ते लिहा.

SOLUTION

सीमेवर लढण्यासाठी जाणारा सैनिक ‘देशसेवा हीच ईश्वरसेवा’ या भावनेने देशसेवा करत असतो. कोणत्याही संकटाची पर्वा न करता, प्राणांची बाजी लावून देशाची सेवा करतो. अशा सैनिकांची प्रत्यक्षपणे मी काही मदत करू शकत नसलो तरीही माझ्या परिने जेवढे शक्य होईल तेवढी मदत करण्यासाठी मी सदैव तत्पर असेन.

माझ्या मते, आपण प्रत्येकाने थोडेसे डोळसपणे पाहिल्यास, खबरदारी बाळगल्यास, देशाच्या संरक्षणाची थोडीशी जबाबदारी उचलल्यास सैनिकांवरील भार काही प्रमाणात कमी होऊ शकतो. देशाचे रक्षण ही आपली जबाबदारी असल्याची भावना मनात रुजणे महत्त्वाचे ठरेल. आपल्या कुटुंबापासून दूर राहणाऱ्या सैनिकांना आपलेपणा वाटावा याकरता रक्षाबंधन, दिवाळी अशा सणांच्या वेळी राखी, फराळ, भेटवस्तू पाठवून त्यांच्याप्रतीच्या भावना, आदर व्यक्त करता येईल. सैनिकांकरता, त्यांच्या कुटुंबांकरता गोळा केल्या जाणाऱ्या फण्डसमध्ये शक्य तेवढी मदत करता येईल. अशारीतीने आपल्याला प्रत्यक्ष, अप्रत्यक्षरित्या देशसेवा करणाऱ्या सैनिकांना थोडीशी मदत निश्चितपणे करता येईल.

COMPLETED

Chapter 11, Enhancement of Food Production, hsc, biology, maharashtra board, 12th std, balbharathi solution,

Chapter 11: Enhancement of Food Production

Multiple Choice Question

1.Antibiotic Chloromycetin is obtained from ____________.

OPTIONS

  • Streptomyces erythreus
  • Penicillium chrysogenum
  • Streptomyces venezuelae
  • Streptomyces griseus

2.Removal of large pieces of floating debris, oily substances, etc. during sewage treatment is called _______________.

OPTIONS

  • primary treatment
  • secondary treatment
  • final treatment
  • amplification

3.Which one of the following is a free-living bacterial biofertilizer?

OPTIONS

  • Azotobacter
  • Rhizobium
  • Nostoc
  • Bacillus thuringiensis

4.Most commonly used substrate for industrial production of beer is ___________.

OPTIONS

  • barley
  • wheat
  • corn
  • sugarcane molasses

5.Ethanol is commercially produced through a particular species of _____________.

OPTIONS

  • Aspergillus
  • Saccharomyces
  • Clostridium
  • Trichoderma

6.One of the free-living anaerobic nitrogen-fixer is _________.

OPTIONS

  • Azotobacter
  • Beijerinckia
  • Rhodospirillum
  • Rhizobium

7.Microorganisms also help in production of food like ______________.

OPTIONS

  • bread
  • alcoholic beverages
  • vegetables
  • pulses

8.MOET technique is used for _____________.

OPTIONS

  • production of hybrids
  • inbreeding
  • outbreeding
  • outcrossing

9.Mule is the outcome of __________________.

OPTIONS

  • inbreeding
  • artificial insemination
  • interspecific hybridization
  • outbreeding

Very Short Answer Question

1.What does make idlies puffy?

SOLUTION

The bubbles of CO2 trapped in dough during fermentation make idlies puffy.

2.Name any two bacterial biofertilizers.

SOLUTION

Biofertilizers:

a. Rhizobium:

1. Rhizobia are rod-shaped, motile, aerobic, gram-negative, non-spore-forming, nitrogen-fixing bacteria containing Nod genes and Nif genes.

2. They form symbiotic associations with the roots of leguminous plants.

3. They bring about nodule formation on the roots and multiply inside the nodule.

4. They fix atmospheric nitrogen into organic forms, which can be used by plants as nutrients.

5. For e.g. R. leguminosarum is specific to pea and R. phaseoli to beans.

b. Azotobacter:

1. It is the important and well known free-living, nitrogen-fixing, aerobic, non-photosynthetic, non-nodule forming bacterium, intimately associated with roots of grasses and certain plants.

2. It is used as a bio-fertilizer for all non-leguminous plants especially rice, cotton, vegetables, etc.

c. Azospirillum:

1. It is a free-living, an aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with roots of corn, wheat, and jowar.

2. It fixes the considerable quantity of nitrogen (20-40kg N/ha) in non–leguminous plants such as cereals, millets, cotton, oilseed, etc.

3.What is the microbial source of vitamin B12?

SOLUTION

The microbial source of Vitamin B12 is – Pseudomonas denitrificans.

4.What is the microbial source of enzyme Invertase?

SOLUTION

The microbial source of enzyme Invertase is Saccharomyces cerevisiae

5.Milk starts to coagulate when Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) is added to warm milk as a starter. Mention any two other benefits of LAB.

SOLUTION

Production of dairy products:

i. Curd: Indian curd is prepared by inoculating milk with Lactobacillus acidophilus. It also checks the growth of disease-causing microbes.

ii. Yogurt (yogurt): It is produced by curdling milk with the help of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

iii. Butter Milk: The acidulated liquid left after churning of butter from curd, is called buttermilk.

iv. Cheese:

a. The milk is coagulated with lactic acid bacteria and the curd formed is filtered to separate whey.

b. The solid mass is then ripened with the growth of mould that develops flavor in it.

c. Different varieties of cheese are known by their characteristic texture, flavor, and taste which are developed by different specific microbes.

d. The ‘Roquefort and Camembert cheese’ are ripened by Bluegreen molds Penicillium roqueforti and P. camemberti respectively.

e. The large holes in Swiss cheese are developed due to the production of a large amount of CO2 by a bacterium known as Propionibacterium shermanii.

6.Name the enzyme produced by Streptococcus bacterium. 

SOLUTION

Streptokinase:

Streptokinase enzyme (TPA) is produced by the bacterium Streptococcus spp.

7.Explain importance in medical sciences.

SOLUTION

It has a fibrinolytic effect. Hence, it is used as a ‘clot buster’ for clearing blood clots in the blood vessels of patients, which may cause a heart attack.

8.What is the breed?

SOLUTION

A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characters like general appearance, features, size, configuration, etc., are said to belong to a breed.

9.Define estuary.

SOLUTION

Estuaries are places where rivers meet the sea and may be defined as areas where saltwater is measurably diluted with freshwater.

10.What is shellac?

SOLUTION

Shellac is a pure form of lac obtained by washing and filtering.

Short Answer Question

1.Many microbes are used at home during the preparation of food items. Comment on such useful ones with examples.

SOLUTION

i. Many household preparations involve the use of microbes.

e.g. idli, dhokla, jalebi, dosa, etc.

ii. Microbes such as Leuconostoc and Streptococcus help in the fermentation of batter of idli and dosa.

iii. Microbes like Lactobacilli help in the preparation of jalebi and nan.

iv. Milk is fermented to make curd, yogurt, and cheese using lactobacilli.

v. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) is commonly used for making bread.

2.What is biogas?

SOLUTION

Biogas is a non-conventional and renewable source of energy and is obtained by microbial fermentation.

3.Write in brief about the production process.

SOLUTION

Process of biogas production:

Anaerobic digestion involves three processes:

a. Hydrolysis or solubilization:

1. In the initial stage, the raw material (cattle dung) is mixed with water in equal proportion to make a slurry which is then fed into the digester.

2. Here anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria (e.g. Clostridium, Pseudomonas) hydrolyse carbohydrates into simple sugars, proteins into amino acids, and lipids into fatty acids.

b. Acidogenesis: In this stage, facultatively anaerobic, acidogenic bacteria and obligate anaerobic organisms, convert simple organic material into acids like formic acid, acetic acid, H2, and CO2.

c. Methanogenesis: This is the last stage in which anaerobic Methanogenic bacteria like Methanobacterium, Methanococcus convert acetate, H2, and CO2 into Methane, CO2 and H2O, and other products.

1. 

12mol CHX3COOH(Acetic acid)⟶12CHX4Methane+12COX2

2. 

4mol H.COOH(Formic acid)⟶CHX4+3COX2+2HX2O

3. 

COX2+4HX2⟶CHX4+2HX2O

4.Write a note on biocontrol agents.

SOLUTION

i. The agents which are employed for biological control are called biocontrol agents.

ii. Microbes like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoans act as biocontrol agents. They act in three ways, either they cause the disease to the pest or compete or kill them.

Example:

i. Bacillus thuringiensis

a. It is used to get rid of the butterfly, caterpillars where dried spores of Bacillus thuringiensis are mixed with water and sprayed onto vulnerable plants such as Brassica and fruit trees.

b. These spores are then eaten by insect larvae.

c. In the gut of the larvae, the toxin (cry protein) is released and the larvae get killed eventually.

ii. Trichoderma

a. Trichoderma species are free-living fungi found in the root ecosystem (rhizosphere).

b. These are effective as biocontrol agents of several soil-borne fungal plant pathogens.

c. The fungus produces substances like viridin, gliotoxin, gliovirin, etc. that inhibit the other soil-borne pathogens attacking root, rhizomes, etc. causing rot disease.

5.Name any two enzymes and antibiotics with their microbial source.

SOLUTION

No.EnzymeMicrobial Source
i.InvertaseSaccharomyces cerevisiae
ii.PectinaseSclerotiana libertine, Aspergillus niger
iii.LipaseCandida lipolytica
iv.CellulaseTrichoderma koningi
No.AntibioticMicrobial source
i.ChloromycetinStreptomyces venezuelae
ii.ErythromycinStreptomyces erythreus
iii.PenicillinPenicillium chrysogenum
iv.StreptomycinStreptomyces griseus
v.GriseofulvinPenicillium griseofulvum
vi.BacitracinBacillus licheniformis
vii.Oxytetracycline/ TerramycinStreptomyces aureofaciens

6.Write the principles of farm management.

