Chapter 10 | Aster Classes

Chapter 10, Indian Weavers, english, hsc, maharashtra board, latest edition, full solution,

1.Artisans are also called craftsmen. They are creators of diverse goods and use their hands to create unique, functional, and also decorative items using traditional techniques. Now complete the web given below:

SOLUTION

  1. Goldsmith
  2. Tailor
  3. Watchmaker
  4. Sculptor
  5. Potter
  6. Carpenter
  7. Mason

Discuss with your partner the season/occasion when we need:

1.woollen clothes

SOLUTION

Woollen clothes are needed in the cold weather and/or during the winter to keep ourselves warm.

2.casual clothes

SOLUTION

Casual clothes are worn for informal occasions such as outings and parties.

3.Rich silk clothes

SOLUTION

Rich silk clothes are worn, especially by Indian women, at religious ceremonies and social gatherings such as wedding functions and poojas.

4.colourful, comfortable clothes

SOLUTION

Colourful, comfortable clothes can be worn especially while at home and during travel.

1.Let’s play a game. The teacher will ask the students some questions. Students will understand that there are some exceptions to the general rules. Let’s start.

  1. One who weaves is a weaver.
  2. One who plays a game is a _______.
  3. One who sings is a _______.
  4. One who dances is a _______.
  5. One who teaches is a _______.
  6. One who cooks is a _______.

SOLUTION

  1. One who weaves is a weaver.
  2. One who plays a game is a gamer.
  3. One who sings is a singer.
  4. One who dances is a dancer.
  5. One who teaches is a teacher.
  6. One who cooks is a cook.

2.We have often seen the picture of Gandhiji spinning on his charkha. Discuss the reasons behind this. One has been given for you.

  1. To give rural people an opportunity to earn their livelihood.
  2. _________________________
  3. _________________________
  4. _________________________

SOLUTION

  1. To give rural people an opportunity to earn their livelihood.
  2. To instil the sense of swadeshi among the masses
  3. To make India self-dependent in producing cloth for its people
  4. To promote the cottage industry in the country.

3.Name some tools used by the weavers.

  1. Loom
  2. ________
  3. ________

SOLUTION

Some tools used by the weavers are:

  1. Loom
  2. Weaving Comb
  3. Shed stick

4.Name some types of yarns used by the weavers.

  1. Linen
  2. ________
  3. ________
  4. ________

SOLUTION

  1. Linen
  2. Rayon
  3. Polyester
  4. Wool

1.Discuss with your partner about the following vocation:

Weaving

SOLUTION

It is the process of forming a fabric by interlacing yarn on a handloom or a power-loom. The interlaces are known as wefts and warps.

2.Discuss with your partner about the following vocation:

Tailoring

SOLUTION

It is the process of stitching garments from a fabric on a manual or an automatic tailoring machine.

3.Discuss with your partner about the following vocation:

Knitting

SOLUTION

It is the process by which yarn is handled or looped to create a textile or fabric. It is used to make many types of garments such as hosiery and woollen garments.

4.Discuss with your partner about the following vocation:

Embroidering

SOLUTION

It is the art of decorating cloth by sewing patterns on it with thread. Many ornamental patterns can be created on simple fabrics with this art to make tablecloths, drapery, ethnic wear, etc.

1.Discuss the various products made by the weavers in the poem.

SOLUTION

The weavers make three different products in the three stanzas of the poem:

  1. In the first stanza, they make vibrant blue-colored robes of a new-born child with the colour resembling the blue wings of the wild halcyon.
  2. In the second stanza, they make the marriage-veils of a queen in purple and green, with the colours resembling the plumes of a peacock.
  3. In the third stanza, they make a funeral shroud for a dead man. The shroud is white, like a feather and like a cloud.
    These products symbolize childhood, youth and old age, respectively.

2.The words in the three stanzas of the poem mention different times of the day. Complete the table.

Time of the dayWords/phrasesWeaver’s work
Early morningBreak of dayWeavers weave robes for the new-born child
Late in the evening  
Cold night  

SOLUTION

Time of the dayWords/phrasesWeaver’s work
Early morningBreak of dayWeavers weave robes for the new-born child
Late in the eveningFall of nightWeavers weave marriage-veils of a queen.
Cold nightMidnight chillWeavers weave a dead man’s funeral shroud.

3.The poem reveals three phases of life. Fill in the blanks with feelings and colours appropriate to the phases of life. One is done for you.

 New-born/ ChildhoodYouth/ AdulthoodOld age/ death
ColourBlue  
FeelingHopes and expectations  

SOLUTION

 New-born/ ChildhoodYouth/ AdulthoodOld age/ death
ColourBluePurple and GreenWhite
FeelingHopes and expectationsExcitement, JoyDejection, Lack of enthusiasm

4.Complete: The weavers weave in the chill moonlight _______.

SOLUTION

The weavers weave in the chill moonlight, solemn and still, a shroud for a dead man.

5.Pick out two words used to describe the weavers in the last stanza. Also state their importance.

SOLUTION

The two words that describe the weavers in the last stanza are ‘solemn’ and ‘still’. The words are used to describe the weavers who are weaving a funeral shroud for the dead man, in a sombre, silent, and compassionate state.

6.Express your views about the present condition of weavers.

SOLUTION

The weavers in present times are not generally well-off. They face serious competition from the large textile mills that can produce garments at a faster and cheaper rate. Many of the weavers have altogether left the profession or are forced to work for meagre income in large factories that produce cloth on power-looms.

7.Describe in your own words the steps or measures that can be taken to solve the problems of the weavers.

SOLUTION

The following steps can be taken to solve the problem of the weavers:

1. At government level, schemes should be introduced to protect the interests of weavers. They should be provided subsidies, just like farmers. For example, the government can provide them yarn at a discounted price or help them with easy loans to set up their own looms.

2. At individual level, we citizens can support the weavers by buying their products, even if they prove more expensive and less elegant than factory-made garments. We can keep a few weaver-made garments in our wardrobe to wear them at least on traditional occasions.

8.Express your own views and opinions from the weavers’ point of view and complete the following table.

StanzaActivity (done by weavers)Views/Opinion
First stanzaRobes for a new-born childThe weavers feel _____ because _____
Second stanza  
Third stanza  

SOLUTION

StanzaActivity (done by weavers)Views/Opinion
First stanzaRobes for a new-born childThe weavers feel _____ because _____
Second stanzaMarriage-veils for a queenThe weavers feel happy and enthusiastic because they are weaving the marriage-veils of a queen, which is a merry occasion.
Third stanzaFuneral shroud of a dead manThe weavers feel sad and depressed because they are silently and seriously weaving the funeral shroud upon the death of a man, which is a sad occasion.

1.Pick out the rhyming words from the poem.

SOLUTION

  1. day – gay
  2. wild – child
  3. night – bright
  4. green – queen
  5. still – chill
  6. shroud – cloud

2.Give antonyms and synonyms of the following and make sentences of your own.

WordAntonymSentenceSynonymSentence
new    
bright    
dead    
still    
wild    
fall    
child    

SOLUTION

WordAntonymSentenceSynonymSentence
newoldIt’s an old practice to observe fasting on religious festivals.novelCybercriminals always come up with novel ways to scam people
brightdullThe classroom appeared quite dull as four out of the two lights in the room were not working.colourfulMini wanted to wear a colourful costume for the dance competition.
deadaliveThe animal had been shot down but it was surprisingly still alive.deceasedThe family of the deceased was being consoled by the other relatives.
stillmobileThis truck is also a mobile hospital.stationaryAccording to laws of Physics, a stationary object carries potential energy.
wildtameThe tame animals in zoos have a longer lifespan than those in the jungles.feralDuring early stages of evolution, humans used to live in feral state, without any awareness of culture
fallriseThe rise of sun is a spectacle to watch from my balcony.declineThe covid-19 lockdown has led to a decline in employment in many countries of the world.
childadultIn India, anyone who is 18 years old or above is considered as an adult.infantA child aged 2 years or less is classified as an infant.

3.Make a word register for clothes/attire/dress.

SOLUTION

Garment, outfit, grooming, sartorial, casuals, formals, traditional, ethnic, spun, satin, embroidered, denim, corduroy, twill, crepe.

1.Complete the following table.

Figure of SpeechLine
Simile 
Imagery 
Metaphor 
Alliteration 

SOLUTION

Figure of SpeechLine
Simile“Blue as the wing of a halcyon wild,”
ImageryLike the plumes of a peacock, purple and green,
Metaphor“Weavers, weaving at break of day,”
Alliteration“Why do you weave a garment so gay?……”

2.The rhyme scheme in the first stanza is ‘aabb’. Find rhyme schemes in the second and third stanzas.

SOLUTION

StanzaRhyme Scheme
Secondccdd
Thirdeeff

1.The poet has asked a question at the beginning of every stanza. Explain the effect it creates on the reader.

SOLUTION

The questions at the beginning of each stanza are used by the poet to stir a sense of inquiry and wonderment in the reader’s mind. It gets the reader curious to know about the nature of the garment woven by the weaver and the reason behind weaving that garment at that particular time. The lines used to raise those questions also serve the purpose of adding the effect of alliteration as a figure of speech.

2.Write an appreciation of the poem ‘Indian Weavers’ by Sarojini Naidu. 

  1. About the poem/poet and the title
  2. The theme
  3. Poetic style
  4. The language/poetic devices used in the poem
  5. Special features
  6. Message, values, morals in the poem
  7. Your opinion about the poem

SOLUTION

Appreciation of the poem ‘Indian Weavers’

‘Indian Weavers’ is a poem by the renowned poet, Sarojini Naidu.

The poem has been taken from the poet’s first volume poetry ‘The Golden Threshold’, published in 1905. It consists of three stanzas, or quatrains, with two rhyming couplets each. This poem is a metaphor for the three stages of human life – birth, youth and death. The poet depicts Indian weavers, who weave tirelessly at different times, while simultaneously describing the three stages of human life, from birth to death, just as the weavers weave from dawn tonight. The poet chooses three different time settings – the weavers weave the new-born baby’s garments in the early morning, the queen’s marriage-veils in the evening and the dead man’s shroud at midnight.

The central theme of the poem is the parallelism that the poet beautifully draws between the three parts of the weaver’s workday and the three stages of human life. The poem has been written in iambic tetrameter and its three stanzas follow the rhyme scheme of ‘aabb’, ‘ccdd’ and ‘eeff’ respectively.

The style used in the poem is simple and lucid, with each stanza beginning with a question to evoke the reader’s interest.

The poetic devices Alliteration, Consonance, Inversion, Metaphor, Repetition and smile have been employed to enhance the text’s poetic appeal. The use of Simile in ‘blue as the wing of a halcyon wild’, Metaphor in ‘break of day’ to compare it to ‘childhood’, Alliteration in repetitive consonant sounds of ‘we’ throughout the stanzas or ‘p’ in ‘purple peacock’, and repetition of the words ‘weavers’, weaving’ and ‘weave’ across the poem are the examples of these poetic devices. The poet has used vivid imagery in correlating the parts of the day to the stages of life. Almost every line of the poem contains imagery, which paints a picture in the readers’ minds about the ‘weavers weaving’, ‘blue-colored robe on a new-born baby’, ‘a queen wearing purple and green coloured marriage-veil’ and a ‘dead body covered with a white shroud’. The major use of symbolism in the poem is that the ‘threads’ of a person’s life are woven by ‘destiny’ or ‘Fates’, which is represented by the ‘weavers’ in this poem. It is the Fates who decide the time of birth, the length of youth and the time of death of a person. Thus, the contextual meaning of the poem may be the weavers weaving garments and a shroud for various occasions, but symbolically the poem represents the cycle of life and death with the threads of each stage being woven by the Fates.

The message being conveyed by the poem is that of the perpetual motion of life, where each stage, characterised by its unique emotions, lasts for a while before the next one comes along to take its place. I find this poem a good read as it is short poem which is packed with imagery.

I like the poem for the colour-scheme that the poet has chosen for the garments woven by the weaver according to the life-stage of the intended wearer.