SOLUTION

i. Farm management begins with the selection of high yielding breeds, food requirements, the supply of adequate nutritional sources, and cleanliness of the environment, and maintenance of health.

ii. Management of farm animals includes veterinary supervision, vaccination, high yielding crossbreed development, production and preservation of products, distribution, and marketing.

7.Give the economic importance of fishery.

SOLUTION

Economic importance of fishes:

i. Fishes are caught, processed, raised, and marketed under fisheries. It provides good job opportunities and self-employment.

ii. Culturing of fishes on a large scale in ponds, lakes, and reservoirs boost the productivity and economy of the nation.

iii. Fishes are a source of nutritious food as they are rich in proteins, vitamins (A, D, and K), carbohydrates, fats, and minerals.

iv. They also yield a number of by-products that hold commercial value.

v. The by-products obtained from fishes include fish oil, fish meal, fertilizers, fish guano, fish glue, and isinglass, which are widely used in paints, soaps, oils, and medicines.

vi. Prawns and lobsters have a market value all over the world.

8.Enlist the species of honey bee mentioning their specific uses.

SOLUTION

Apiculture or beekeeping deals with an artificial rearing of honey bees to obtain bee products like honey, wax, pollen, bee venom, propolis (bee glue), and royal jelly as well as pollinating agents for crop plants.

The four species of honey bees commonly found in India are Apis dorsata (rock bee or wild bee), Apis florea (little bee), Apis mellifera (European bee), and Apis indica (Indian bee).

For beekeeping, Apis mellifera and Apis indica are the suitable species and are known as domesticated species.

9.What are A, B, C, and D in the table given below :

Types of microbeNameCommercial product
FungusAPenicillin
BacteriumAcetobacter acetiB
CAspergillus nigerCitric acid
YeastDEthanol

SOLUTION

Types of microbeNameCommercial product
FungusPenicillium chrysogenumPenicillin
BacteriumAcetobacter acetiAcetic acid (vinegar)
FungusAspergillus nigerCitric acid
YeastSaccharomyces cerevisiaeEthanol

1.Explain the process of sewage water treatment before it can be discharged into natural water bodies. Why is this treatment essential?

Long Answer Question

Explain the process of sewage water treatment before it can be discharged into natural water bodies.

SOLUTION 1

The sewage in sewage treatment plants is carried out in two ways:

(a) Primary treatment: It involves the physical removal of particles from sewage through filtration and sedimentation. Floating debris is removed by filtration and grit is removed by sedimentation. Thus, all solids which settle form the primary sludge and the supernatant forms the effluent.

Secondary treatment: The effluent from primary treatment is passed to aeration tanks where the air is pumped into it. This allows the growth of useful aerobic microbes into flocs (masses of bacteria associated with fungal filaments) and microbes consume the major part of the organic matter in the effluent. This reduces the BOD (biological oxygen demand) of the effluent. The effluent is then passed into the settling tank where bacterial flocs are allowed to sediment. This sediment is called activated sludge. The small portion of this activated sludge is again passed to the aeration tank to serve as inocula. The remaining major part of this sludge is pumped into large anaerobic sludge digesters. Here, anaerobic bacteria digest bacteria and fungi in the sludge. During this digestion, bacteria produce a mixture of gases such as methane, H2S, and CO2. This treatment is essential as the sewage or municipal waste discharged into rivers, streams and other water bodies contains human excreta, organic wastes, and several pathogenic microbes.

SOLUTION 2

Before wastewater is made available for human use, it has to be treated properly, so as to remove organic matter, inorganic salts, and pathogens as well.

The sewage treatment process includes four basic steps as follows:

i. Preliminary Treatment: The preliminary treatment includes Screening and Grit Chamber.

a. Screening:

1. Sewage and wastewater contain plenty of suspended, floating materials, coarse and solid particles along with dissolved substances.

2. The suspended objects are filtered and removed. This is done in screening chambers.

3. The sewage is passed through screens or nets in the chambers. Larger suspended or floating objects are held back in the screening chambers.

4. These have to be removed before the biological treatment.

b. Grit Chamber:

1. After the screening, the filtered sewage is then passed into a series of grit chambers that contain large stones (pebbles) and brick ballast.

2. Coarse particles settle down by gravity.

3. Thus, the passage of filtered sewage removes much of the coarse particulate matter.

ii. Primary treatment (physical treatment):

a. After the preliminary treatment, the sewage water is pumped into the primary sedimentation tank.

b. The sedimentation of suspended solids or organic matter occurs in this tank.

c. About 50-70% of the solids settle down. There is a reduction of about 30-40% (in number) of coliform organisms.

d. The organic matter which is settled down is called primary sludge which is removed by mechanically operated devices.

e. The supernatant (effluent) in the primary sedimentation tank still contains a large amount of dissolved organic matter and micro-organisms which can then be removed by the secondary treatment.

iii. Secondary treatment (biological treatment):

a. The primary effluent is passed into large aeration tanks. Here it is constantly agitated mechanically and the air is pumped into it.

b. Aerobic bacteria grow vigorously and form flocs.

c. Flocs are the masses of bacteria held together by slime and fungal hyphae to form mesh-like masses.

d. These aerobic microbes consume the major part of the organic matter present in the effluent, as they grow.

e. Due to this BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) of the effluent is significantly reduced.

iv. Tertiary treatment:

a. Once the BOD of wastewater is reduced, it is passed into a settling tank.

b. Here the bacterial flocs are allowed to sediment which is now called activated sludge.

c. A small part of this is passed back into the aeration tank and the major part is pumped into large tanks called anaerobic sludge digesters.

d. In these tanks, anaerobic bacteria grow and digest the bacteria and fungi in the sludge.

e. During this anaerobic digestion, gases such as methane, hydrogen sulphide, CO2, etc. are produced.

f. Effluents from these plants (digester) after chlorination are released in natural water bodies like rivers and streams.

g. Chlorination kills pathogenic bacteria. h. Digested sludge is then disposed of.

2.Why is this sewage water treatment essential?

SOLUTION

Importance of sewage water treatment:

  1. The sewage water contains pathogenic microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic worms, which can spread a variety of diseases.
  2. Also, it contains harmful chemicals that may cause toxicity if mixed with natural resources of water. Therefore, sewage water treatment is essential before it can be discharged into natural bodies.

3.Write a note on lac culture.

SOLUTION

i. Lac is produced by an insect Tachardia lacca, which is quite small in size and colonial inhabit.

ii. Resin like substance is produced by the dermal glands of female lac insect.

iii. The insect feeds on succulent twigs of certain plants like ber, peepal, palas, Kusum, babool, etc. and secretes pink coloured resin, that hardens on coming in contact with air forming lac.

iv. Lac is a complex substance having a large amount of resin together with sugar, water, minerals, and alkaline substances.

v. Natural lac is always contaminated. vi. Shellac is a pure form of lac obtained by washing and filtering.

vii. Products of lac play a vital role in the economy of the farmers.

viii. Lac is used in bangles, toys, woodwork, inks, mirrors, etc. ix. Production of lac requires an artificial inoculation of plants which gives a better and regular supply of good quality and quantity of lac.

4.Describe various methods of fish preservation.

SOLUTION

After catching the fishes, fish spoilage is prevented by different preservation methods like:

i. Chilling with ice: It is a method of refrigeration. Due to the lowering of temperature, putrefaction is prevented and the quality of fish is maintained.

ii. Freezing: Freezing of fishes helps to retain the natural appearance of fishes.

iii. Freeze drying: Fishes are frozen and dried.

iv. Smoke drying: This removes the moisture and prevents the growth of bacteria.

v. Sun-drying: Fishes are dried in sun to remove moisture.

vi. Salting: By adding salt, dehydration takes place by osmosis.

vii. Canning: Fishes are preserved in cans with salt or other artificial preservatives.

5.Give an account of poultry diseases.

SOLUTION

Following are the different types of poultry diseases:

i. Viral diseases like Ranikhet, Bronchitis, Avian influenza (bird flu), etc.

ii. Bacterial diseases mainly include Pullorum, Cholera, Typhoid, TB, CRD (chronic respiratory disease), Enteritis, etc.

iii. Fungal diseases are Aspergillosis, Favus, and Thrush.

iv. Parasitic diseases include lice infection, roundworm, caecal worm infections, etc.

v. Protozoan diseases e.g. Coccidiosis is a protozoan disease.

6.Give an account of mutation breeding with examples.

SOLUTION

The mutation is a sudden heritable change in the genotype. In mutation breeding, desirable mutations are induced in crop plants with the use of physical or chemical mutagens.

i. Natural (physical) mutagens are:

High temperature, high concentration of CO2, X rays, UV rays.

ii. Chemical mutagens are:

Nitrous acid, EMS (Ethyl- Methyl- Sulphonate), Mustard gas, Colchicine, etc.

iii. Seedlings or seeds are irradiated by CO-60, exposed to UV bulbs, X-ray machines, etc.

iv. Mutagens cause gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations.

v. The treated seedlings are then screened for resistance to diseases/ pests, high yield, etc.

e.g. Jagannath variety of rice, NP 836 variety of wheat (rust-resistant), Indore-2 variety of cotton (resistant to bollworm), Regina-II variety of cabbage (resistant to bacterial rot), etc.

7.Describe briefly various steps of plant breeding methods.