3.Compose four lines on ‘Importance of clothes.’

SOLUTION

‘Importance of Clothes’

Clothe and cloth, are they the same both?

No! No! Says the wise silk-moth,

The shirt that you wear is the clothe, and the yarn that I make, you

humans use to spin cloth.

And thence stitch up the clothe!

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4.Write an appeal to use handloom products in our daily life.

SOLUTION

Dear fellow citizens of the country, Let us adopt the clothes made by our country’s weavers. These are environment-friendly as they are usually woven on handlooms, which do not cause pollution. There is a certain rustic charm about a hand-woven fabric that makes the user or wearer feel proud of our country’s self-sufficiency in making clothes for its citizens. You have to wear such clothes only once to experience their beauty and comfort. I assume that all of you must have used handloom-made bed sheets or curtains of cotton in your houses at some time. Please recall how simple and elegant they look and enhance the aesthetic appeal of your home. Friends, please remember that preferring handloom products over western fabric is not just about making an ethnic statement but it also serves the social purpose of supporting the livelihoods of thousands of native weavers in our country, who are not doing financially well anymore. The governments can implement welfare schemes for them, but the ball ultimately falls in the courts of buyers like us. So let’s all unite for a cause and go Swadeshi!

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5.Visit a handloom factory near your locality and write a report of it.

SOLUTION

Kiran Handlooms – The Pride of Badlapur

Rahul Tripathi, Student Reporter

Mumbai, 20th May, 2020

The college had organized a visit to Kiran Handlooms in Badlapur on Thursday, 14th May. Students from Std. XI and XII were taken on a tour of the factory to witness the creation of hand-woven fabrics and to understand the importance of the weavers in today’s mechanized world.

Kiran Handlooms was established in the year 1977. Owned by the Hirachand, this unit is spread over a sprawling 5 acres. It has two manufacturing units and a well-maintained storehouse. The older unit housed about 50 traditional handloom kaarigars who were busy creating beautiful weaves on the weaving table. The students also got the chance to witness the processes of thread dyeing and warping. The processes of sizing, attaching the warp, weft winding, and weaving were also explained to the students by the manager of the loom. The adjacent unit had a state-of-the-art facility, where all of these activities were automated on systems, so as to reduce the workload on the workers. The students were able to purchase the end products, which were readily available for sale at a small retail counter adjacent to the store house. The visit served its purpose of making the students aware of the essential role played by weavers in the country’s production of high-quality fabrics.

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6.A handicraft exhibition is being organized in your college. You are given the task to compere the inaugural function. Write the script for compering.

SOLUTION

Introduction

A very good morning to everyone present here at this function today. On behalf M.G.J.I College, I welcome you all to ‘Hastashilp Mela’. This exhibition was envisioned by our founder chairman Mr. Guru Dutta in the late-eighties and has been our much-awaited annual event ever since. Today marks the beginning of this wonder-filled 4-day exhibition of handicrafts from all over the country. Like each year, this event is brimming with the Swadeshi spirit. Let us seek the divine blessings by the symbolic lighting of the lamp.

Lighting of the lamp

I now invite on stage our distinguished guest for today, Mr. Kedar Ghosh (Chairman of the Education Council of Delhi) to light the lamp as we seek the blessings God.

Thank you, Mr. Ghosh.

About the event

India is known for its ethnicity. We pride ourselves in being one of the most culturally rich countries in the world. India is also immensely fortunate to possess some highly skilled artisans across the length and breadth of the nation. They are the ones who have established the legacy of Indian handicrafts and popularised it around the globe. Many rural people still earn their livelihood from their creative pieces of art. It is with this vision to encourage these true sons of the soil that our founder chairman, Mr. Guru Dutta had conceptualized this event all those years ago. Today we, the students of M.G.J.I College, proudly take this opportunity to nurture his evergreen dream! 

I would like to request the students of Std. XII to kick off this beautiful shilpmela with a dance native to the state of Maharashtra.

Wow! That was indeed a splendid performance!

Before I take your leave, I would like to thank all of you for your presence today and hope that you all will enjoy the exhibition as much as we enjoyed putting it together!

1.Go to your college library and collect and read the poems written by Sarojini Naidu.

SOLUTION

The students can read the following poems by Sarojini Naidu:

  • A Love Song from the North
  • A Rajput Love Song
  • Alabaster
  • An Indian Love Song
  • Autumn Song

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2.Find various career opportunities in Small-scale Industries like Handloom, Art and Craft, Block Printing, etc.

SOLUTION

The students can gather information on the following career opportunities, among others, in Small Scale Industries:

  1. Repair and maintenance of household goods
  2. Pottery making
  3. Household detergents making plants
  4. Agricultural food processing units 
  5. Specialised furniture making
  6. Garment manufacturing

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3.Find out information about the Mahavastra of Maharashtra – Paithani.

SOLUTION

The students can add following information to their own findings: A Paithani is essentially a gold and silk sari of Maharashtrian origin. It is named after the Paithan town in the city of Aurangabad, Maharashtra, where the saree was first handmade. In the present day, Yeola town in Nashik is the largest manufacturer of Paithani. Made from a very fine silk, this type of saree is considered one of the most expensive sarees in India. Paithani is characterised by borders of a square design, and a pallu with peacock, plain as well as spotted designs. Also, a kaleidoscopic effect is achieved by using one colour for weaving lengthwise and another for weaving width wise.


                              COMPLETED

Chapter 10, Types of Chemical Reactions, sslc, chemistry, 10th, tamilnadu board, science, full, solution,

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1

H2(g) + Cl29(g) → 2HCl(g)

(a) Decomposition Reaction

(b) Combination Reaction

(c) Single Displacement Reaction

(d) Double Displacement Reaction

Answer:

(a) Decomposition Reaction

Question 2.

Photolysis is a decomposition reaction caused by ______.

(a) heat

(b) electricity

(c) light

(d) mechanical energy

Answer:.

(c) light

Hint:

2NaCl(aq) represents which of the following types of reaction?

(a) Neutralisation

(b) Combustion

(c) Precipitation

(d) Single displacement.

Answer:

(c) Precipitation

Hint: This reaction involves the precipitation of white BaSO4 by mixing of Na2SO4 (aq) and BaCl2 (aq). Hence it belongs to precipitation reaction.


Question 5.

Which of the following statements are correct about a chemical equilibrium?

(i) It is dynamic in nature

(ii) The rate of the forward and backward reactions are equal at equilibrium

(iii) Irreversible reactions do not attain chemical equilibrium

(iv) The concentration of reactants and products may be different

(a) (i), (ii) and (iii)

(b) (i), (ii) and (iv)

(c) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(d) (i), (iii) and (iv)

Answer:

(a) (i), (ii) and (iii)


Question 6.

A single displacement reaction is represented by

X(s)H2(g)

. the following(s) could be X?

(i) Zn

(ii) Ag

(iii) Cu

(iv) Mg.

Choose the best pair.

(a) i and ii

(b) ii and iii

(c) iii and iv

(d) i and iv.

Answer:

(d) i and iv.

Hint:

Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2

Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2.

Question 7.

Which of the following is not an “element + element → compound” type reaction?

(a) C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g)

(b) 2K(s) + Br2(l) → 2KBr(s)

(c) 2CO(g) + O2(g) → 2CO2(g)

(d) 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) → 2Fe2O3(s)

Answer:

(c) 2CO(g) + O2(g) → 2CO2(g)

Question 8. (www.asterclasses.com)

Which of the following represents a precipitation reaction?

(a) A(s) + B(s) → C(s) + D(s)

(b) A(s) + B(aq) → C(aq) + D(l)

(c) A(aq) + B(aq) → C(s) + D(aq)

(d) A(aq) + B(s) → C(aq) + D(l)

Answer:

(c) A(aq) + B(aq) → C(s) + D(aq)

Question 9.

The pH of a solution is 3. Its [OH–] concentration is ______.

(a) 1 × 10-3 M

(b) 3 M

(c) 1 × 10-11 M

(d) 11 M.

Answer:

(c) 1 × 10-11 M

Hint: pH = 3

It means [H+] = 10-3

[H+] [OH–] = 10-14

[10-3] [OH–] = 10-14

[OH–] = 10-11

Question 10. www.asterclasses.com

Powdered CaCO3 reacts more rapidly than flaky CaCO3 because of :

(a) large surface area

(b) high pressure

(c) high concentration

(d) high temperature

Answer:

(a) large surface area

II. Fill in the blanks:

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1. A reaction between an acid and a base is called ………..

2. When zinc metal is placed in hydrochloric acid, ………. gas is evolved.

3. The equilibrium attained during the meiting of ice is known as ………..

4. The pH of a fruit juice is 5.6. If you add slaked lime to this juice, its pH ……….

5. The value of ionic product of water at 25 °C is ………..

6. The normal pH of human blood is …………

7. Electrolysis is type of ……….. reaction.

8. The number of products formed in a synthesis reaction is ………..

9. Chemical volcano is an example for ……….. type of reaction.

10. The ion formed by dissolution of H+ in water is called …………

Answer:

1. neutralization

2. H2

3. physical equilibrium

4. increases to ‘7’

5. 1 × 10-14 mol² dm-6

6. 7.4

7. decomposition

8. 1

9. decomposition

10. hydronium ion

III. Match the following:

Question 1.

Identify the types of reaction:

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (i)

C. (iv)

D. (ii)

IV. True or False: (If false give the correct statement)

Silver metal can replace hydrogen gas from nitric acid.

The pH of rain water containing dissolved gases like SO3, CO2, NO2 will be less than 7.

At the equilibrium of a reversible reaction, the concentration of the reactants and the products will be equal.

Periodical removal of one of the products of a reversible reaction increases the yield.

On dipping a pH paper in a solution, it turns into yellow. Then the solution is basic.

Answer:

False – Silver cannot displace H2 from HNO3 acid, since it is placed below hydrogen in the activity series.

True

False – At equilibrium the concentration of the reactants and products do not change it remains constant, but the concentration of the reactants and the products will not be equal.

True

False – The solution is neutral if the solution is basic it will be green in colour.

V. Short answer questions:

Question 1.

When an aqueous solution of potassium chloride is added to an aqueous solution of silver nitrate, a white precipitate is formed. Give the chemical equation of this reaction.

Answer:

Question 2.

Why does the reaction rate of a reaction increase in raising the temperature?

Answer:

On increasing temperature heat is supplied to the reactant. This energy breaks more bonds and thus speed up the chemical reaction. Foods kept at room temperature spoils faster than that kept in the refrigerator.

Question 3.

Define combination reaction. Give one example for an exothermic combination reaction.

Answer:

A combination reaction is a reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form a compound.

Eg: C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + heat

Question 4.

Differentiate reversible and irreversible reactions.

Answer:

VI. Answer in detail:

Question 1.

What are called thermolysis reactions?

Answer:

Thermal decomposition reactions are called ‘thermolysis’ reaction. In this type of reaction, the reactant is decomposed by applying heat. There are two types of thermolysis reactions. They are:

(i) Compound to element / element decomposition:

A compound is decomposed into two elements.

Eg:

(ii) Compound to compound / compound decomposition:

A compound is decomposed into two compounds.

Eg:

ASTER CLASSES 10th Science Guide Chapter 10 Types of Chemical Reactions 5

Question 2.

Explain the types of double displacement reactions with examples.

Answer:

There are two major classes of double displacement reactions. They are,

(i) Precipitation Reactions: When aqueous solutions of two compounds are mixed, if they react to form an insoluble compound and a soluble compound, then it is called precipitation reaction.

Pb

Question 3.

Explain the factors influencing the rate of a reaction.

Answer:

Important factors that affect rate of a reaction are:

Nature of the reactants

Concentration of the reactants

Temperature

Catalyst

Pressure

Surface area of the reactants

1. Nature of the reactants : The reaction of sodium with hydrochloric acid is faster than that with acetic acid, because Hydrochloric acid is a stronger acid than acetic acid and thus more reactive. So, the nature of the reactants influence the reaction rate.

2Na(s) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + H2(g) (fast)

2Na(s) + 2CH3COOH(aq) → 2CH3COONa(aq) + H2(g) (slow)

2. Concentration of the reactants : Changing the amount of the reactants also increases the reaction rate. More the concentration, more particles per volume exist in it and hence faster the reaction. Granulated zinc reacts faster with 2M hydrochloric acid than 1M hydrochloric acid.

3. Temperature : Most of the reactions go faster at higher temperature. Because adding heat to the reactants provides energy to break more bonds and thus speed up the reaction. Calcium carbonate reacts slowly with hydrochloric acid at room temperature. When the reaction mixture is heated the reaction rate increases.

4. Pressure : If the reactants are gases, increasing their pressure increases the reaction rate. This is because, on increasing the pressure the reacting particles come closer and collide frequently.

5. Catalyst : A catalyst is a substance which increases the reaction rate without being consumed in the reaction. In certain reactions, adding a substance as catalyst speeds up the reaction. For example, on heating potassium chlorate, it decomposes into potassium chloride and oxygen gas, but at a slower rate. If manganese dioxide is added, it increases the reaction rate.

6. Surface area of the reactants : Powdered calcium carbonate reacts more readily with hydrochloric acid than marble chips. Because, powdering of the reactants increases the surface area and more energy is available on collision of the reactant particles. Thus, the reaction rate is increased.

Question 4.

How does pH play an important role in everyday life?

Answer:

The pH of blood is almost 7.4. Any increase or decrease in this value leads to diseases

Citrus fruits require slightly alkaline soil, while rice requires acidic soil and sugarcane requires neutral soil.

If the pH of rainwater becomes less than 7, it becomes acid rain which is harmful in day-to-day life.

pH changes cause tooth decay.

During indigestion, the stomach produces too much acid and this causes pain and irritation.

Question 5.

What is chemical equilibrium? What are its characteristics?

Answer:

Chemical equilibrium is a state of a reversible chemical reaction where the,

Rate of forward reaction = Rate of backward reaction.

No change in the amount of the reactants and products takes place.

Characteristics of equilibrium:

In a chemical equilibrium, the rates of the forward and backward reactions are equal.

The observable properties such as pressure, concentration, colour, density, viscosity etc., of the system remain unchanged with time.

The chemical equilibrium is a dynamic equilibrium, because both the forward and backward reactions continue to occur even though it appears static externally.

In physical equilibrium, the volume of all the phases remain constant.

VII. HOT Questions:

Question 1.

A solid compound ‘A’ decomposes on heating into ‘B’ and a gas ‘C’ On passing the gas ‘C’ through water, it becomes acidic. Identify A, B and C.

Answer:

A – CaCO3, solid compound

‘A’ decomposes on heating into ‘B’ and a gas ‘C’.

On passing the gas CO2 through water, it becomes acidic.

A – CaCO3, Calcium carbonate

B – CaO, Calcium oxide

C – CO2, Carbondioxide gas

Question 2.

Can a nickel spatula be used to stir copper sulphate solution? Justify your answer.

Answer:

No, nickel spatula cannot be used to stir the copper sulphate solution. Actually, on the basis of activity series, nickel is more reactive than copper, so nickel will displace copper from its solution and copper will be deposited on nickel spatula.

VIII. Solve the following problems:

Question 1.

Lemon juice has a pH 2, what is the concentration of H+ ions?

Answer:

pH = – log [H+]

[H+] = antilog of [-pH]

= antilog [-2]

[H+] = 10-2 M

[OR]

PH = – log [H+]

[H+] = 10-pH

[H+] = 10-2M

Question 2.

Calculate the pH of 1.0 × 10-4 molar solution of HNO3.

Answer:

pH = – log [H+]

HNO3 → H+ + NO3–

pH = -log [1 × 10-4]

= -(-4)log10 10 = 4

pH = 4

Question 3.

What is the pH of 1.0 x 10-5 molar solution of KOH?

Answer:

KOH → K+ + OH–

pOH = -log[OH–]

= -log [1 × 10-5]

pOH = 5

pH + pOH = 14

∴ pH of KOH = 14 – 5 = 9

pH = 9

Question 4.

Laundry detergent has a pH 8.5, What is the concentration of H+ ions?

Answer:

pH = 8.5

pH = – log [H+]

[H+] = 10-pH

[H+] = 10-8.5

[H+] = 3.16 × 10-9 M

Question 5.

The hydroxide ion concentration of a solution is 1 × 10-11M. What is the pH of the solution?

Answer:

[OH–] = 1 × 10-11 M

pOH = – log[OH–]

= – log[1 × 10-11]

= -log101 – log1010-11

= -(-11) log1010 = 11

pOH = 11

pH + pOH = 14

pH = 14 – 11

pH = 3

ASTER CLASSES 10th Science Guide Chapter 10 Types of Chemical Reactions

Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.

The unit of rate of a reaction is:

(a) dm³/mol

(b) dm-3

(c) mol dm-3

(d) mol

Answer:

(c) mol dm-3

Question 2.

As the molecule is dissociated by the absorption of heat it is otherwise called as ______.

(a) Thermolysis

(b) Photolysis

(c) Electrolysis

(d) None of these.

Answer:

(a) Thermolysis

Question 3.

The chemical formula of marble is:

(a) CaCO3

(b) MgCO3

(c) Na2CO3

(d) PbCO3

Answer:

(a) CaCO3

Question 4.

As the decomposition is caused by light, this kind of reaction is called ______.

(a) Thermolysis

(b) Photolysis

(c) Electrolysis

(d) None of these.

Answer:

(b) Photolysis

Question 5.

Fluorine will displace the following halide ion from the solution:

(a) chloride

(b) bromide

(c) iodide

(d) all the above

Answer:

(d) all the above

Question 6.

The decomposition of AgBr into grey coloured silver metal is an example of ……… reaction.

(a) compound to element/element

(b) compound to compound/compound

(c) combination

(d) neutralization

Answer:

(a) compound to element/element

Question 7.

The Metathesis reaction among the following is:

(a) C3H8(g) +5O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O + heat

(b) Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

(c) HNO3(aq) + NH4OH(aq) → NH4NO3(aq) + H2O(l)

Answer:

(c) HNO3(aq) + NH4OH(aq) → NH4NO3(aq) + H2O(l)

Question 8.

KI and Pb(NO3)2 solutions are mixed to give a precipitate. What is the colour of the precipitate?

(a) White

(b) Brown

(c) Red

(d) Yellow.

Answer:

(d) Yellow

Question 9.

The pH of rain water is approximately:

(a) 7

(b) 8

(c) 4

(d) 14

Answer:

(a) 7

Question 10.

Most of the reactions go faster at ______.

(a) low temperature

(b) moderate temperature

(c) 0°C

(d) high temperature.

Answer:

(d) high temperature

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. A chemical equation provides information on the ……….. of the substances and the reaction condition.

2. The symbol ‘aq’ in a chemical equation represent the physical state of the substance as ……….

3. 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) → 2NaCl(s) represent the combination reaction between a ……… and ……

4. After white washing with a solution of slaked lime a thin layer of ……….. is formed.

5. Reactions in which heat is absorbed is called ……….. reactions.

6. Electrolytic refining of copper is based on ……….. reaction.

7. When 10-6 mole of a monobasic strong acid is dissolved in water, the pH of the solution is ………..

8. When pH of a solution is 2, the [H+] in mol/L is ……….

9. Combustion of coal is an example of ………. reaction.

10. [ ] represents the concentration of either the reactant or product in ……….

Answer:

1. physical state

2. aqueous solution

3. metal, non-metal

4. CaCO3

5. endothermic

6. electrolytic decomposition

7. 6

8. 1 × 10-2

9. irreversible

10. mol/Lit

III. Match the following.

Question 1.

Match the following table:

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iii)

C. (iv)

D. (ii)

E. (i)

Question 2.

Match the following table:

ASTER CLASSES  10th Science Guide Chapter 10 Types of Chemical Reactions 10

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iv)

C. (i)

D. (iii)

E. (ii)

Question 3.

Match the following table:

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (v)

C. (iv)

D. (ii)

E. (i)

Question 4.

Match the following table:

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (v)

C. (i)

D. (ii)

E. (iii)

IV. True or False: (if false give the correct statement)

Formation of calcium silicate from silica and calcium oxide is a combination reaction.

Most of the combination reactions are endothermic in nature.

Decomposition of mercuric oxide into mercury and O2 is an example of . photolysis.

Chlorine can displace fluoride ion from its aqueous solution.

Magnesium is more reactive than iron.

Answer:

True

False – Most of the combination reactions are exothermic in nature.

False – Decomposition of mercuric oxide into mercury and O2 is an example of thermolysis.

False – Chlorine is less reactive than Fluorine, so it cannot displace fluoride ion from its aqueous solution.

True

V. Short answer questions:

Question 1.

Write a note on double displacement reaction with an example.

Answer:

When two compounds react, if their ions are interchanged, then the reaction is called double displacement reaction.

Eg: NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O

Question 2.

Identify the wrong statements and correct them.

Sodium benzoate is used in food preservative.

Nitric acid is not used as fertilizer in agriculture.

Sulphuric acid is called the king of chemicals.

The pH of acid is greater than 7.

Acetic acid is used in aerated drinks.

Answer:

Correct statement.

Wrong statement. Nitric acid is used as a fertilizer in agriculture.

Correct statement.

Wrong statement. The pH of the acid is lesser than 7.

Wrong statement. Carbonic acid is used in aerated drinks.

Question 3.

Why a combustion reaction may be called as an exothermic oxidation?

Answer:

In a combustion reaction heat is evolved, it is an exothermic reaction. As oxygen is added, it is also an oxidation. So, combustion may be called as an exothermic oxidation.

Question 4.

Take two conical flasks. Label them as I and II. Take a small amount of copper sulphate solution in the first conical flask. Take a small amount of granulated zinc in the second conical flask. Allow the copper sulphate solution to react with the zinc.

Name the type of reaction.

Say whether the metal zinc is more reactive or less reactive.

Write a complete and balanced reaction.

Say whether this change is reversible or irreversible.

Answer:

The reaction taken place is displacement reaction.

Metal zinc is more reactive.

Balanced chemical equation.

This change is an irreversible change.

Question 5.

What is an irreversible reaction? Give an example.

Answer:

The reaction that cannot be reversed is called irreversible reaction. The irreversible reactions are unidirectional, i.e., they take place only in the forward direction. Consider the combustion of coal into carbon dioxide and water.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Guide Chapter 10 Types of Chemical Reactions 13

Question 6.

Define the rate of a reaction.

Answer:

“Rate of a reaction is the change in the amount or concentration of any one of the reactants or products per unit time”.

Consider the following reaction,

A → B

The rate of this reaction is given by

Rate = –

d[A]dt

= +

d[B]dt

Where,

[A] – Concentration of A

[B] – Concentration of B

The negative sign indicates the decrease in the concentration of A with time. The positive sign indicates the increase in the concentration of B with time.

Question 7.

What is meant by combination reaction? Give an example.

Answer:

A reaction in which a single product is formed from two or more reactants is known combination reaction.

2Mg + O2 → 2MgO.

Question 8.

What is a catalyst?

Answer:

A catalyst is a substance which increases the reaction rate without being consumed in the reaction.

Question 9.

Define Displacement reaction. Give an example.

Answer:

The reaction in which a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its compound is called displacement reaction.

Pb+⟶+Cu↓

Lead displaces copper from copper chloride solution.

Question 10.

When a aerated soft drink bottle is kept open it will go flat. Why?

Answer:

(i) In the sealed aerated soft drink bottle, the dissolved CO2, in the form of carbonic acid and gaseous CO2 are in equilibrium.

(ii) When we open the bottle the gaseous CO2 will escape and the dissolved CO2 begins to undissolve to the gas phase to maintain the equilibrium. So when we keep the bottle open for a long time it will go flat with all the dissolved CO2 gone.

Question 11.

Can copper displace zinc or lead from their salt solutions?

Answer:

No, copper cannot displace zinc or lead from their salt solutions. Because copper is less reactive than zinc and lead.

Question 12.