SOLUTION

Hybridization involves the following steps:

i. Collection of variability:

a. Wild species and relatives of the cultivated species having desired traits are collected and preserved.

b. The entire collection having all the diverse alleles (i.e. variations) for all genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection.

c. Variations are useful in the selection. Germplasm conservation can be done in the following ways.

a. In situ conservation: It can be done with the help of forests and natural reserves.

b. Ex-situ conservation: It is done through botanical gardens, seed banks, etc.

ii. Evaluation and selection of parents:

a. The collected germplasm is evaluated (screened) to identify plants with desirable characters.

b. The selected parents must be healthy, vigorous, and should show desirable but complementary features.

c. The selected parents are selfed for three to four generations to make them pure or homozygous.

d. It is made sure that only pure lines are selected, multiplied, and used in the hybridization.

iii. Hybridization:

a. The variety showing maximum desirable features is selected as a female (recurrent) parent and the other one as male parent (donor) which lacks good characters found in a recurrent parent.

b. The pollen grains from anthers of male parents are collected and then artificially dusted over stigmas of emasculated flowers of the female parents.

c. Pollination is followed by seed and fruit formation in due course.

d. The seed thus obtained represents the hybrid generation.

e. The hybrid F1 progeny is selected and evaluated for the desired combinations of characters.

iv. Selection and testing of superior recombinants:

a. The F1 hybrid plants showing superiority over both the parents and having high hybrid vigour are selected.

b. Such hybrids are then selfed for a few generations to make them homozygous for the said desirable characters till there is a state of uniformity so that the characters will not segregate further.

v. Testing, release, and commercialization of new cultivars:

a. The newly selected lines are evaluated for productivity and other features like disease resistance, pest resistance, quality, etc.

b. Initially, these plants are grown under controlled conditions of water, fertilizers, etc. and their performance is recorded.

c. The selected lines are then grown for three generations at least in the natural field, in different agroclimatic zones.

d. Finally, variety is released as a new variety for use by the farmers.

COMPLETED


Chapter 11, The Inchcape Rock, english, hsc, maharashtra board, latest edition, full solution,

Chapter 11: The Inchcape Rock

1.Prepare a word register related to marine life.

SOLUTION

sailors, salt, waves, tide, coral reefs, octopus, sea-weed, compass, starboard, port, coast, harbour, maritime, nautical mile

2.The functions of a lighthouse are 

SOLUTION

  • To show the direction
  • To keep vigil
  • To warn ships of the dangers during darkness
  • To send signals to the ships by blinking the light in Morse code

3.Discuss in pairs the various famous rocks in the world and mention the places where they are.

Famous RockPlace
Balancing RockMahabalipuram
  
  
  

SOLUTION

Famous RockPlace
Balancing RockMahabalipuram
Aphrodite’s RockPaphos, Cyprus
Old Harry RocksIsle of Purbeck, England
Uluru/Ayers RockNorthern Territory, Australia

4.Narrate in class a story about someone who destroyed or spoilt someone else’s good work.

SOLUTION

There was once a grumpy man, who didn’t like anyone in his neighbourhood. Whenever the people would organise a community event, they would invite him to help and try to make him feel a part of the community. However, the grumpy man never attended any of the events. He stayed in his house all the time, never talking to anyone. Eventually, the neighbourhood stopped inviting him to any gatherings. Once when his neighbours had organised a funfair, the grumpy man, out of spite, destroyed the entire set-up the night before the event. The next morning, when everyone saw what had happened, they knew that the grumpy man must have been behind it. They let him off with a warning that the next time he caused destruction; they would report him to the police. As the grumpy man had spoiled everyone’s good work, they all decided never to speak to him again.

5.Discuss in pairs and groups the following expressions. Take the help of your teacher.

  1. As you sow so shall you reap
  2. Crime gets its own punishment
  3. What goes around comes around
  4. Tit for tat
  5. Evil digs a pit for others but falls into the same

SOLUTION

The given expressions have the traditional theory of Karma at their core sooner or later we will have to bear the consequences of all our actions, whether good or bad. So, instead of thinking ill of others, we should focus on being good towards them, as we will eventually be treated the same way we treat others.

1.Narrate in groups the scene described in the beginning of the poem.

SOLUTION

The scene described in the beginning of the poem is best captured in the first two stanzas, wherein a calm scenario has been depicted. The air, the sea and the ship are in a peaceful state. The sea-waves are so feeble that they don’t send any sound or shock. They do not rise or fall enough to cause the Inchcape bell to ring.

Complete the following statement:

1.The Abbot of Aberbrothok placed a bell on the Inchcape Rock because _______.

SOLUTION

The Abbot of Aberbrothok placed a bell on the Inchcape Rock because he wanted the ships to stay safe from collision with the Inchcape Rock that used to be submerged in the water during high tide.

2.The mariners were grateful to the Abbot of Aberbrothok because _______.

SOLUTION

The mariners were grateful to the Abbot of Aberbrothok because he saved them from possible shipwrecks by installing the warning bell on Inchcape Rock.

3.The result of the thick haze that covered the sky was that ______.

SOLUTION

The result of the thick haze that covered the sky was that sir Ralph and his crew couldn’t see the sun on high.

4.The Rover in frustration pulled his hair and cursed himself because ______.

SOLUTION

The Rover in frustration pulled his hair and cursed himself because he was going to meet his death only because of his own wicked act of cutting off the Inchcape Bell.

1.Given below are the events that give the theme of the poem in a jumbled form. Arrange in a proper sequence as per their occurrence.

  1. The waves were so small that they did not move enough to ring the bell at the Inchcape Rock.
  2. The Abbot of Aberbrothok had placed the bell on a buoy on the rock.
  3. There was a thick haze spread over the atmosphere.
  4. Ralph bent over from the boat.
  5. Sir Ralph cursed himself in despair and in his frustration tore his hair.

SOLUTION

b. The Abbot of Aberbrothok had placed the bell on a buoy on the rock.

a. The waves were so small that they did not move enough to ring the bell at the Inchcape Rock.

d. Ralph bent over from the boat.

c. There was a thick haze spread over the atmosphere.

e. Sir Ralph cursed himself in despair and in his frustration tore his hair.

2.Describe the qualities of the Abbot of Aberbrothok in your own words.

SOLUTION

  1. Benevolent
  2. Big-hearted
  3. Well-wisher
  4. Caring
  5. Practical
  6. Clever
  7. Selfless

3.Jealousy’ is the most incurable defect. Justify.

SOLUTION

‘Jealousy’ means ‘envy’ in its most negative form. It originates primarily from lack of self-confidence and is difficult to get rid of. Another reason for jealousy is poor self-image. The insecurity arising out of the fear of being rejected by someone leads to jealousy too. It upsets our social circle and turns friends to foes. This can further alienate a person, making him/her even more jealous of other people due to one’s own sense of inadequacy. All these insecurities, which stem from jealousy, can drive a person to cause harm to others. A lot of self-training is required to get rid of the negative emotion of jealousy. As long as a person holds a low opinion of self, he/she can never be immune to this defect. Even with a lot of practice, one is bound to feel this emotion at some point in their lives. Thus, jealousy is the most incurable defect.

4.But the Rover’s mirth was wickedness’. Explain this line in your own words with the help of the poem.

SOLUTION

‘But the Rover’s mirth was wickedness’

Explanation:

Though Sir Ralph was in a cheerful mood and his heart was full of joy, the reason behind his happiness was a wicked plan that he had just devised.

Some words in the poem are related to different parts of a ship or a mariner’s life. Given below is the meaning of those terms. Identify the word.

1.Helps in steering the ship

SOLUTION

Helps in steering the ship – sails

2.The lowest part of the ship

SOLUTION

The lowest part of the ship – keel

3.Floating object that shows direction

SOLUTION

Floating object that shows direction – buoy

4.Another name for a ship

SOLUTION

Another name for a ship – boat/ vessel

5.Sinking sound

SOLUTION

Sinking sound – gurgling

1.Ballad

A ballad is a song that tells a story, and it can be dramatic, funny or romantic.

Traditionally the ballad has been considered a folkloric verse narrative which has strong associations with communal dancing. Generally, the term is used for a narrative poem which uses an elliptical and highly stylized mode of narration. The technique of repetition with variation may play an important part in it.

From the 18th century onwards, collections of folk / ‘popular ballads’ began to be made. The form was taken up by some of the most influential poets of the late 18th century as a folkloric form of expression.

A typical ballad consists of stanzas that contain a quatrain, or four poetic lines. Some ballads have a refrain, or a repeated chorus, just like a song does. The rhyme scheme adds musical quality to the poem. One famous ballad is ‘The Rime of the Ancient Mariner’ by English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

SOLUTION

.

Select the appropriate figure of speech from the box given below and complete the table.

Metaphor, Alliteration, Repetition, Personification, Inversion, Simile, Apostrophe, Onomatopoeia
ExamplesFigure of SpeechExplanation
1. Sir Ralph the Rover tore his hair.AlliterationThe close repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

SOLUTION

ExamplesFigure of SpeechExplanation
1. Sir Ralph the Rover tore his hair.AlliterationThe close repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words
2. No stir in the air, no stir in the seaAlliterationThe close repetition of the sound of ‘s’.
RepetitionThe words ‘No stir in the’ have been repeated in the line.
3. On a buoy in the storm it floated and swungInversionThe order of words has been rearranged for a poetic effect. The correct order should be ‘It floated and swung on a buoy in the storm’.
PersonificationThe ‘Inchcape bell’ has been given the animate quality of ‘floating’ and ‘swinging’
4. Down sank the bell with a gurgling sound.InversionThe order of words has been rearranged for a poetic effect. The correct order should be ‘The bell sank down with a gurgling sound.’
OnomatopoeiaThe word ‘gurgling’ denotes the sound made by the bell as it sunk in the ocean.
5. The Devil below was ringing his knell.OnomatopoeiaThe word ‘ringing’ denotes the sound made by the bell.
6. The Ship was still as she could beAlliterationClose repetition of syllable ‘s’
PersonificationThe ship has been personified with the use o the feminine pronoun ‘she’.
7. On the deck the Rover takes his stand,InversionThe order of words has been rearranged for a poetic effect. The correct order should be ‘The Rover takes his stand on the deck’.
8. Oh Christ!ApostropheA direct address has been made to an entity that is not pres

1.Write an appreciation of the poem, ‘The Inchcape Rock’.