What is called as acid rain?

Answer:

The pH of rain water is approximately ‘7’ but when the air is polluted with oxides of S and N, they get dissolved in the rain water and make its pH less than 7, then it is called acid rain.

Question 13.

Write the differences between combination and decomposition reaction.

Answer:

ASTER CLASSES 10th Science Guide Chapter 10 Types of Chemical Reactions 

VI. Answer in detail:

Question 1.

Two acids ‘A’ and ‘B’ were kept in beakers. Acid ‘A’ undergoes partial dissociation in water, whereas acid ‘B’ undergoes complete dissociation in water.

Of the two acids ‘A’ and ‘B’ which is weak acid and which is strong acid?

What is a weak acid?

What is a strong acid?

Give one example of each.

Answer:

Of the two acids ‘A’ and ‘B’, ‘A’ is a weak acid and ‘B’ is a strong acid.

A weak acid is the one which ionises partially when dissolved in water.

A strong acid is the one which ionises completely when dissolved in water.

Weak acid – Acetic acid(CH3COOH)

Strong acid – Sulphuric acid (H2SO4).

Question 2.

Sodium hydroxide and HCl acid react as shown in this equation

NaOH(aq)4 + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O

(i) Which type of chemical reaction is this?

Answer:

Neutralization reaction

(ii) The reaction is exothermic. Explain what that means?

Answer:

When heat is evolved during a chemical reaction it is called exothermic.

(iii) Differentiate exothermic and endothermic reaction.

Answer:

Exothermic :

Heat is evolved.

Temperature increases.

Endothermic :

Heat is absorbed.

Temperature decreases.

(iv) What happens to the temperature of the solution as the chemicals react?

Answer:

Temperature of the solution increases.

Question 3.

Take two conical flasks. Label them as I and II. Take a small amount of CuSO4 in the I conical flask and small amount of granulated Zinc in the II conical flask. Allow the CuSO4 solution to react with Zinc.

(i) Name the type of reaction.

Answer:

Displacement reaction.

(ii) Say whether the metal Zn is more reactive or less reactive.

Answer:

Zinc is more reactive than Copper.

(iii) Write the complete and balanced reaction.

Answer:

Zn(s)+ CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)↓

(iv) Say whether this change is reversible or irreversible

Answer:

Irreversible.

Question 4.

Suggest a reason for each observation given below.

In fireworks, powdered magnesium is used rather than magnesium ribbon.

Zinc and dilute H2SO4 react much more quickly when a few drops of copper sulphate solutions are added.

The reaction between magnesium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid speeds up when some concentrated HCl is added.

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1

H2(g) + Cl29(g) → 2HCl(g)

(a) Decomposition Reaction

(b) Combination Reaction

(c) Single Displacement Reaction

(d) Double Displacement Reaction

Answer:

(a) Decomposition Reaction

Question 2.

Photolysis is a decomposition reaction caused by ______.

(a) heat

(b) electricity

(c) light

(d) mechanical energy

Answer:.

(c) light

Hint:

2NaCl(aq)

represents which of the following types of reaction?

(a) Neutralisation

(b) Combustion

(c) Precipitation

(d) Single displacement.

Answer:

(c) Precipitation

Hint: This reaction involves the precipitation of white BaSO4 by mixing of Na2SO4 (aq) and BaCl2 (aq). Hence it belongs to precipitation reaction.

Question 5.

Which of the following statements are correct about a chemical equilibrium?

(i) It is dynamic in nature

(ii) The rate of the forward and backward reactions are equal at equilibrium

(iii) Irreversible reactions do not attain chemical equilibrium

(iv) The concentration of reactants and products may be different

(a) (i), (ii) and (iii)

(b) (i), (ii) and (iv)

(c) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(d) (i), (iii) and (iv)

Answer:

(a) (i), (ii) and (iii)

Question 6.

A single displacement reaction is represented by

X(s)H2(g)

. the following(s) could be X?

(i) Zn

(ii) Ag

(iii) Cu

(iv) Mg.

Choose the best pair.

(a) i and ii

(b) ii and iii

(c) iii and iv

(d) i and iv.

Answer:

(d) i and iv.

Hint:

Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2

Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2.

Question 7.

Which of the following is not an “element + element → compound” type reaction?

(a) C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g)

(b) 2K(s) + Br2(l) → 2KBr(s)

(c) 2CO(g) + O2(g) → 2CO2(g)

(d) 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) → 2Fe2O3(s)

Answer:

(c) 2CO(g) + O2(g) → 2CO2(g)

Question 8.

Which of the following represents a precipitation reaction?

(a) A(s) + B(s) → C(s) + D(s)

(b) A(s) + B(aq) → C(aq) + D(l)

(c) A(aq) + B(aq) → C(s) + D(aq)

(d) A(aq) + B(s) → C(aq) + D(l)

Answer:

(c) A(aq) + B(aq) → C(s) + D(aq)

Question 9.

The pH of a solution is 3. Its [OH–] concentration is ______.

(a) 1 × 10-3 M

(b) 3 M

(c) 1 × 10-11 M

(d) 11 M.

Answer:

(c) 1 × 10-11 M

Hint: pH = 3

It means [H+] = 10-3

[H+] [OH–] = 10-14

[10-3] [OH–] = 10-14

[OH–] = 10-11

Question 10.

Powdered CaCO3 reacts more rapidly than flaky CaCO3 because of :

(a) large surface area

(b) high pressure

(c) high concentration

(d) high temperature

Answer:

(a) large surface area

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. A reaction between an acid and a base is called ………..

2. When zinc metal is placed in hydrochloric acid, ………. gas is evolved.

3. The equilibrium attained during the meiting of ice is known as ………..

4. The pH of a fruit juice is 5.6. If you add slaked lime to this juice, its pH ……….

5. The value of ionic product of water at 25 °C is ………..

6. The normal pH of human blood is …………

7. Electrolysis is type of ……….. reaction.

8. The number of products formed in a synthesis reaction is ………..

9. Chemical volcano is an example for ……….. type of reaction.

10. The ion formed by dissolution of H+ in water is called …………

Answer:

1. neutralization

2. H2

3. physical equilibrium

4. increases to ‘7’

5. 1 × 10-14 mol² dm-6

6. 7.4

7. decomposition

8. 1

9. decomposition

10. hydronium ion

III. Match the following:

Question 1.

Identify the types of reaction:

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (i)

C. (iv)

D. (ii)

IV. True or False: (If false give the correct statement)

Silver metal can replace hydrogen gas from nitric acid.

The pH of rain water containing dissolved gases like SO3, CO2, NO2 will be less than 7.

At the equilibrium of a reversible reaction, the concentration of the reactants and the products will be equal.

Periodical removal of one of the products of a reversible reaction increases the yield.

On dipping a pH paper in a solution, it turns into yellow. Then the solution is basic.

Answer:

False – Silver cannot displace H2 from HNO3 acid, since it is placed below hydrogen in the activity series.

True

False – At equilibrium the concentration of the reactants and products do not change it remains constant, but the concentration of the reactants and the products will not be equal.

True

False – The solution is neutral if the solution is basic it will be green in colour.

V. Short answer questions:

Question 1.

When an aqueous solution of potassium chloride is added to an aqueous solution of silver nitrate, a white precipitate is formed. Give the chemical equation of this reaction.

Answer:

Question 2.

Why does the reaction rate of a reaction increase in raising the temperature?

Answer:

On increasing temperature heat is supplied to the reactant. This energy breaks more bonds and thus speed up the chemical reaction. Foods kept at room temperature spoils faster than that kept in the refrigerator.

Question 3.

Define combination reaction. Give one example for an exothermic combination reaction.

Answer:

A combination reaction is a reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form a compound.

Eg: C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + heat

Question 4.

Differentiate reversible and irreversible reactions.

Answer:

VI. Answer in detail:

Question 1.

What are called thermolysis reactions?

Answer:

Thermal decomposition reactions are called ‘thermolysis’ reaction. In this type of reaction, the reactant is decomposed by applying heat. There are two types of thermolysis reactions. They are:

(i) Compound to element / element decomposition:

A compound is decomposed into two elements.

Eg:

(ii) Compound to compound / compound decomposition:

A compound is decomposed into two compounds.

Eg:

ASTER CLASSES 10th Science Guide Chapter 10 Types of Chemical Reactions 5

Question 2.

Explain the types of double displacement reactions with examples.

Answer:

There are two major classes of double displacement reactions. They are,

(i) Precipitation Reactions: When aqueous solutions of two compounds are mixed, if they react to form an insoluble compound and a soluble compound, then it is called precipitation reaction.

Pb

.

Question 3.

Explain the factors influencing the rate of a reaction.

Answer:

Important factors that affect rate of a reaction are:

Nature of the reactants

Concentration of the reactants

Temperature

Catalyst

Pressure

Surface area of the reactants

1. Nature of the reactants : The reaction of sodium with hydrochloric acid is faster than that with acetic acid, because Hydrochloric acid is a stronger acid than acetic acid and thus more reactive. So, the nature of the reactants influence the reaction rate.

2Na(s) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + H2(g) (fast)

2Na(s) + 2CH3COOH(aq) → 2CH3COONa(aq) + H2(g) (slow)

2. Concentration of the reactants : Changing the amount of the reactants also increases the reaction rate. More the concentration, more particles per volume exist in it and hence faster the reaction. Granulated zinc reacts faster with 2M hydrochloric acid than 1M hydrochloric acid.

3. Temperature : Most of the reactions go faster at higher temperature. Because adding heat to the reactants provides energy to break more bonds and thus speed up the reaction. Calcium carbonate reacts slowly with hydrochloric acid at room temperature. When the reaction mixture is heated the reaction rate increases.

4. Pressure : If the reactants are gases, increasing their pressure increases the reaction rate. This is because, on increasing the pressure the reacting particles come closer and collide frequently.

5. Catalyst : A catalyst is a substance which increases the reaction rate without being consumed in the reaction. In certain reactions, adding a substance as catalyst speeds up the reaction. For example, on heating potassium chlorate, it decomposes into potassium chloride and oxygen gas, but at a slower rate. If manganese dioxide is added, it increases the reaction rate.

6. Surface area of the reactants : Powdered calcium carbonate reacts more readily with hydrochloric acid than marble chips. Because, powdering of the reactants increases the surface area and more energy is available on collision of the reactant particles. Thus, the reaction rate is increased.

Question 4.

How does pH play an important role in everyday life?

Answer:

The pH of blood is almost 7.4. Any increase or decrease in this value leads to diseases

Citrus fruits require slightly alkaline soil, while rice requires acidic soil and sugarcane requires neutral soil.

If the pH of rainwater becomes less than 7, it becomes acid rain which is harmful in day-to-day life.

pH changes cause tooth decay.

During indigestion, the stomach produces too much acid and this causes pain and irritation.

Question 5.

What is chemical equilibrium? What are its characteristics?

Answer:

Chemical equilibrium is a state of a reversible chemical reaction where the,

Rate of forward reaction = Rate of backward reaction.

No change in the amount of the reactants and products takes place.

Characteristics of equilibrium:

In a chemical equilibrium, the rates of the forward and backward reactions are equal.

The observable properties such as pressure, concentration, colour, density, viscosity etc., of the system remain unchanged with time.

The chemical equilibrium is a dynamic equilibrium, because both the forward and backward reactions continue to occur even though it appears static externally.

In physical equilibrium, the volume of all the phases remain constant.

VII. HOT Questions:

Question 1.

A solid compound ‘A’ decomposes on heating into ‘B’ and a gas ‘C’ On passing the gas ‘C’ through water, it becomes acidic. Identify A, B and C.

Answer:

A – CaCO3, solid compound

‘A’ decomposes on heating into ‘B’ and a gas ‘C’.

On passing the gas CO2 through water, it becomes acidic.

A – CaCO3, Calcium carbonate

B – CaO, Calcium oxide

C – CO2, Carbondioxide gas

Question 2.

Can a nickel spatula be used to stir copper sulphate solution? Justify your answer.