SOLUTION

Appreciation of the poem ‘The Inchcape Rock’

‘The Inchcape Rock’ by Robert Southey is a ballad of seventeen stanzas, also called quatrains as they are made of four lines each. The primary theme of the poem is that those who do bad things meet with a bad end at the hands of fate. The idea of ‘what goes around, comes around’ is at the core of the poem. The ballad is composed in a narrative style and the rhyming couplets follow the rhyme scheme ‘aabb’. The poem also contains a lot of old English words. The poet embellishes his composition with a number of figures of speech such as Alliteration, Antithesis, Apostrophe, Consonance, Exclamation, Inversion, Metaphor, Onomatopoeia, Personification, Repetition, Simile, Synecdoche, and Transferred Epithet. The highlight of the poem is the vivid imagery of the ‘bright, shining sun’ at the beginning to that of ‘hazy sky’ at the end, or that of the ‘steady ship’, ‘light waves’, ‘green ocean’, ‘birds wheeling around’, ‘sinking ship’, etc. that the poet employs to convey the message of poetic justice. Its smart usage makes the readers feel like they are a part of the scene being described. The use of symbolism also adds to the beauty of the poem where the Abbot is presented as the symbol of all that is good, while Sir Ralph symbolizes the evil. The Inchcape Rock is symbolic of the trap that Sir Ralph had laid down for others, which he himself fell into. Through the poem has been composed in the 18th century, the message conveyed by it is relevant even today  that one should steer clear of wickedness and malice towards others, as that could be the cause of one’s own doom. The poem is didactic in nature, meaning that it conveys a moral through the story depicted in it. The moral of this poem is ‘As you sow, so shall you reap’. In my opinion, the poem is timeless, as its relevance can never diminish. For as long as humans suffer from the vice of jealousy, this poem will keep reminding them of its consequences.

2.Compose 4 to 6 lines on ‘sea’.

SOLUTION

Sea

The land once pricked the sea,

Your waves from the shore flee,

And here it’s me,

Grounded unlike thee.

The sea in all its patience quipped in glee,

Oh I see!

Expand the idea on your own on the following topic.

1.Pride goes before a fall

SOLUTION

Each one of us is truly special. Our achievements in life are the result of painstaking efforts, but one must never be blinded their achievements. Wise men have rightly said that ‘Pride goes before a fall’, meaning a show of vanity and over-confidence more often than not destroys a person. Basking in the glory of our success is only natural, but what takes us higher should also make us humble. This valuable lesson is taught to us through the popular story of ‘The Hare and the Tortoise’. Gloating in his ability to run fast, the hare shamefully loses to a tortoise! Thus, we realize that ‘Pride makes way for one’s undoing’.

2.Time and tide wait for none

SOLUTION

The proverb ‘Time and tide wait for none’ illustrates the significance of time. We may take time for granted but it keeps slipping away. Young or old, rich or poor, time does not discriminate; it does not wait for anyone! Likewise, tide, too, waits for none. Regardless of where you stand, the tide will take its course. It comes and goes when it has to. Similarly, life goes on, and to fulfil our dreams we need to make the most of every passing moment. We need to focus only on what matters and disregard anything which is detrimental to our development. This is also emphasized by the proverb, ‘Make hay while the sun shines’, which tells us to make the most of every single moment that we have.

3.Man proposes, God disposes

SOLUTION

It is said that ‘Man is the architect of his life’. Man is a constantly evolving being, planning meticulously, and moving at a rapid pace. Even so, not all plans made by man work out. ‘Man proposes; God disposes of’ is a proverb that tells us who the Ultimate Master is. Man etches out various plans, but even the best-laid plans can fail. The bright side though, is that God has his own plans. There is a time and place for everything. The universe and everything in it have been woven into one big complex plan. It unfolds when a higher power (God) wants it to unfold. Sometimes man’s plans may align with God’s plans and sometimes they might not. At such times, man must remember that God will make everything right. He will ensure that man ends up where he was meant to be. However, this doesn’t mean that we stop taking efforts, because after all ‘God helps those who help themselves’.

4.Look before you leap

SOLUTION

If we take a shot in the dark, we are most likely to miss it. This is what the proverb, ‘Look before you leap’ seeks to convey. It warns us about the consequences of acting in haste and encourages us to make a well-informed choice before taking any action. Life may present us with various situations but limited options. This may prompt us to make certain rushed decisions. Even so, our focus must always be on making the right choice rather than the easy one. As tempting as it may seem, there are truly no shortcuts to success. Even a vast army can be vanquished if they underestimate the strength and tactics of their enemy. Remember that ‘haste is waste’. Hence, it is better to exercise caution and make a choice after considering all the facts, rather than repenting it later!

1.The poem begins with:

‘Without either sign or sound of their shock,
The waves flowed over the Inchcape Rock.’
It ends with:
‘Till the vessel strikes with a shivering shock.’
On the basis of these lines explain the change in mood of the poem.

SOLUTION

The given opening lines from stanza 2 and the closing lines from stanza 15 marks a near-dramatic shift in the mood of the poem. The former set of lines depicts a perfectly calm sea, whose waves are so feeble that they do not even manage to move the Inchcape Bell. The latter set of lines portrays a shift in the conditions of the same sea, which has turned so rough that Sir Ralph’s ship has gone adrift. Though the wind has subsided, the ship violently collides with the Inchcape Rock, which is invisible due to the rise in water level.
1.(i) Read the following tree diagram and find out more information about opportunities in ‘on and off the shore’ the Indian Navy.
(ii) Required qualifications and various fields/opportunities for women to join in the Navy.
(iii) Colleges that provide education in oceanography – 
  1. National Institute of Oceanography, Goa
  2. National Institute of Oceanography, Mumbai
  3. MBA (Logistic Shipping Management), IIKM Business School, Calicut, Kerala
  4. Indira Gandhi College of Distance Education IGCDE Tamil Nadu.

SOLUTION

(i) On Shore and Off Shore Opportunities in the Indian Navy:
  • Executive Level:
A lot of opportunities are available at the Executive level in the Indian Navy. The various specializations available are:
  1. Gunnery & Missiles
  2. Anti – Submarine Warfare
  3. Navigation and direction
  4. Communications
  5. Aviation
  6. Submarine
  7. Hydrography
  8. Diving
  9. Law
  10. Air Traffic Control
  11. Naval Armament Inspection
  12. Logistics
  13. Information Technology
  • Ocean Engineering:
This field of engineering deals with the design, research and development, testing, analysis, operations, maintenance of structures, marine vehicles and other systems onshore and offshore.
  • Marine Research:
This branch is responsible for conducting deep-sea exploration, studying the effect of climatic changes, atmospheric physics, land and water geology, mineralogy, bacteriology, radio-transmission studies, underwater acoustics, conducting routine data collection, and building facilities and expertise in different disciplines of oceanography.
[Note: The information given above is only for reference. Students are expected to visit various websites and find out more information about the various opportunities available with the Indian Navy.]

                           COMPLETED


Chapter 11, Financial Market, hsc, sp, secretarial practice, maharashtra board, full solution,

Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statement.

1.A financial market is a market in which people trade _____________ and derivatives at low transaction costs.

Options
  • Gold
  • Financial securities
  • Commodities

2.When the trade bills are accepted by commercial banks it is known as _________.

Options
  • Treasury bills
  • Commercial bills
  • Commercial papers

3.Money market is a market for lending and borrowing of funds for _________ term.

Options
  • short
  • medium
  • long

4.Central Government is a borrower in the money market through the issue of ____________.

Options
  • commercial papers
  • trade bills
  • treasury bills

5.____________ is the market for borrowing and lending long term capital required by business enterprises.

Options
  • Money Market
  • Capital Market
  • Gold Market

Match the pair.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Financial market1) Long term fund
b) Money market2) New issue market
c) Primary market3) Trading of commodities
d) Commercial paper4) Short term fund
 5) Trading of financial securities
 6) Share market
 7) Unsecured promissory note
 8) Secured promissory note

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Financial market5) Trading of financial securities
b) Money market4) Short term fund
c) Primary market2) New issue market
d) Commercial paper7) Unsecured promissory note

Write a word or a term or a phrase which can substitute the following statement.

1.A market where people trade financial securities and derivatives at low transaction cost

SOLUTION

A market where people trade financial securities and derivatives at low transaction cost-Financial market

2.A market which provides long term funds

One word Answer

SOLUTION

A market which provides long term funds – Capital market

3.A market which provides short term funds

SOLUTION

A market which provides short term funds-Money market

4.A money market instrument used by banks when one bank faces a temporary shortage of cash.

SOLUTION

A money market instrument used by bank when one bank faces a temporary shortage of cash-Call or notice money

5.A bill which is issued by Reserve Bank of India on behalf of the Government of India.

SOLUTION

A bill which is issued by Reserve Bank of India on behalf of theGovernment of India-Treasury bill

6. A market which exclusively deals with the new issue of securities

SOLUTION

A market which exclusively deals with the new issue of securities-Primary market/ New issue market

State whether the following statement is true or false

1.A Financial Market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives at high transaction costs.

Options
  • True
  • False

2.Money market is the market for the long term funds

Options
  • True
  • False

3.Capital market is the market for the long term funds.

Options
  • True
  • False

4.Secondary market is commonly known as stock market.

Options
  • True
  • False

5.Commercial paper is a secured promissory note.

Options
  • True
  • False

6.Treasury bills are issued by commercial banks.

Options
  • True
  • False

1.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Treasury Bills
  • Shares
  • Certificate of Deposit.

2.Find the odd one.

Options
  • FPO
  • Private Placement
  • Commercial paper

3.Find the odd one.

Options
  • New Issues Market
  • Call Money Market
  • Secondary Market.

Complete the sentence.

1.Funds borrowed and lent in money market are for ___________ term.

SOLUTION

Funds borrowed and lent in money market are for short term.

2.When trade bills are accepted by commercial banks, it is known as _________.

SOLUTION

When trade bills are accepted by commercial banks, it is known as commercial bills.

3.Unsecured negotiable promissory notes issued by a commercial bank is called as _______.

Fill in the Blank

SOLUTION

Unsecured negotiable promissory notes issued by a commercial bank is called as Certificate of Deposits (CDs)

4.New shares, debentures, etc. are traded in ____________ market.

SOLUTION

New shares, debentures, etc. are traded in primary/ new issues market.

5.In capital market the instruments traded have maturity period of more than ______ year.

SOLUTION

In capital market the instruments traded have maturity period of more than one year.

1.Select the correct option from the bracket.

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
a) Money market1) ____________
b) Zero risk instrument2) _____________
c) __________3) Capital market
d) __________4) Secondary market

(Buying and selling of existing securities, Treasury Bills, Funds for long term, Fund for short term)

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
a) Money market1) Funds for short-term
b) Zero risk instrument2) Treasury Bills
c) Funds for long-term3) Capital market
d) Buying and selling of existing securities4) Secondary market

Answer in one sentence.

1.What is financial market

SOLUTION

It is a market where financial assets i.e. financial instruments are exchanged or bought and sold.

2.What is call money market?

SOLUTION

It is a market where funds are lent or borrowed for very short periods i.e. one day.

3.What is Certificate of Deposits?

SOLUTION

It is unsecured negotiable promissory note usually issued by commercial banks and financial institutions.

4.What is Trade Bill?

SOLUTION

It is a negotiable instrument or bill drawn by a seller on the buyer for value of goods sold under credit sales.

5.What is new issue market?

SOLUTION

New issue market or primary market exclusively deals with the issue of new securities to the public.

Correct the underlined word/s and rewrite the following sentence.

1.In Primary market, already existing securities are traded.

SOLUTION

In secondary market, already existing securities are traded.

2.Companies sell fresh shares for the first time to the public in secondary market.

SOLUTION

Companies sell fresh shares for the first time to the public in primary market.

3.In Money market, the instruments traded have maturity period of more than one year.

SOLUTION

In capital market, the instruments traded have maturity period of more than one year.

4.Financial market can be classified as capital market and call money market.

SOLUTION

Financial market can be classified as capital market and money market.

Explain the following term/concept.

1.Financial market

SOLUTION

It is a market where financial assets i.e. financial instruments are exchanged or bought and sold. It represents the market which raises finance for the long-term via Capital Market and for the short-term via Money Market. The financial market helps in mobilisation of savings and converts it into investments. Thus, the financial market acts as an intermediary between investors and borrowers.

2.Capital market

SOLUTION

It is the market for borrowing and lending long-term capital required by business enterprises. The financial assets dealt with in the capital market have a long or indefinite maturity period. In this market, the capital funds comprising both equity and debt are issued and traded. The capital market is the core of a country’s financial system as it helps in mobilisation of resources.

3.Money market

SOLUTION

The money market is a market wherein lending and borrowing of funds take place for a short period of time, which varies from one day to a year. The financial instruments traded in this market can be converted into cash easily without any loss of time and value. The money market helps in fulfilling the short-term and very short-term requirements of the companies, banks, financial institutions, government agencies, etc.

4.Call money market

SOLUTION

It is a market where funds are lent or borrowed for very short periods i.e. one day. The call money market is an important segment of the money market in India. When one bank faces a temporary shortage of cash, then another bank with surplus cash lends money to it. Hence, it is also called as interbank call money market

5.Treasury bills

SOLUTION

Treasury Bills are short-term securities issued by RBI to meet the government’s short-term funds requirement. These bills are negotiable and freely transferable. They are sold to banks, individuals, firms, institutions, etc. The minimum value of T-bills is  25,000 or in multiples of  25000. These bills are also called Zero-Coupon Bonds. T-bills have three maturity periods – 91 days, 182 days, and 364 days.

6.Commercial bills

SOLUTION

These are the trade bills accepted by commercial banks. Trade bills are negotiable instruments or bills drawn by a seller on the buyer for the value of goods sold under credit sales. Banks can rediscount the bills any number of times till the maturity of the bill.

7.Repurchase agreement

SOLUTION

It is an agreement where the seller of security (i.e. one who needs money) agrees to buy it back from the lender at a higher price on a future date. Usually, this agreement is between RBI and commercial banks. RBI uses this agreement to control the money supply in the economy. These agreements are the most liquid of all money market investments having maturity ranging from 24 hours to several months.

8.Primary market

SOLUTION

In the primary market, companies sell their shares, debentures, etc. for the first time to raise fresh capital. It exclusively deals with the issue of new securities and hence, also called the new issues market. The main function of the primary market is to facilitate capital formation. The primary market is classified as the equity market and debt market.

9.Secondary market

SOLUTION

The secondary market is more commonly known as the stock market or the stock exchange. Here, the previously issued securities are bought and sold by investors. There is no fresh issue. After IPO, when the shares are listed at the stock exchange, they can be traded in the secondary market.

1.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

Joy ltd. company is a newly incorporated company. It wants to raise capital for the first time by issuing equity shares.

  1. Should it go to the primary market or secondary market to issue its shares?
  2. Should it offer its shares through public offer or rights issue?
  3. What will be the issue of Equity shares by Joy Ltd. co. called as, IPO or FPO?

SOLUTION

  1. In primary markets, companies can raise capital for the first time from the public. So, Joy ltd. should go to the primary market to issue its shares since it is a newly incorporated company. 
  2. Joy ltd. wants to raise capital for the first time by issuing equity shares. Initial Public Offer (IPO) refers to the process of offering shares of a company to the public for the first time. Therefore, Joy ltd. should offer its shares through public offer.
  3. The issue of equity shares by Joy Ltd. Co. will be called as IPO which means Initial Public Offer.

2.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

Mr. X is the CFO ( Chief Financial Officer ) of PQR Co. Ltd. which is a reputed company in the field of construction business. Often Mr. X has to decide on investing surplus funds of the company for short durations. And at times, he also has to decide the sources from where he can raise funds for short durations.

  1. Assume on behalf of the company Mr. X has Rs. 5 lakhs and wants to invest for a short period. Should he buy Equity shares or Certificate of Deposit?
  2. The company has surplus funds and wants to invest it. However, he needs the money back in 4 months, so should he invest in Treasury Bills or Government Securities?
  3. Can the company issue Certificate of Deposit?

SOLUTION

  1. Mr. X wants to invest for a short period and money is in multiple of 1 lakh, so he should invest in a certificate of deposit. This is because the CD is issued for a minimum value of  1 lakh or in multiples of  1 lakh and provides maturity in minimum 7 days to maximum 1 year.
  2. Mr. X should invest surplus funds in government securities as these securities are safe investments. Alternatively, he can also invest in Treasury Bills having a maturity period of 91 days. However, the funds will not remain invested for the entire duration of 4 months in this case. Hence, investing in government securities seems more appropriate.
  3. No, PQR Co. Ltd. Cannot issue a Certificate of Deposit (CD). CDs are unsecured negotiable promissory notes, usually issued by commercial banks and financial institutions, but this company is a construction company.

Distinguish between the following.

1.Primary market and Secondary market.

SOLUTION

 Primary MarketSecondary Market
1) MeaningThe issue of new shares by the company is done in the primary market.The securities issued earlier are traded in the secondary market.
2) Mode of investmentThe securities are acquired directly from the company. It involves direct investment in securities.The securities are acquired from other stakeholders. It involves indirect investment in securities.
3) Parties in actionThe parties dealing in this market are companies and investors.The parties dealing in this market are only investors.
4) IntermediaryThe underwriters are the intermediaries.The security brokers are the intermediaries.
5) Value of securityThe price of a security in the primary market is fixed as it is decided by the company.The price of a security is fluctuating, depending on the demand and supply conditions in the market

2.Money market and Capital market

SOLUTION

 Money MarketCapital Market
1) MeaningIt is a component of the financial market where short-term borrowing and lending takes place.It is a component of the financial market where long-term borrowing and lending takes place.
2) Time PeriodIn the money market, the instruments traded have a maturity period of one year or less than one year.In the capital market, the instruments traded have a maturity period of more than one year
3) InstrumentsCertificate of deposits, repurchase agreements, commercial paper, treasury bills, etc. are the instruments traded in the money market.Stocks, shares, debentures, bonds, securities of the government are the instruments of the capital market.
4) Purpose of borrowingFunds are borrowed to meet working capital requirements or for small investments.Long-term funds help to establish a new business, expand or diversify it, or purchase fixed assets.
5) InstitutionsParticipants in the market are central banks, commercial banks, acceptance houses, non-bank financial institutions, bill brokers, etc.Stock exchanges, commercial banks, non-bank institutions, financial intermediaries, etc. are the participants in the market
6) RiskRisk factor is very less because the maturity period of the instruments is less than one yearRisk is more as compared to the money market as instruments have a long maturity period
7) Return on investmentReturn on investment is less as the money market is highly liquid and safe.Return on investment is comparatively high as the capital market is riskier
8) Role in the economyThis market increases liquidity of funds in the economy.This market helps in mobilisation of savings in the economy

Answer in brief.

1.State any four functions of financial market

SOLUTION

A financial market is a place where financial instruments or assets are exchanged or bought and sold. Financial markets help to mobilise savings and convert it into investments. They also attract funds from investors and channelize them to corporations.

The functions of the financial market are as follows:

1) TRANSFER OF RESOURCES: Financial market facilitates the transfer of real economic resources from lenders to ultimate users. 2) PRODUCTIVE USAGE Financial market allows productive use of the funds. Excess funds of the investors are used by the borrowers for productive purposes.

3) ENHANCING INCOME: Financial market allows lenders to earn interest or dividend on their surplus funds, thus leading to the enhancement of individual and national income.

4) CAPITAL FORMATION: Capital formation is the net addition to the existing stock of an economy’s capital. The financial market provides a channel through which savings flow to industrial and commercial organisations in the form of capital. This leads to capital formation.

5) PRICE DETERMINATION: The financial instruments traded in the financial market get their prices from the mechanism of demand and supply. The interaction between the suppliers of the funds, i.e. investors and the users, i.e. corporates, as well as the other market factors helps to determine the prices.

6) SALE MECHANISM: Financial market provides a mechanism for selling of a financial asset by an investor so as to offer the benefit of marketability and liquidity of such assets.

7) MOBILISING FUNDS: Investors having idle funds or savings must be linked with corporates that require investment. Thus, the financial market enables investors to invest their saving according to their choices and risk assessment. This will utilize idle funds and the economy will boom.

8) LIQUIDITY: Financial market provides a mechanism for liquidating the financial instruments, i.e., at any given time, the investor can sell these instruments and convert them into cash. It is an important factor for investors who do not want to invest for a long period.