Answer:

No, nickel spatula cannot be used to stir the copper sulphate solution. Actually, on the basis of activity series, nickel is more reactive than copper, so nickel will displace copper from its solution and copper will be deposited on nickel spatula.

VIII. Solve the following problems:

Question 1.

Lemon juice has a pH 2, what is the concentration of H+ ions?

Answer:

pH = – log [H+]

[H+] = antilog of [-pH]

= antilog [-2]

[H+] = 10-2 M

[OR]

PH = – log [H+]

[H+] = 10-pH

[H+] = 10-2M

Question 2.

Calculate the pH of 1.0 × 10-4 molar solution of HNO3.

Answer:

pH = – log [H+]

HNO3 → H+ + NO3–

pH = -log [1 × 10-4]

= -(-4)log10 10 = 4

pH = 4

Question 3.

What is the pH of 1.0 x 10-5 molar solution of KOH?

Answer:

KOH → K+ + OH–

pOH = -log[OH–]

= -log [1 × 10-5]

pOH = 5

pH + pOH = 14

∴ pH of KOH = 14 – 5 = 9

pH = 9

Question 4.

Laundry detergent has a pH 8.5, What is the concentration of H+ ions?

Answer:

pH = 8.5

pH = – log [H+]

[H+] = 10-pH

[H+] = 10-8.5

[H+] = 3.16 × 10-9 M

Question 5.

The hydroxide ion concentration of a solution is 1 × 10-11M. What is the pH of the solution?

Answer:

[OH–] = 1 × 10-11 M

pOH = – log[OH–]

= – log[1 × 10-11]

= -log101 – log1010-11

= -(-11) log1010 = 11

pOH = 11

pH + pOH = 14

pH = 14 – 11

pH = 3

ASTER CLASSES 10th Science Guide Chapter 10 Types of Chemical Reactions

Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.

The unit of rate of a reaction is:

(a) dm³/mol

(b) dm-3

(c) mol dm-3

(d) mol

Answer:

(c) mol dm-3

Question 2.

As the molecule is dissociated by the absorption of heat it is otherwise called as ______.

(a) Thermolysis

(b) Photolysis

(c) Electrolysis

(d) None of these.

Answer:

(a) Thermolysis

Question 3.

The chemical formula of marble is:

(a) CaCO3

(b) MgCO3

(c) Na2CO3

(d) PbCO3

Answer:

(a) CaCO3

Question 4.

As the decomposition is caused by light, this kind of reaction is called ______.

(a) Thermolysis

(b) Photolysis

(c) Electrolysis

(d) None of these.

Answer:

(b) Photolysis

Question 5.

Fluorine will displace the following halide ion from the solution:

(a) chloride

(b) bromide

(c) iodide

(d) all the above

Answer:

(d) all the above

Question 6.

The decomposition of AgBr into grey coloured silver metal is an example of ……… reaction.

(a) compound to element/element

(b) compound to compound/compound

(c) combination

(d) neutralization

Answer:

(a) compound to element/element

Question 7.

The Metathesis reaction among the following is:

(a) C3H8(g) +5O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O + heat

(b) Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

(c) HNO3(aq) + NH4OH(aq) → NH4NO3(aq) + H2O(l)

Answer:

(c) HNO3(aq) + NH4OH(aq) → NH4NO3(aq) + H2O(l)

Question 8.

KI and Pb(NO3)2 solutions are mixed to give a precipitate. What is the colour of the precipitate?

(a) White

(b) Brown

(c) Red

(d) Yellow.

Answer:

(d) Yellow

Question 9.

The pH of rain water is approximately:

(a) 7

(b) 8

(c) 4

(d) 14

Answer:

(a) 7

Question 10.

Most of the reactions go faster at ______.

(a) low temperature

(b) moderate temperature

(c) 0°C

(d) high temperature.

Answer:

(d) high temperature

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. A chemical equation provides information on the ……….. of the substances and the reaction condition.

2. The symbol ‘aq’ in a chemical equation represent the physical state of the substance as ……….

3. 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) → 2NaCl(s) represent the combination reaction between a ……… and ……

4. After white washing with a solution of slaked lime a thin layer of ……….. is formed.

5. Reactions in which heat is absorbed is called ……….. reactions.

6. Electrolytic refining of copper is based on ……….. reaction.

7. When 10-6 mole of a monobasic strong acid is dissolved in water, the pH of the solution is ………..

8. When pH of a solution is 2, the [H+] in mol/L is ……….

9. Combustion of coal is an example of ………. reaction.

10. [ ] represents the concentration of either the reactant or product in ……….

Answer:

1. physical state

2. aqueous solution

3. metal, non-metal

4. CaCO3

5. endothermic

6. electrolytic decomposition

7. 6

8. 1 × 10-2

9. irreversible

10. mol/Lit

III. Match the following.

Question 1.

Match the following table:

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iii)

C. (iv)

D. (ii)

E. (i)

Question 2.

Match the following table:

ASTER CLASSES  10th Science Guide Chapter 10 Types of Chemical Reactions 10

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iv)

C. (i)

D. (iii)

E. (ii)

Question 3.

Match the following table:

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (v)

C. (iv)

D. (ii)

E. (i)

Question 4.

Match the following table:

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (v)

C. (i)

D. (ii)

E. (iii)

IV. True or False: (if false give the correct statement)

Formation of calcium silicate from silica and calcium oxide is a combination reaction.

Most of the combination reactions are endothermic in nature.

Decomposition of mercuric oxide into mercury and O2 is an example of . photolysis.

Chlorine can displace fluoride ion from its aqueous solution.

Magnesium is more reactive than iron.

Answer:

True

False – Most of the combination reactions are exothermic in nature.

False – Decomposition of mercuric oxide into mercury and O2 is an example of thermolysis.

False – Chlorine is less reactive than Fluorine, so it cannot displace fluoride ion from its aqueous solution.

True

V. Short answer questions:

Question 1.

Write a note on double displacement reaction with an example.

Answer:

When two compounds react, if their ions are interchanged, then the reaction is called double displacement reaction.

Eg: NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O

Question 2.

Identify the wrong statements and correct them.

Sodium benzoate is used in food preservative.

Nitric acid is not used as fertilizer in agriculture.

Sulphuric acid is called the king of chemicals.

The pH of acid is greater than 7.

Acetic acid is used in aerated drinks.

Answer:

Correct statement.

Wrong statement. Nitric acid is used as a fertilizer in agriculture.

Correct statement.

Wrong statement. The pH of the acid is lesser than 7.

Wrong statement. Carbonic acid is used in aerated drinks.

Question 3.

Why a combustion reaction may be called as an exothermic oxidation?

Answer:

In a combustion reaction heat is evolved, it is an exothermic reaction. As oxygen is added, it is also an oxidation. So, combustion may be called as an exothermic oxidation.

Question 4.

Take two conical flasks. Label them as I and II. Take a small amount of copper sulphate solution in the first conical flask. Take a small amount of granulated zinc in the second conical flask. Allow the copper sulphate solution to react with the zinc.

Name the type of reaction.

Say whether the metal zinc is more reactive or less reactive.

Write a complete and balanced reaction.

Say whether this change is reversible or irreversible.

Answer:

The reaction taken place is displacement reaction.

Metal zinc is more reactive.

Balanced chemical equation.

This change is an irreversible change.

Question 5.

What is an irreversible reaction? Give an example.

Answer:

The reaction that cannot be reversed is called irreversible reaction. The irreversible reactions are unidirectional, i.e., they take place only in the forward direction. Consider the combustion of coal into carbon dioxide and water.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Guide Chapter 10 Types of Chemical Reactions 13

Question 6.

Define the rate of a reaction.

Answer:

“Rate of a reaction is the change in the amount or concentration of any one of the reactants or products per unit time”.

Consider the following reaction,

A → B

The rate of this reaction is given by

Rate = –

d[A]dt

= +

d[B]dt

Where,

[A] – Concentration of A

[B] – Concentration of B

The negative sign indicates the decrease in the concentration of A with time. The positive sign indicates the increase in the concentration of B with time.

Question 7.

What is meant by combination reaction? Give an example.

Answer:

A reaction in which a single product is formed from two or more reactants is known combination reaction.

2Mg + O2 → 2MgO.

Question 8.

What is a catalyst?

Answer:

A catalyst is a substance which increases the reaction rate without being consumed in the reaction.

Question 9.

Define Displacement reaction. Give an example.

Answer:

The reaction in which a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its compound is called displacement reaction.

Pb+⟶+Cu↓

Lead displaces copper from copper chloride solution.

Question 10.

When a aerated soft drink bottle is kept open it will go flat. Why?

Answer:

(i) In the sealed aerated soft drink bottle, the dissolved CO2, in the form of carbonic acid and gaseous CO2 are in equilibrium.

(ii) When we open the bottle the gaseous CO2 will escape and the dissolved CO2 begins to undissolve to the gas phase to maintain the equilibrium. So when we keep the bottle open for a long time it will go flat with all the dissolved CO2 gone.

Question 11.

Can copper displace zinc or lead from their salt solutions?

Answer:

No, copper cannot displace zinc or lead from their salt solutions. Because copper is less reactive than zinc and lead.

Question 12.

What is called as acid rain?

Answer:

The pH of rain water is approximately ‘7’ but when the air is polluted with oxides of S and N, they get dissolved in the rain water and make its pH less than 7, then it is called acid rain.

Question 13.

Write the differences between combination and decomposition reaction.

Answer:

ASTER CLASSES 10th Science Guide Chapter 10 Types of Chemical Reactions 

VI. Answer in detail:

Question 1.

Two acids ‘A’ and ‘B’ were kept in beakers. Acid ‘A’ undergoes partial dissociation in water, whereas acid ‘B’ undergoes complete dissociation in water.

Of the two acids ‘A’ and ‘B’ which is weak acid and which is strong acid?

What is a weak acid?

What is a strong acid?

Give one example of each.

Answer:

Of the two acids ‘A’ and ‘B’, ‘A’ is a weak acid and ‘B’ is a strong acid.

A weak acid is the one which ionises partially when dissolved in water.

A strong acid is the one which ionises completely when dissolved in water.

Weak acid – Acetic acid(CH3COOH)

Strong acid – Sulphuric acid (H2SO4).

Question 2.

Sodium hydroxide and HCl acid react as shown in this equation

NaOH(aq)4 + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O

(i) Which type of chemical reaction is this?

Answer:

Neutralization reaction

(ii) The reaction is exothermic. Explain what that means?

Answer:

When heat is evolved during a chemical reaction it is called exothermic.

(iii) Differentiate exothermic and endothermic reaction.

Answer:

Exothermic :

Heat is evolved.

Temperature increases.

Endothermic :

Heat is absorbed.

Temperature decreases.

(iv) What happens to the temperature of the solution as the chemicals react?

Answer:

Temperature of the solution increases.


Question 3.

Take two conical flasks. Label them as I and II. Take a small amount of CuSO4 in the I conical flask and small amount of granulated Zinc in the II conical flask. Allow the CuSO4 solution to react with Zinc.

(i) Name the type of reaction.

Answer:

Displacement reaction.

(ii) Say whether the metal Zn is more reactive or less reactive.

Answer:

Zinc is more reactive than Copper.

(iii) Write the complete and balanced reaction.

Answer:

Zn(s)+ CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)↓

(iv) Say whether this change is reversible or irreversible

Answer:

Irreversible.


Question 4.

Suggest a reason for each observation given below.

In fireworks, powdered magnesium is used rather than magnesium ribbon.

Zinc and dilute H2SO4 react much more quickly when a few drops of copper sulphate solutions are added.

The reaction between magnesium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid speeds up when some concentrated HCl is added.

Answer:

In fireworks, powdered magnesium is used because it has more surface area than magnesium ribbon. Because of more surface area, powdered magnesium reacts faster than magnesium ribbon.

Zinc and dilute H2SO4 react much more quickly when a few drops of copper sulphate solution is added. Copper sulphate acts as a catalyst which increases the rate of the reaction.

When the concentration of the reactants increases, the rate of the reaction also increases. So the reaction between magnesium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid speeds up by the addition of some concentrated HCl.