2.State any four features of money market

SOLUTION

The money market is a market for lending and borrowing of funds for short-term which varies from one day to a year.

The features of the money market are as follows:

1) The funds borrowed and lent in the money market are for the short-term. The maximum period for which the funds are traded in the market is one year.

2) It is a wholesale market for short-term debt as the transaction volume is large.

3) Trading may take place over the telephone, after which written confirmation is done by way of e-mails.

4) Participants of the money market include RBI, commercial banks, mutual funds, financial institutions, primary dealers, and corporates.

5) There is an impersonal relationship between the participants of the money market.

6) Money market has no geographical area i.e. there is no fixed place for carrying out transactions.

7) The instruments of the money market can be converted easily into cash or have very short maturity periods. Moreover, the returns on investment are also low.

8) Major segments of the money market are

i. Call money market

ii. Certificate of deposits market

iii. Treasury bill market

iv. Commercial bill market

v. Commercial papers market

3.State any four features of capital market

SOLUTION

It is the market for borrowing and lending long-term capital required by business enterprises. As per SEBI, the capital market is a market for long-term debt and equity shares.

The features of the capital market are as follows:

1) LINK BETWEEN INVESTORS AND BORROWERS: The capital market links investors with the borrowers of funds. It routes money from savers to entrepreneurial borrowers.

2) DEALS IN MEDIUM AND LONG-TERM INVESTMENT: In the capital market, medium and long-term financial instruments are traded. Through this market, corporates, industrial organisations, financial institutions access long-term funds from both, domestic as well as foreign markets.

3) PRESENCE OF INTERMEDIARIES: Capital market operates with the help of intermediaries. The intermediaries like brokers, underwriters, merchant bankers, collection bankers, etc. play an important role in the capital market.

4) PROMOTES CAPITAL FORMATION: Capital market provides a platform for investors and borrowers of long-term funds to engage in trade. This leads to capital formation in the economy as it mobilises funds.

5) REGULATED BY GOVERNMENT RULES, REGULATIONS, AND POLICIES: Capital market operates freely. However, it is regulated by government rules, regulations, and policies. E.g.: SEBI is the regulator of Capital markets.

6) DEALS IN MARKETABLE AND NON-MARKETABLE SECURITIES: It trades in both, marketable and non-marketable securities. Marketable securities are securities that can be transferred. E.g.: shares, debentures, etc. Non-marketable securities are those which cannot be transferred. E.g.: term deposits, loans, and advances.

7) VARIETY OF INVESTORS: It has a wide variety of investors including both, individuals (i.e. general public) and institutional investors like mutual funds, insurance companies, financial institutions, etc.

8) RISK: Risk is very high as the instruments have long maturity periods. But along with that, the return on investments is also very high.

9) INSTRUMENTS: Equity shares, preference shares, debentures, bonds, government securities and public deposits are the main instruments in capital market.

10) TYPES: Capital market is mainly classified into two main types, government securities market or gilt-edged market and industrial securities market. Industrial securities market is further classified into the primary and secondary markets.

4.Explain any 4 types of money market instruments.

SOLUTION

In the money market, only those financial instruments are traded which are immediate substitutes for money. Some of these instruments are explained as follows :

1) Call money and Notice money: Call money and Notice money market is an important segment of the money market in India. Under Call money, funds are lent or borrowed for very short periods i.e. one day. Under Notice money, funds are lent or borrowed for periods between 2 days to 14 days. Funds have to be repaid within a specified time on the receipt of the notice given by the lender. When one bank faces temporary shortage of cash, then another bank with surplus cash lends money to it. Hence Call/ Notice money market is also called as interbank Call money market.

2) Treasury Bills (T-Bills): Treasury Bills are short-term securities issued by the Reserve Bank of India on behalf of the Central Government of India to meet the government’s short-term funds requirement. Treasury Bills have three maturity periods – 91 days, 182 days and 364 days. These bills are sold to banks and individuals, firms, institutions, etc. These bills are negotiable instruments and are freely transferable. The minimum value of T-bills is  25,000 or in multiples of  25000. These are issued at a discount and repaid at par and hence they are also called Zero-Coupon Bonds.

3) Trade Bills/ Commercial Bills: Bill of Exchange also called as Trade bills are negotiable instruments or bills drawn by a seller on the buyer for the value of goods sold under credit sales. These have a short-term maturity period generally of 90 days and can be easily transferred. If the seller wants immediate cash, he can discount the trade bills with Commercial banks i.e. sell it to banks for cash. When the trade bills are accepted by Commercial banks it is known as Commercial Bills. Banks can rediscount the bills any number of times till the maturity of the bill.

4) Commercial Papers (CPs): Commercial Paper is an unsecured promissory note issued by highly rated companies, All India Financial Institutions, like SIDBI, Exim Bank, etc. and Primary Dealers with a fixed maturity period which varies from 7 days to a maximum 1 year. The minimum value of CP is 5 lakhs or in multiples of  5 lakhs. It is issued at a discount to the face value and are highly liquid as it gives better returns than normal bank deposits. Individuals, Banks, Mutual funds, Companies, etc. invest in Commercial Papers.

5) Certificate of Deposits (CDs): These are unsecured negotiable promissory notes usually issued by Commercial Banks and Financial Institutions. It is a receipt of funds deposited in a bank for a fixed period at a specified rate of interest. It can be issued for a minimum value of  1 lakh or in multiples of  1 lakh. They can be issued at a discount to the face value. They have a maturity period of minimum 7 days and maximum 1 year. (Maximum maturity maybe 3 years if the CDs are issued by Financial Institutions.) CDs can be bought by individuals, companies, etc.

6) Government Securities: The marketable debts issued by the government or by semi-government bodies which represent claims on the government are known as government securities. These securities are issued by agencies such as Central Government, State Government, local self-government e.g. Municipalities, etc. These securities are safe investment as payment of interest and repayment of principal amount are guaranteed by the government.

7) Repo or Repurchase Agreement: Repo is an agreement where the seller of a security, (i.e. one who needs money) agrees to buy it back from the lender at a higher price on a future date. Usually, this agreement is made between RBI and commercial banks. Repo rate is the rate at which banks borrow from RBI and Reverse repo rate is the rate at which RBI borrows from banks. RBI uses the repurchase agreement to control the money supply in the economy. These agreements are the most liquid of all money market investments having maturity ranging from 24 hours to several months.

8) Money Market Mutual Funds (MMMFs): A Mutual Fund which invests in Money market instruments like Call Money, Repos, T-bills, CDs, etc. is called as MMMFs. This type of Mutual Fund invests in debt instruments which mature in less than 1 year and have low risk. Individuals and corporates are allowed to invest in MMMFs.

Justify the following statement.

1.Financial markets acts as link between investor and borrower.

SOLUTION

  1. The financial market provides a platform where both, buyers and sellers can find each other easily.
  2. Investors who have savings are linked with entrepreneurial borrowers that require investment.
  3. As a result, the idle funds in the hands of investors can be productively used by corporates. 
  4. This market enables investors to invest their saving according to their choices and risk assessment.
  5. Hence, financial markets acts as link between investor and borrower.

2.Money market makes available short term finance through different instruments.

SOLUTION

  1. In the money market, lending and borrowing of funds take place for a short period of time, which may vary from one day to a year.
  2. Financial instruments in this market can be easily converted into cash without loss of time and value.
  3. In other words, money market deals with only those financial instruments which are immediate substitute for money.
  4. Some of the instruments used in the money market are call and notice money, treasury bills, trade/ commercial bills, commercial papers, certificates of deposits, government securities, repurchase agreements, Money Market Mutual Funds, etc.
  5. All these instruments have a maturity period of less than a year
  6. Hence, the money market makes available short-term finance through different instruments.

3.Capital market is useful for corporate sector.

SOLUTION

  1. Capital market is the market for borrowing and lending long-term capital required by business enterprises.
  2. The capital market is the core of a country’s financial system as it helps in the mobilisation of resources.
  3. Through this market, corporates, industrial organisations, financial institutions access long-term funds from both domestic as well as foreign markets.
  4. Capital market also contribute to capital formation in the economy.
  5. Hence, capital market is useful for corporate sector.

4.There are many participants in money market.

SOLUTION

  1. In the money market, lending and borrowing of funds take place for a short period of time, which may vary from one day to a year.
  2. Participants of the money market include RBI, Central and State governments Public Sector Undertakings, Scheduled commercial banks, Insurance companies, Mutual funds, Non-Banking Finance Companies, Corporates, Primary dealers, etc.

Answer the following question

1.Explain the functions of financial market.

SOLUTION

A financial market is a place where financial instruments or assets are exchanged or bought and sold. Financial markets help to mobilise savings and convert it into investments. They also attract funds from investors and channelize them to corporations.

The functions of the financial market are as follows:

1) TRANSFER OF RESOURCES: Financial market facilitates the transfer of real economic resources from lenders to ultimate users. 2) PRODUCTIVE USAGE Financial market allows productive use of the funds. Excess funds of the investors are used by the borrowers for productive purposes.

3) ENHANCING INCOME: Financial market allows lenders to earn interest or dividend on their surplus funds, thus leading to the enhancement of individual and national income.

4) CAPITAL FORMATION: Capital formation is the net addition to the existing stock of an economy’s capital. The financial market provides a channel through which savings flow to industrial and commercial organisations in the form of capital. This leads to capital formation.

5) PRICE DETERMINATION: The financial instruments traded in the financial market get their prices from the mechanism of demand and supply. The interaction between the suppliers of the funds, i.e. investors and the users, i.e. corporates, as well as the other market factors helps to determine the prices.

6) SALE MECHANISM: Financial market provides a mechanism for selling of a financial asset by an investor so as to offer the benefit of marketability and liquidity of such assets.

7) MOBILISING FUNDS: Investors having idle funds or savings must be linked with corporates that require investment. Thus, the financial market enables investors to invest their saving according to their choices and risk assessment. This will utilize idle funds and the economy will boom.

8) LIQUIDITY: Financial market provides a mechanism for liquidating the financial instruments, i.e., at any given time, the investor can sell these instruments and convert them into cash. It is an important factor for investors who do not want to invest for a long period.