Answers:

In fireworks, powdered magnesium is used because it has more surface area than magnesium ribbon. Because of more surface area, powdered magnesium reacts faster than magnesium ribbon.

Zinc and dilute H2SO4 react much more quickly when a few drops of copper sulphate solution is added. Copper sulphate acts as a catalyst which increases the rate of the reaction.

When the concentration of the reactants increases, the rate of the reaction also increases. So the reaction between magnesium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid speeds up by the addition of some concentrated HCl.


Chapter 10, Dividend and Interest, hsc, sp, secretarial practice, maharashtra board, full solution,

Chapter 10: Dividend and Interest

Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statement.

1.Dividend is paid to ___________.

Options
  • Shareholder
  • Debentureholder
  • Depositor

2._________ is profit shared by company with a shareholder.

Options
  • Interest
  • Rent
  • Dividend

3.Dividend is recommended by ______________.

Options

  • Managing Director
  • Secretary
  • Board of Directors

4.Interim Dividend is declared by ______________.

Options
  • Board of Directors
  • Debentureholders
  • Depositors

5.Final Dividend is declared by ______________.

Options
  • Board of Directors
  • shareholders
  • Depositors

6.Dividend cannot be declared out of ______________.

Options
  • Capital
  • Profit
  • Reserves

7.Dividend amount should be transferred in a separate Bank Account within ____________ days of its declaration

Options
  • 5
  • 15
  • 15

8.Dividend should be paid within ________________ days of its declaration

Options
  • 3
  • 13
  • 30

9.__________ holders get dividend from residual profits.

Options
  • Equity share
  • Preference share
  • Debenture

10.Dividend is paid first to __________ shareholders.

Options
  • Equity
  • Preference
  • Deferred

11._________ warrant is a cheque containing dividend amount sent by company to the shareholders.

Options
  • Dividend
  • Share
  • Interest

12.IEPF is created by ______________ where unpaid dividend is transferred by company.

Options
  • Central Govt.
  • Company
  • Shareholders

13.Payment of __________  Dividend must be authorised by the Articles of Association.

Options
  • Interim
  • Final
  • Bonus

14.___________ is a return paid to creditors by the company.

Options
  • Dividend
  • Interest
  • Rent

15.___________ is not linked to profits of the company

Options
  • Dividend
  • Interest
  • Bonus

Match the pairs.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Dividend1) Equity Shareholders
b) Interest2) Appropriation of profit.
c) Interim Dividend3) Recommendation of Secretary.
d) Final Dividend4) Registrar of company.
e) Fluctuating Rate of Dividend5) Obligatory to pay
 6) Decided and Declared by the Board of Directors.
 7) Decided by Board; declared by Members.
 8) Decided by President of India.
 9) Company not allowed to pay.
 10) Declared by Govt. of India

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Dividend2) Appropriation of profit.
b) Interest5) Obligatory to pay
c) Interim Dividend6) Decided and Declared by the Board of Directors.
d) Final Dividend7) Decided by Board; declared by Members.
e) Fluctuating Rate of Dividend1) Equity Shareholders

2.Match the pairs.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Dividend1) Must inform stock exchange about Dividend declaration
b) Interest2) Creditors
c) IEPF3) Registered Shareholders.
d) Unpaid Dividend Account4) Balance of unpaid Dividend Transferred here.
e) Listed Company5) Unregistered company.
 6) Non-listed company.
 7) Unpaid/Unclaimed Dividend.
 8) Balance of unpaid Bonus transferred here.
 9) Must inform Government about Dividend declaration.
 10) General Public.

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Dividend3) Registered Shareholders.
b) Interest2) Creditors
c) IEPF4) Balance of unpaid Dividend Transferred here.
d) Unpaid Dividend Account7) Unpaid/Unclaimed Dividend.
e) Listed Company1) Must inform stock exchange about Dividend declaration

Write a word or a term or a phrase which can substitute the following statement.

1.The return on investment paid to the shareholders of the company.

SOLUTION

The return on investment paid to the shareholders of the company. – Dividend

2.The meeting where final dividend is declared.

SOLUTION

The meeting where final dividend is declared. – Annual General Meeting (AGM)

3.The company which has to intimate stock exchange about declaration of dividend.

SOLUTION

The company which has to intimate stock exchange about declaration of dividend. – Listed Company

4.The shareholders who get dividend at a fixed rate.

SOLUTION

The shareholders who get dividend at a fixed rate. – Preference Shareholders

5.The shareholders who get dividend at a fluctuating rate.

SOLUTION

The shareholders who get dividend at a fluctuating rate. – Equity Shareholders

6.Request by shareholder in prescribed form for payment of dividend into shareholders bank amount.

SOLUTION

Request by shareholder in prescribed form for payment of dividend into shareholders bank amount. – Dividend Mandate

7.Number of days within which payment of dividend be completed by company, after its declaration.

SOLUTION

Number of days within which payment of dividend be completed by company, after its declaration. – 30

8.Dividend declared between two AGMs.

SOLUTION

Dividend declared between two AGMs. – Interim Dividend

9.Dividend decided and declared by the Board.

SOLUTION

Dividend decided and declared by the Board. – Interim Dividend

10.The return paid to the creditors by the company.

SOLUTION

The return paid to the creditors by the company. – Interest

State whether the following statement is true or false.

1.Dividend is paid to registered shareholders of the company.

Options
  • True
  • False

2.Dividend is decided by the Board.

Options
  • True
  • False

3.Dividend is decided by the shareholders.

Options
  • True
  • False

4.Dividend once declared cannot be revoked.

Options
  • True
  • False

5.Dividend cannot be paid out of capital.

Options
  • True
  • False

6.Shareholders decide about the rate and amount of profit to be given as dividend.

Options
  • True
  • False

7.All categories of shareholders get a fixed rate dividend.

Options
  • True
  • False

8.IEPF is the fund created by company.

Options
  • True
  • False

9.Interest is a liability for company.

Options
  • True
  • False

10.Interest is paid to shareholders of company.

Options
  • True
  • False

1.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Final Dividend
  • Interim Dividend
  • Interest

2.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Out of Capital
  • Out of free reserve
  • Out of money given by government

3.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Dividend Account
  • Dividend Mandate
  • unpaid/unclaimed dividend Account

4.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Dividend warrant
  • Dividend Mandate
  • Cheque

Complete the sentence.

1.Word dividend is derived from Latin term ______.

SOLUTION

Word dividend is derived from Latin term Dividendum.

2.Dividend is paid to __________.

SOLUTION

Dividend is paid to shareholders.

3.Dividend can be declared only on recommendation of______.

SOLUTION

Dividend can be declared only on recommendation of Board of Directors

4.Dividend must be paid in______.

SOLUTION

Dividend must be paid in cash.

5.The meeting at which final dividend is approved is ______.

SOLUTION

The meeting at which final dividend is approved is Annual General Meeting (AGM).

6.Dividend cannot be paid out of ______.

SOLUTION

Dividend cannot be paid out of capital.

7.Interim dividend is decided and declared by ______.

SOLUTION

Interim dividend is decided and declared by Board of Directors.

8.Predecided and a fixed rate of dividend is paid to ______.

SOLUTION

Predecided and a fixed rate of dividend is paid to preference shareholders.

9.Payment of dividend must be completed within ______.

SOLUTION

Payment of dividend must be completed within 30 days from the date of declaration.

10.Payment of Interim Dividend needs to be authorized by ______.

SOLUTION

Payment of Interim Dividend needs to be authorized by Articles of Association.

11.The obligatory payment made by company to its creditors is called as ______.

SOLUTION

The obligatory payment made by company to its creditors is called as interest.

1.Select the correct option from the bracket.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Dividendum1) ____________
b) Interest2) ____________
c) ____________3) Final Dividend
d) ____________4) Interim Dividend
e) Govt. Fund5) ____________

(Creditors, IEPF, Latin term, At Board Meeting, At AGM)

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Dividendum1) Latin Term
b) Interest2) Creditors
c) At AGM3) Final Dividend
d) At Board Meeting4) Interim Dividend
e) Govt. Fund5) IEPF

2.Select the correct option from the bracket.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Preference Shares1) ____________
b) Equity Shares2) ____________
c) Deposit holders3) ____________
d) ____________4) Payment of Dividend
e) ____________5) Dividend Declared but not paid/claimed

(Unclaimed/Unpaid Dividend, Fixed rate Dividend, Dividend at a Fluctuating Rate, Interest, Within 30 days)

SOLUTION

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
a) Preference Shares1) Fixed rate dividend
b) Equity Shares2) Dividend at a fluctuating rate
c) Deposit holders3) Interest
d) Within 30 days4) Payment of Dividend
e) Unclaimed/Unpaid Dividend5) Dividend Declared but not paid/claimed

Answer in one sentence.

1.What is Dividend?

SOLUTION

Dividend is ‘a share in distributable profits of the company to which the shareholder is entitled when it is formally declared by the company.’

2.Who has right to recommend Dividend?

SOLUTION

The Board of Directors have the right to recommend dividend.

3.What is final Dividend?

SOLUTION

The final Dividend is declared and paid after the close of the financial year. It is decided and recommended by the Board of Directors and declared by the shareholders in the AGM.

4.What is Interim Dividend?

SOLUTION

Dividend decided and declared by the Board of Directors between two Annual General Meetings (AGMs) is called Interim Dividend.

5.Who declares Interim Dividend?

SOLUTION

The Board of Directors declares the Interim Dividend.

6.Which shares get dividend at a fixed rate?

SOLUTION

Preference shares get the dividend at a fixed rate.

7.Which shares get dividend at a fluctuating rate?

SOLUTION

Equity shares get dividend at a fluctuating rate.

8.At which Meeting Interim Dividend is decided and declared?

SOLUTION

The Interim Dividend is decided and declared in the Board Meeting.

9.What is Interest?

SOLUTION

Interest is a payment made for using the money of another person. For borrowers, interest is the cost of renting money while for lenders, interest is the income from his lending money.

10.State the time within which Unpaid Dividend be transferred to unpaid dividend Account?

SOLUTION

The Unpaid Dividend must be transferred to the Unpaid Dividend Account within 37 days from the date of its declaration.

Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentence.

1.Dividend is paid to creditors.

SOLUTION

Dividend is paid to registered shareholders.

2.Interest is paid to shareholders.

SOLUTION

Interest is paid to creditors.

3.Final Dividend is paid between two AGMs.

SOLUTION

Interim Dividend is paid between two AGMs.

4.Special Resolution must be passed to declare Final Dividend

SOLUTION

Board Resolution and Ordinary Resolution must be passed to declare Final Dividend.

5.Dividend must be paid within 60 days of its declaration.

SOLUTION

Dividend must be paid within 30 days of its declaration.

6.The Dividend to be paid should be transferred to Dividend A/c within 30 days of its declaration.

SOLUTION

The Dividend to be paid should be transferred to Dividend A/c within 5 days of its declaration.

7.Dividend is an obligation to be paid by a company every year.

SOLUTION

Interest is an obligation to be paid by a company every year.

8.Preference shareholders are given the last priority in payment of dividend.

SOLUTION

Equity shareholders are given the last priority in payment of dividend.

9.Preference shareholders get dividend from residual profits.

SOLUTION

Equity shareholders get dividend from residual profits.

10.Dividend is payable every year irrespective of profits made by company.

SOLUTION

Interest is payable every year irrespective of profits made by company.

1.Arrange in Proper Order:

  1. Recommendation of Dividend
  2. Checking sufficiency of profits
  3. Board Meeting

SOLUTION

  1. Checking Sufficiency of Profits
  2. Board Meeting
  3. Recommendation of Profits

2.Arrange in Proper Order:

  1. Transfer to Dividend Account
  2. Transfer to IEPF
  3. Transfer to Unpaid Dividend Account

SOLUTION

  1. Transfer to Dividend Account
  2. Transfer to Unpaid Dividend Account
  3. Transfer to IEPF

3.Arrange in Proper Order:

  1. Closure of Register of Members.
  2. Intimate Stock Exchange of Board Meeting.
  3. Intimate Stock Exchange of declaration of dividend.

SOLUTION

  1. Intimate Stock Exchange of Board Meeting
  2. Intimate Stock Exchange of Declaration of dividend
  3. Closure of Register of Members

4.Arrange in Proper Order:

  1. Decision on Rate of Dividend
  2. Transfer to IEPF
  3. Payment of Dividend.

SOLUTION

  1. Decision on Rate of Dividend
  2. Payment of Dividend
  3. Transfer to IEPF

5.Arrange in Proper Order:

  1. Payment of Interim Dividend
  2. Board meeting deciding and declaring Interim Dividend.
  3. Authorization of Articles of Association.

SOLUTION

  1. Authorization of Articles of Association
  2. Board Meeting deciding and declaring Interim Dividend
  3. Payment of Interim Dividend

Explain the following term/concept.

1.Profit

SOLUTION

Profit is the difference between revenues and the expenses for a given period. Profit making and its maximization is the prime aim of all business organisations. The shareholders invest with an aim of earning returns out of the profits of the company.

2.Dividend

SOLUTION

The term dividend is derived from the Latin word ‘Dividendum’ which means ‘that which is to be divided’. It is that part of the profits of a company which is distributed amongst its shareholders. A dividend is ‘a share in distributable profits of the company to which the shareholder is entitled when it is formally declared by the company.’

3.Interest

SOLUTION

Interest is the price paid for the productive services rendered by capital. It is a charge against the profit of the company. Even if the company makes no profit, interest should be paid. It is payable at a fixed and generally pre-determined.

4.Final Dividend

SOLUTION

Final Dividend is declared and paid after the close of the financial year. It is decided and recommended by the Board of Directors. It is declared by the shareholders in the AGM. It’s declaration does not need authorization by the Articles of Association. It is declared from different sources like; current year’s profits, free reserves, capital profits, Money provided by Govt. for dividend, etc.

5.Interim Dividend

SOLUTION

The dividend declared by the Board of Directors between two Annual General Meetings is called Interim Dividend. The interim dividend is paid in the middle of the accounting year i.e. before the finalisation of annual accounts for the year. The opinion of the company’s Auditors should be taken before declaring Interim Dividend.

6.Unpaid Dividend

SOLUTION

The dividend which is declared by the company but has not been paid by it or claimed by a shareholder within 30 days of its declaration is termed as Unpaid and Unclaimed Dividend. The Unpaid Dividend should be transferred by the company to ‘Unpaid Dividend Account’ opened in a scheduled bank. This transfer should happen within 37 days from the declaration of dividend.

7.Unpaid Dividend Account

SOLUTION

Entire amount of dividend which remains unpaid/unclaimed should be transferred to ‘Unpaid Dividend Account’ opened in a scheduled Bank by the company. The company should transfer this amount within 37 days from the declaration of dividend.

8.Dividend Mandate

SOLUTION

A shareholder may wish to get dividends credited directly to the bank account. In such a case, the shareholder is required to send a request to the company in the prescribed form called ‘Dividend Mandate’. The dividend mandate authorizes the company to pay dividends directly to shareholder’s bankers.

9.IEPF

SOLUTION

IEPF stands for ‘Investors Education and Protection Fund’ and is set up by the central government. Any amount in the Unpaid Dividend Account of a company that remains unpaid/ unclaimed for a period of 7 years from the date of such a transfer shall be, transferred by the company to IEPF.

10.Rate of Dividend.

SOLUTION

A dividend is that part of the profits of a company which is distributed amongst its shareholders. Equity shares are given dividends at a fluctuating rate depending upon the profits of the company. Preference shareholders get dividends at a fixed rate. Also, the rate of interim dividends is lower than the final dividend.

1.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion :

LMN Co Limited decides to declare a dividend for the financial year 2018-19 in which it has earned profits less than their expectations.

  1. Is Board right in recommending a dividend of Rs. 5/- per share out of free reserves?
  2. Can Board declare the dividend though it is not approved by AGM?
  3. Can the Board give dividends in the form of gifts?

SOLUTION

  1. Yes, the Board can recommend a dividend of Rs. 5/- per share out of free reserves. This is because companies are allowed to pay final dividend out of their free reserves.
  2. No, the Board cannot declare the dividend without shareholders’ approval at the AGM. The dividend, as recommended by the Board of Directors, is approved and declared by a resolution passed at the Annual General Meeting by the shareholders.
  3. No, the Board cannot give dividends in the form of gifts. This is because dividends must be paid in cash and not in kind.

2.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion :

ABC Co. Ltd. decides to pay Interim Dividend

  1. Can it be paid out of free reserves?
  2. Is the Board right in declaring the same at the Board Meeting?
  3. Can the company distribute the same within 30 days of its declaration?

SOLUTION

  1. No, Interim Dividends cannot be paid out of free reserves. Interim Dividend is declared out of profits of the current accounting year.
  2. Yes, the Board of Directors has the power to decide and declare the same at the Board Meeting.
  3. Yes, the company should distribute the interim dividend within 30 days of its declaration.

3.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion :

RAJ Company limited decides to pay Interim Dividend

  1. Is the Board justified to decide Interim Dividend of ₹ 5/per share even though profits till date are insufficient?
  2. Can the Board declare it out of Free Reserves?
  3. Can the Board declare it out of Capital?

SOLUTION

  1. No, the Board is not justified to decide the interim dividend of ₹ 5/- per share if the profits till date are insufficient. This is because the Interim Dividend is declared out of profits.
  2. No, the Board cannot declare interim dividends out of Free Reserves.
  3. No, the Board cannot declare the interim dividend out of capital. It is declared out of profits of the current accounting year.

4.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion :

DIAMOND Co. Ltd. is considering to declare Interim Dividend.

  1. In how many days of the declaration it should transfer the funds to Dividend Account?
  2. In how many days it must pay it to shareholders?
  3. In how many days of the declaration it must transfer the funds to the Unpaid Dividend A/c?

SOLUTION

  1. The funds should be transferred to the Dividend Account within 5 days from the date of declaration of interim dividend.
  2. The interim dividend must be paid to the shareholders within 30 days from its declaration.
  3. The unpaid dividend must be transferred to Unpaid Dividend A/c within 37 days from its declaration.

5.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion :

The Board of Directors of STAR Co. Ltd. which is a listed company recommends a dividend of ₹ 15/- per share to be paid in cash.

  1. Is it justified to pay the dividend firstly to its Preference Shareholders and then after to Equity Shareholders?
  2. Is the AGM required to approve the same?
  3. Can the company pay dividend in cash?

Short Note

SOLUTION

  1. Yes, it is justified to pay the Preference shareholders first and then the Equity Shareholders. Preference shareholders are entitled to dividends before it is paid to the equity shareholders as per the terms of the issue of preference shares. Equity shareholders will get dividends from residual profits. i.e. after paying to preference shareholders.
  2. Yes, AGM is required to approve the dividend. The dividend, as recommended by the Board of Directors, is approved and declared by a resolution passed at the Annual General Meeting by the shareholders.
  3. Dividend payable in cash should be paid by cheque or warrant or by electronic mode to the entitled shareholder.

6.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion :

GOLD Co. Ltd. declares a dividend of ₹ 10/- per share for F.Y. 2018-19.

  1. Is the company under default, if the dividend was not paid within 30 days of its declaration?
  2. Is the company right in transferring the unpaid dividend to its Debenture Reserve Account?
  3. Does the company have to transfer the amount of unpaid dividends to IEPF after 30 days?

SOLUTION

  1. Yes, the company is in default if the dividend is not paid within 30 days of its declaration.
  2. No, the company is not right in transferring the unpaid dividend to its Debenture Reserve Account. It should be transferred to the Unpaid Dividend Account. It is a separate bank account opened in a scheduled bank within 5 days of its declaration.
  3. No. Any amount in the Unpaid Dividend Account of a company that remains unpaid/ unclaimed for a period of 7 years from the date of such a transfer shall be, transferred by the company to the Investors Education and Protection Fund (IEPF).

Distinguish between the Following.

1.Final Dividend and Interim Dividend

SOLUTION

PointsFinal DividendInterim Dividend
1. MeaningIt is declared and paid after the close of the financial year.It is declared and paid between two AGMs of an accounting year.
2. Who DeclaresIt is decided and recommended by the Board of Directors. It is declared by the shareholders in the AGM.It is decided and declared by the Board of Directors in the Board Meeting.
3. AuthorizationIt’s declaration does not need authorization by Articles of Association.It can be declared only if Articles of Association permits its declaration.
4. When DeclaredIt is declared at the Annual General Meeting of the company.It is declared between two Annual General Meetings of the company.
5. Rate of DividendRate of final dividend is always higher than Interim Dividend.Rate of Interim dividend is lower than final dividend.
6. SourceIt is declared from different sources like; current year’s profits, free reserves, capital profits, Money provided by Govt. for dividend, etc.It is declared out of profits of the current accounting year.
7. Accounting AspectIt is declared only after the accounts of the year are prepared and finalized.It is declared before the preparation of the final accounts of the company.

2.Dividend and Interest

SOLUTION

PointsDividendInterest
1. MeaningDividend is the return payable to the shareholders of the company for their investment in the share capital.It is the return payable to the creditors of the company viz. Debenture holder/Deposit holders for the loan given by them to the company
2. Given to whomIt is paid to the member i.e. the owners of the company.It is paid to the creditor of the company.
3. ObligationIt is to be paid only when the company has made profits. Therefore no obligation/compulsion to pay dividends.It is not linked to the profits of the company. Payment of interest is an obligation and is to be paid by the company compulsorily.
4. When PayableIt is payable when a company earns sufficient profit in a year after fulfilling all obligations.It is payable every year irrespective of the profits of the company.
5. RateIt is paid at a fluctuating rate to the equity shareholders since it is linked to the profits of the company.The rate of interest is fixed and predetermined at the time of issue of the security
6. ResolutionPayment of Final Dividend requires a Board resolution and an ordinary resolution at the AGM while Interim Dividend can be paid by passing only a Board Resolution.Payment of interest does not require the passing of a resolution at any meeting.
7. Accounting Treatment/AspectA dividend is an appropriation of profit.Interest is a charge on profit.

Answer in brief.

1.State any four points to be kept in mind by a Listed Company with respect to Dividend.

SOLUTION

When a company’s shares are listed in the Stock Exchange, the company has to follow additional requirements with respect to listings agreements. They are as follows:

  1. Notify the stock exchange where the company’s securities are listed at least 2 days in advance of the date of the Board meeting held to consider the recommendation of the final dividend.
  2. Intimate Stock Exchange immediately about the declaration of the dividend after the Board Meeting.
  3. Give notice of Book closure to the stock exchange at least 7 working days before the closure.
  4. Close the Register of members and the Transfer Register.
  5. It must use an electronic mode of payment such as Electronic Clearing Services (ECS) or National Electronic Fund Transfer (NEFT); as approved by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
  6. The listed company has to express the dividend on a per-share basis only.

2.Discuss any four features of dividend.

SOLUTION

  1. It is the portion of the profits of the company paid to its shareholders.
  2. It is payable out of the profits of the company.
  3. A dividend is an unconditional payment made by the company.
  4. The company can pay dividends only to the shareholders viz. (1) Equity (2) Preference.
  5. If the company has issued equity shares with differential rights as to dividend, the terms of issue of such shares will govern the rights of shareholders about receiving the dividend.
  6. Dividends cannot be declared out of capital.
  7. Dividends can be declared only on recommendation of the Board of Directors.
  8. The dividend, as recommended by the Board of Directors, is approved and declared by a resolution passed at the Annual General Meeting by the shareholders.
  9. Dividend for any previous year cannot be declared once that year’s Annual Account has been approved in the AGM.
  10. Dividend once approved and declared by shareholders creates a debt. It cannot be revoked.
  11. The dividend includes Interim Dividend.
  12. The dividend must be paid in cash and not in kind.
  13. The dividend is to be paid on the paid-up value of shares.
  14. Dividends cannot be paid on calls paid in advance.