2.State the instruments in money market.

SOLUTION

Financial instruments are documents in the form of a legal agreement between two parties having a monetary value. It represents a financial asset to one party and a financial liability to another party. In the money market, only those financial instruments are traded which are immediate substitutes for money.

Some of these instruments are explained as follows:

1) Call money and Notice money: Call money and Notice money market is an important segment of the money market in India. Under Call money, funds are lent or borrowed for very short periods i.e. one day. Under Notice money, funds are lent or borrowed for periods between 2 days to 14 days. Funds have to be repaid within a specified time on the receipt of the notice given by the lender. When one bank faces temporary shortage of cash, then another bank with surplus cash lends money to it. Hence Call/ Notice money market is also called as interbank Call money market.

2) Treasury Bills (T-Bills): Treasury Bills are short-term securities issued by the Reserve Bank of India on behalf of the Central Government of India to meet the government’s short-term funds requirement. Treasury Bills have three maturity periods – 91 days, 182 days and 364 days. These bills are sold to banks and individuals, firms, institutions, etc. These bills are negotiable instruments and are freely transferable. The minimum value of T-bills is 25,000 or in multiples of 25000. These are issued at a discount and repaid at par and hence they are also called Zero-Coupon Bonds.

3) Trade Bills/ Commercial Bills: Bill of Exchange also called as Trade bills are negotiable instruments or bills drawn by a seller on the buyer for the value of goods sold under credit sales. These have a short-term maturity period generally of 90 days and can be easily transferred. If the seller wants immediate cash, he can discount the trade bills with Commercial banks i.e. sell it to banks for cash. When the trade bills are accepted by Commercial banks it is known as Commercial Bills. Banks can rediscount the bills any number of times till the maturity of the bill.

4) Commercial Papers (CPs): Commercial Paper is an unsecured promissory note issued by highly rated companies, All India Financial Institutions, like SIDBI, Exim Bank, etc. and Primary Dealers with a fixed maturity period which varies from 7 days to a maximum 1 year. The minimum value of CP is 5 lakhs or in multiples of 5 lakhs. It is issued at a discount to the face value and are highly liquid as it gives better returns than normal bank deposits. Individuals, Banks, Mutual funds, Companies, etc. invest in Commercial Papers.

5) Certificate of Deposits (CDs): These are unsecured negotiable promissory notes usually issued by Commercial Banks and Financial Institutions. It is a receipt of funds deposited in a bank for a fixed period at a specified rate of interest. It can be issued for a minimum value of 1 lakh or in multiples of 1 lakh. They can be issued at a discount to the face value. They have a maturity period of minimum 7 days and maximum 1 year. (Maximum maturity maybe 3 years if the CDs are issued by Financial Institutions.) CDs can be bought by individuals, companies, etc.

6) Government Securities: The marketable debts issued by the government or by semi-government bodies which represent claims on the government are known as government securities. These securities are issued by agencies such as Central Government, State Government, local self-government e.g. Municipalities, etc. These securities are safe investment as payment of interest and repayment of principal amount are guaranteed by the government.

7) Repo or Repurchase Agreement: Repo is an agreement where the seller of a security, (i.e. one who needs money) agrees to buy it back from the lender at a higher price on a future date. Usually, this agreement is made between RBI and commercial banks. Repo rate is the rate at which banks borrow from RBI and Reverse repo rate is the rate at which RBI borrows from banks. RBI uses the repurchase agreement to control the money supply in the economy. These agreements are the most liquid of all money market investments having maturity ranging from 24 hours to several months.

8) Money Market Mutual Funds (MMMFs): A Mutual Fund which invests in Money market instruments like Call Money, Repos, T-bills, CDs, etc. is called as MMMFs. This type of Mutual Fund invests in debt instruments which mature in less than 1 year and have low risk. Individuals and corporates are allowed to invest in MMMFs.

3.State the features of capital market.

SOLUTION

It is the market for borrowing and lending long-term capital required by business enterprises. As per SEBI, the capital market is a market for long-term debt and equity shares.

The features of the capital market are as follows:

1) LINK BETWEEN INVESTORS AND BORROWERS: The capital market links investors with the borrowers of funds. It routes money from savers to entrepreneurial borrowers.

2) DEALS IN MEDIUM AND LONG-TERM INVESTMENT: In the capital market, medium and long-term financial instruments are traded. Through this market, corporates, industrial organisations, financial institutions access long-term funds from both, domestic as well as foreign markets.

3) PRESENCE OF INTERMEDIARIES: Capital market operates with the help of intermediaries. The intermediaries like brokers, underwriters, merchant bankers, collection bankers, etc. play an important role in the capital market.

4) PROMOTES CAPITAL FORMATION: Capital market provides a platform for investors and borrowers of long-term funds to engage in trade. This leads to capital formation in the economy as it mobilises funds.

5) REGULATED BY GOVERNMENT RULES, REGULATIONS, AND POLICIES: Capital market operates freely. However, it is regulated by government rules, regulations, and policies. E.g.: SEBI is the regulator of Capital markets.

6) DEALS IN MARKETABLE AND NON-MARKETABLE SECURITIES: It trades in both, marketable and non-marketable securities. Marketable securities are securities that can be transferred. E.g.: shares, debentures, etc. Non-marketable securities are those which cannot be transferred. E.g.: term deposits, loans, and advances.

7) VARIETY OF INVESTORS: It has a wide variety of investors including both, individuals (i.e. general public) and institutional investors like mutual funds, insurance companies, financial institutions, etc.

8) RISK: Risk is very high as the instruments have long maturity periods. But along with that, the return on investments is also very high.

9) INSTRUMENTS: Equity shares, preference shares, debentures, bonds, government securities and public deposits are the main instruments in capital market.

10) TYPES: Capital market is mainly classified into two main types, government securities market or gilt-edged market and industrial securities market. Industrial securities market is further classified into the primary and secondary markets.

                                  COMPLETED

Chapter 11, Correspondence with Banks, fyjc, 11th std, sp, secretarial practice, maharashtra board,

Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statement.

1.A company usually opens _____________ account in a bank.

Options
  • Current
  • Saving
  • Recurring

2.Bank is a _______  institution

Options
  • financial
  • social
  • cultural

3.The appointment of banker is usually made by the _______.

Options
  • Board of Directors
  • Secretary
  • Chairman

4.Resolution for opening Bank Account is passed in the _________  meeting.

Options
  • Board
  • Statutory
  • Annual General

5.Bank provides overdraft facility to ___________ account holder.

Options
  • Current
  • Saving
  • Fixed Deposit

6.__________ is used for depositing cash into a bank account.

Options
  • Pay-in-slip
  • Withdrawal slip
  • Cheque

7.Borrowing/Accepting and lending money are considered as _______  functions of bank.

Options
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Agency

8.Withdrawals are not permitted from the ____________ deposit account.

Options
  • Fixed
  • Current
  • Savings

9.__________ account is suitable to salaried people.

Options
  • Savings
  • Current
  • Fixed

10.Generally Interest is not paid on ___________ deposit account

Options
  1. Current
  2. Saving
  3. Fixed

Match the pairs.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Lost cheque1) Board of Directors
b) Appointment of Banker2) Higher rate of interest
c) Cash credit3) Used for depositing cash and cheque
d) Fixed Deposit Account4) Stop Payment
e) Savings Account5) Restrictions on withdrawals
f) Pay-in-slip6) Separate Account
g) Overdraft facility7) Current Account
 8) Recurring Account
 9) Shareholders
 10) No interest is paid
 11) Used for withdrawing amount from account
 12) Long term credit facility
 13) Certain restrictions on withdrawals
 14) Dealing in foreign exchange

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Lost cheque4) Stop Payment
b) Appointment of Banker1) Board of Directors
c) Cash credit6) Separate Account
d) Fixed Deposit Account2) Higher rate of interest
e) Savings account5) Restrictions on withdrawals
f) Pay-in-slip3) Used for depositing cash and cheque
g) Overdraft facility7) Current Account

Write a word or a term or a phase which can substitute the following statement:

1.A slip used for depositing cash and cheque in the Bank account.

SOLUTION

Pay-in-slip

2.Permission to withdraw excess amount from Current Account.

SOLUTION

Overdraft

3.Separate loan account under which the short term loan facility given by bank to the business

SOLUTION

Cash credit

4.The short term credit facility given by bank to current account holder.

SOLUTION

Overdraft

5.The account which is generally opened by business organization.

SOLUTION

Current account

6.Request of Secretary to the bank not to make the payment of cheque.

SOLUTION

Stop payment request

7.The type of account for which higher rate of interest is paid to bank depositors..

SOLUTION

 Fixed deposits account

8.The slip which is used for withdrawing money from Savings Account.

SOLUTION

Withdrawals slip

9.Negotiable Instrument which can be discounted with the bank.

SOLUTION

bill of exchange


State whether the following statement is true or false :

1.Joint Stock Company opens Current Account.

Options
  • True
  • False

2.Generally no interest is paid by bank on Current Account.

Options
  • True
  • False

3.In cash credit, customers account is credited by bank with sanctioned amount

Options
  • True
  • False

4.Board resolution is not required to open the Current Account with the bank.

Options
  • True
  • False

5.Bank account of company is operated by shareholder.

Options
  • True
  • False

6.Overdraft facility is granted to Savings account holders.

Options
  • True
  • False

7.Bank correspondence should be brief and to the point.

Options
  • True
  • False

8.Bank overdraft facility is a long term facility.

Options
  • True
  • False

9. Banks grant long term loans only.

Options
  • True
  • False

10.It is necessary to instruct the bank to stop payment of a cheque which is lost.

Options
  • True
  • False

1.Find the odd one:

Options
  • Saving Deposit
  • Recurring Deposit
  • Cash Credit
  • Fixed Deposit

2.Find the odd one:

Options
  • Overdraft
  • Fixed Deposit
  • Discounting of Bills
  • Cash Credit.

Complete the sentence:

1.A financial institution which receives deposits and lends money is called as __________

SOLUTION

A financial institution which receives deposits and lends money is called as Bank


Chapter 11, Nose versus Eyes, english, fyjc, 11th std, maharashtra board,

Complete the web with the help of adjectives used to describe eyes and nose in all respects. Two are done for you.

SOLUTION


Given below are some words from legal terminology used in court affairs. Discuss and complete the table accordingly.

Sr. NoLegal TerminologyDescription
1.AffidavitA written statement confirmed by oath or affirmation for use as evidence in court.
2.Argument 
3.Consent 
4.Counsel 
5.Judgement 
6.Trial 
7.Verdict 
8.Contempt of Court 
9.Notice 
10.Stay order 

SOLUTION

Sr. NoLegal TerminologyDescription
1.AffidavitA written statement confirmed by oath or affirmation for use as evidence in court.
2.ArgumentA set of legal reasons based on statutes, regulations, case precedents, legal texts, and reasoning for a particular case. A presentation of the facts or evidence and the conclusions that may be drawn from them, aimed at convincing a judge or jury to deliver the verdict in favour of the lawyer’s client.
3.ConsentVoluntarily accepting or agreeing with another person’s statement/proposal.
4.CounselA person of authority similar to a lawyer, who deals with various legal issues and provides legal advice.
5.JudgementAn official decision made by the court that determines the rights and obligations of the parties involved.
6.TrialA legal examination of an issue by a court (or similar authority) in order to determine the rights of the parties involved based on the evidence presented by them.
7.VerdictThe official decision or findings made by the court regarding the issue specified in a trial.
8.Contempt of CourtAn offence that involves any form of disrespectful behaviour towards the court of law, its officials or its regulations and that disregards the dignity of the court.
9.NoticeA legal notification or warning (usually in writing) aimed to make the party aware of legal processes that affect their rights or duties.
10.Stay orderIt is a court order to temporarily suspend the execution of a court judgement.

Name the five sensory organs and provide phrases/idioms/proverbs related to them. (One is given for you.)

  1. to turn a deaf ear ____________
  2. ____________________________
  3. ____________________________
  4. ____________________________
  5. ____________________________

SOLUTION

  1. to turn a deaf ear
  2. Nose – have (one’s) nose in the air, keep (one’s) nose out of (something), rub (one’s) nose in it.
  3. Eyes – a bird‟s eye view, the apple of one’s eye, turn a blind eye, an eye for an eye makes the whole world blind.
  4. Tongue – tongue-tied, to be on the tip of one’s tongue, a slip of the tongue, the tongue can paint what the eye can’t see.
  5. Skin – get under someone’s skin, thickskinned, beauty is only skin-deep.

State whether the following statement is true or false. Correct the false statement.

1.The nose can use spectacles.

  • True
  • False

2.Eyes have to be shut when the Nose wears/puts on the spectacles.

  • True
  • False

3.The Ear was appointed as a judge.

  • True
  • False

4.Eyes cannot use spectacles.

  • True
  • False

Discuss with your partner and match the following expressions given in column A with their interpretations in column ‘B’.

Sr.No. A B
1.While Chief Baron Ear sat to balance the laws.(a) Eyes are refrained from using spectacles.
2.They are made with the straddle as wide as the ridge of the Nose is.(b) The responsibility of giving a verdict rested on the shoulders of the hearing organ.
3.That whenever the Nose put his Spectacles on, by daylight or candlelight Eyes should be shut!(c) Spectacles are meant for none other than the nose.
4.So his lordship decreed with a grave solemn tone, decisive and clear, without one if or but.(d) The judge delivered a firm verdict without any doubt.

SOLUTION

Sr.No.AB
1.While Chief Baron Ear sat to balance the laws.(b) The responsibility of giving a verdict rested on the shoulders of the hearing organ.
2.They are made with the straddle as wide as the ridge of the Nose is.(c) Spectacles are meant for none other than the nose.
3.That whenever the Nose put his Spectacles on, by daylight or candlelight Eyes should be shut!(a) Eyes are refrained from using spectacles.
4.So his lordship decreed with a grave solemn tone, decisive and clear, without one if or but.(d) The judge delivered a firm verdict without any doubt

The tongue justifies the possession of the spectacles on behalf of the nose. Pick up the expressions from the poem that argues in favour of the Nose and complete the following web diagram.

SOLUTION

  1. That the Nose has had spectacles always in wear, Which amounts to possession time out of mind.’
  2. they are made with a straddle As wide as the ridge of the Nose is;
  3. That the visage or countenance had not a Nose, Pray who would, or who could wear spec.

Comment on the following characters depicted in the poem, in a sentence or a phrase.

On the NoseOn the Eyes
  

SOLUTION

On the NoseOn the Eyes
NoseIntruding on something that does not belong to him.Eyes – Falls prey to blind justice.

“Lend thy ears to all but few thy tongue”…. is a famous quote by William Shakespeare. Justify.

SOLUTION

The quote “Lend thy ears to all but few thy tongue” by William Shakespeare suggests that while one must be quick to listen to another’s opinions or views, giving your opinion must be done more cautiously.

This is because listening to a variety of opinions and views helps to form a clearer perspective. However, when giving out an opinion, careful consideration and thought must be given to the matter at hand, and only when one is sure of their viewpoint, should one venture to speak.

The quote thus focuses on the importance of being a good listener and warns us about the disadvantages of speaking without thinking.


Pick out examples of Inversion from the poem.

SOLUTION

  1. “Between Nose and Eyes, a strange contest arose, -”
    Inversion The words in the line have been rearranged for poetic effect. The correct order should be “A strange contest arose between Nose and Eyes”
  2. “Again would your lordship a moment suppose,”
    Inversion The words in the line have been rearranged for poetic effect. The correct order should be “Again, would your lordship suppose (for) a moment”.
  3. “That the spectacles plainly were made for the Nose,”
    Inversion The words in the line have been rearranged for poetic effect. The correct order should be “That the spectacles were plainly made for the Nose”

.Justify the verdict delivered in the poem.

I can support my answer with the help of the following suitable arguments:

  1. _______________________
  2. _______________________
  3. _______________________

SOLUTION

  1. Spectacles are always worn on the nose.
  2. Without the nose for support, the spectacles would be of no use.
  3. A pair of spectacles are designed to perfectly fit the shape of the nose.
  4. The sole purpose of a nose is to balance the spectacles on its ridge to keep them from falling.

Compose two lines of your own on any sensory organ.

SOLUTION

Sensitive in nature is the skin

A slap, a burn, or be it a pin

OR

The skin provides cover like a blanket in the cold,

And changes with age, from young to old.


Imagine that you are a lawyer defending the case of the eyes in court. Present your counter statement in support of your client.

SOLUTION

I can present my case on behalf of the eyes with the help of the following arguments:

  1. It is because of the eyes that one wears spectacles.
  2. Spectacles are made to correct one’s vision.
  3. Spectacles aid the eyes to see clearly at all times of the day – be it day or night.
  4. Spectacles help in reading and in protecting the eyes from strain.
  5. If the eyes do not need spectacles, it is pointless to wear them.

Write the appreciation of the poem.

  • About the poem / poet / title
  • Theme
  • Poetic devices, language, style
  • Special features / novelties / focusing elements
  • Values, message
  • Your opinion about the poem

SOLUTION

Appreciation of the poem ‘Nose versus Eyes’

The poem ‘Nose versus Eyes’ by William Cowper is a satirical take on the judiciary.

The theme dwells on the proceedings of a court where judgment is passed without careful consideration.

The rhyme scheme of the poem is ‘abab’ and provides a song-like flow to the poem. The notable features of the poem are the use of Imagery, Simile, Personification, and Inversion. While inversion has been used to maintain the rhyme scheme and add to poetic effect, imagery helps to paint a vivid picture of the court setting in the minds of the readers. The highlight of the poem is the personification of the eyes, nose, and tongue. The characters assigned to each one of them are perfectly fitting and add to the humorous nature of the poem.

Though the poem is a mockery of the legal system, the message is to highlight the general pitfalls of selective hearing and warn the reader to exercise good judgment. The poem also reveals the failure of the legal system in delivering justice. This is particularly obvious in the lines ‘then shifting his side, as a lawyer knows how’ and ‘what were his arguments few people know’. The irony of the poem is that the judgment was made in favour of the one, who had no use of it i.e. the Nose. In a court of justice, injustice was served to the eyes.


Overall the poem is apparently funny but upon a closer look, the depth of the poem is revealed.

Write a summary of the poem.

  • Title
  • Introductory paragraph (about the poem/ type/nature/tone)
  • Main body (central idea/gist of the poem)
  • Conclusion/ opinions/views/appeal.

SOLUTION

Nose versus Eyes

The title of the poem, ‘Nose versus Eyes’ clearly describes the premise of the poem. It is a dispute between the Nose and the Eyes regarding the ownership of the spectacles. The poem is humorous in nature and is a satirical work mocking the legal system. Though the tone of the poem is sarcastic and funny, a closer analysis reveals its depth. It aims to highlight the downfalls of analysing something at face value, without logical analysis.

The poem details the argument between the Nose and the Eyes by placing them in a court setting. The tongue, who is appointed as the lawyer, argues both sides without worrying about who is the true owner of the spectacles. It is also clear that the Ear (chosen as the judge) delivers the verdict in favour of the Nose simply on the basis of nonsensical arguments and without considering any logic. The irony of his decision in giving the right of ownership to the Nose and asking the Eyes to remain shut when the Nose wears them is obvious and thus effectively highlights the drawbacks of blind justice.

The Ear and the Tongue are both given roles that perfectly fit their functions as sensory organs. However, they both behave in a manner opposite to their ideal nature. This brings out the poet‟s message that people should use their senses in the right manner and thus exercise careful listening and good judgment.

On the whole, the poem is a delightful read and is appealing to the reader due to its ease of understanding and humorous take on the realities of the legal system. Through the use of powerful imagery, the poet successfully convinces the reader to make proper use of his sensory abilities. (www.asterclasses.com)


Read different stories about intelligent ministers of kings, whose judgments helped to bring about law and order in society. For example – Birbal, Tenalirama, etc. Write 5 such stories in your notebook.

SOLUTION

Do it yourself.


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