3.Explain the features of Interest.

SOLUTION

  1. Interest is the price paid for the productive services rendered by capital.
  2. It is directly related to risk. The higher the risk, the higher is the interest.
  3. Rate of Interest is expressed as an annual percentage of Principal.
  4. The rate of interest is determined by various factors like money supply, fiscal policy, the volume of borrowings, rate of inflation, etc.
  5. Interest is a charge against the profit of the company. Even if the company makes no profit, interest should be paid.
  6. It is payable at a fixed and generally pre-determined rate. The company has to pay interest if it has borrowed money from creditors like Debentures holders, Depositors, Bondholders, etc.

Justify the following statement.

1.Dividend is paid out of profits of the company.

SOLUTION

  1. Shareholders invest in the company’s shares with aim of earning returns out of the profits of the company.
  2. The shareholders get dividends as a return on their investment.
  3. The shareholder being the owner of the company is entitled to a share in the company’s profits.
  4. A dividend is a share of the distributable profits of the company.
  5. Hence, the dividend is paid out of the profits of the company.

2.Interim dividend cannot be paid out of free reserves.

SOLUTION

  1. A dividend declared by the Board of Directors between two AGMs is called an Interim Dividend.
  2. The interim dividend is paid in the middle of the accounting year.
  3. It is paid before the finalisation of annual accounts for the year.
  4. Free Reserves are the reserves available for distribution of profits as per the latest audited Balance Sheet of the Company.
  5. It is declared out of profits of the current accounting year.
  6. Hence, Interim Dividend cannot be paid out of free reserves.

3.AGM is crucial for Final Dividend.

SOLUTION

  1. The final dividend is declared and paid after the close of the financial year.
  2. It is decided and recommended by the Board of Directors.
  3. Dividend as recommended by the Board of Directors is approved and declared by a resolution passed at the Annual General Meeting (AGM).
  4. The final dividend is declared by the shareholders in the AGM.
  5. Thus, AGM is crucial for the Final Dividend.

4.Listed Company has to follow additional guidelines on dividend matters.

SOLUTION

A dividend is ‘a share in distributable profits of the company to which the shareholder is entitled when it is formally declared by the company.’ The Board of Directors have the right to recommend a dividend. Once the dividend is approved and declared by the shareholders, it becomes a debt and cannot be revoked by the company. The final Dividend is declared and paid after the close of the financial year. It is decided and recommended by the Board of Directors and declared by the shareholders in the AGM.

5.Equity shares get last priority in dividend.

SOLUTION

  1. A dividend is a share in the distributable profits of the company to which the shareholder is entitled when it is formally declared by the company.
  2. The dividend is payable only to the registered shareholders of the company.
  3. Preference shareholders are entitled to dividends before it is paid to the equity shareholders as per the terms of the issue of preference shares.
  4. Equity shareholders will get dividends from residual profits. i.e. after paying to preference shareholders and arrears of dividend on cumulative preference shares.
  5. This Equity shares get the last priority in dividends.

6.Unpaid dividend cannot be used by the company.

SOLUTION

  1. The dividend which is declared by the company but has not been paid by it or claimed by a shareholder within 30 days of its declaration is termed as Unpaid and Unclaimed Dividend.
  2. The company has to transfer it to an Unpaid Dividend Account opened in a scheduled bank within 37 days from the declaration of dividend.
  3. The company has to put up the details of the unpaid dividend on a website within 90 days of the transfer of the amount in the ‘Unpaid Dividend Account’.
  4. Any amount in the Unpaid Dividend Account that remains unpaid/unclaimed for a period of 7 years should be transferred by the company to the ‘Investors Education and Protection Fund’ (IEPF).
  5. Thus, a company cannot use the Unpaid Dividend.

7.Interest is a liability/obligation of the company.

SOLUTION

  1. Interest is the price paid for the capital borrowed by the company.
  2. Interest is a charge against the profit of the company.
  3. Even if the company makes no profit, interest should be paid.
  4. It is payable at a fixed and generally pre-determined rate
  5. The company is obligated to pay interest if it has borrowed money from creditors like debenture-holders, Depositors, Bondholders, etc.
  6. Thus, interest is a liability/obligation of the company.

8.Approval of members is not needed for Interim Dividend.

SOLUTION

  1. A dividend declared by the Board of Directors between two AGMs is called an Interim Dividend.
  2. The interim dividend is paid in the middle of the accounting year i.e. before the finalisation of annual accounts for the year.
  3. Articles of Association of the company must authorize the Board of Directors to declare Interim Dividend.
  4. The Board Meeting has to pass a resolution for declaring the Interim Dividend.
  5. Thus, the approval of members is not needed for the interim dividend.

Answer the following question.

1.Define Dividend and explain its features.

SOLUTION

Meaning:

  1. Term ‘Dividend’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Dividendum’ which means ‘that which is to be divided’.
  2. It is a part of the profits of the company that is distributed among the shareholders of the company.
  3. A dividend is ‘a share in distributable profits of the company to which the shareholder is entitled when it is formally declared by the company.’
  4. Usually, the term ‘Dividend’ refers to the Annual/final Dividend unless it is specifically mentioned as an Interim Dividend.

Definition:

  1. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) has defined Dividend as, “a distribution to shareholders out of profits or reserves available for this purpose.”
  2. The Supreme Court has defined it as, “In case of going concern, it means portion of profits of a company, which is allotted to the holders of shares in a company.”

Features:

  1. It is the portion of the profits of the company paid to its shareholders.
  2. It is payable out of the profits of the company.
  3. A dividend is an unconditional payment made by the company.
  4. The company can pay dividends only to the shareholders viz. Equity and Preference.
  5. If the company has issued equity shares with differential rights as to dividend, the terms of issue of such shares will govern the rights of shareholders about receiving the dividend.
  6. The dividend cannot be declared out of capital.
  7. The dividend can be declared only on the recommendation of the Board of Directors.
  8. The dividend, as recommended by the Board of Directors, is approved and declared by a resolution passed at the Annual General Meeting by the shareholders.
  9. Dividend for any previous year cannot be declared once that year’s Annual Account has been approved in the AGM.
  10. Dividend once approved and declared by shareholders creates a debt. It cannot be revoked.
  11. The dividend includes Interim Dividend.
  12. The dividend must be paid in cash and not in kind.
  13. The dividend is to be paid on the paid-up value of shares.
  14. The dividend cannot be paid on calls paid in advance.

2.What is Interest? Explain its features.

SOLUTION

Meaning:

  • Interest is a payment made for using the money from another person.
  • The borrower takes money from the lender. Thus, for borrowers, interest is the cost of renting money and for the lender, interest is the income from his lending money.
  • The company has to pay interest if it has borrowed money from creditors like Debentures holders, Depositors, Bondholders, etc.

Features:

  1. Interest is the price paid for the productive services rendered by capital.
  2. It is directly related to risk. The higher the risk, the higher is the interest.
  3. Rate of Interest is expressed as an annual percentage of Principal.
  4. The rate of interest is determined by various factors like money supply, fiscal policy, the volume of borrowings, rate of inflation, etc.
  5. Interest is a charge against the profit of the company. Even if the company makes no profit, interest should be paid.
  6. It is payable at a fixed and generally pre-determined rate.

3.Discuss legal provisions for declaration of dividend.

SOLUTION

1) Board Meeting: Dividend can be declared only on the recommendation of the Board of Directors. Board Meeting should be called to pass a resolution about:

  1. Rate of Dividend and amount of Dividend to be paid
  2. Book closure date for the dividend
  3. Date of Annual General Meeting.
  4. Bank with which a separate account should be opened to remit the dividend amount.

2) Shareholders Approval:

  1. The dividend is approved by shareholders by passing an Ordinary Resolution at the Annual General Meeting.
  2. Shareholders can declare a lower rate of dividend than what is recommended by the Board but not higher than that.
  3. Once the dividend is declared at the General meeting it cannot be revoked. The company is not permitted to declare it a second time in that year.

3) Separate Bank Account: The company must deposit the dividend amount in a separate bank account opened in a scheduled bank called a Dividend Account within 5 (Five) days of its declaration.

  • Listed company: Where a company’s shares are listed on the Stock Exchanges, additional requirements with respect to Listings agreements must be followed.
  1. Notify stock exchange where the company’s securities are listed at least 2(two) days in advance of the date of the meeting of the Board at which recommendation of the final dividend is to be considered.
  2. Intimate Stock Exchange immediately about the declaration of the dividend after the Board Meeting.
  3. Give notice of Book closure to the stock exchange at least 7(seven) working days before the closure.
  4. Close the Register of members and the Transfer Register.
  5. It must use an electronic mode of payment such as Electronic Clearing Services (ECS) or National Electronic Fund Transfer (NEFT); as approved by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
    1) Book closure: It means the time period when the company does not handle any adjustments to the Register or requests to transfer Shares.
    2) Record Date: It is the cut-off date for determining the number of registered members who are eligible for corporate benefits like Dividends and Bonus shares.
  6. The listed company has to express the dividend on a per-share basis only.

4) Prohibition to Pay Dividend:

  1. A company that has failed to repay deposit or any interest on deposit cannot declare any dividend on its equity shares.
  2. No dividend can be declared if the company has defaulted on :
    1) Redemption of Debentures or payment of interest, Redemption of Preference shares, payment of interest to the financial institution, etc.

4.Explain Interim Dividend.

SOLUTION

Meaning:

  1. The dividend which is declared by the Board of Directors between two Annual General Meetings is called Interim Dividend.
  2. The interim dividend is paid in the middle of the accounting year i.e. before the finalization of annual accounts for the year.
  3. The opinion of the company’s Auditors should be taken before declaring an Interim Dividend.

Features:

  1. It is only payment on account of the whole dividend for the year.
  2. The company should provide depreciation for the entire year and not proportionately for a part of the year before declaring an Interim Dividend.
  3. The interim dividend cannot be paid out of any reserves.
  4. The Board of Directors has the power to declare an Interim Dividend.
  5. Articles of Association of the company must authorize the Board of Directors to declare Interim Dividend.
  6. The Board Meeting has to pass a resolution for declaring the Interim Dividend.
  7. The amount to be given as Interim Dividend must be credited in a separate Bank account in a scheduled bank within 5 days of its declaration.
  8. Interim Dividend should be paid within 30 days of its declaration.
  9. Unpaid/Unclaimed Interim Dividend should be transferred to ‘Unpaid Dividend Account’ within 7 days of the expiry of 30 days of declaration i.e. 37 days of its declaration.
  10. Any amount remaining unpaid/unclaimed in the ‘Unpaid Dividend A/c’ for 7 years should be transferred to IEPF.

                                             COMPLETED


Tamilnadu, ssc, history, samacheer kalvi, Chapter 10, Social Transformation in Tamilnadu,

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

…………….. was the pioneer of social Reformers in India.

(a) C. W. Damotharanar

(b) Periyar

(c) Raja Rammohan Roy

(d) Maraimalai Adigal

Answer:

(c) Raja Rammohan Roy

Question 2.

…………… established a full-fledged printing press in 1709, at Tranquebar.

(a) Caldwell

(b) F.W.Ellis

(c) Ziegenbalg

(d) Meenakshisundaram

Answer:

(c) Ziegenbalg

Question 3.

…………….. was the official newspaper of the Self Respect Movement.

(a) Kudi Arasu

(b) Puratchi

(c) Viduthalai

(d) Paguththarivu

Answer:

(a) Kudi Arasu

Question 4.

Periyar wanted religion to be replaced by ………………

(a) Nationalism

(b) Iconoclasm

(c) Rationalism

(d) Spiritualism

Answer:

(c) Rationalism

Question 5.

…………….. founded Adi Dravida Mahajana Sabha in 1893.

(a) Rettaimalai Srinivasan

(b) B.R. Ambedkar

(c) Rajaji

(d) M.C. Rajah

Answer:

(a) Rettaimalai Srinivasan

Question 6.

India’s first organised trade union, the Madras Labour Union was formed in ………….

(a) 1918

(b) 1917

(c) 1916

(d) 1914

Answer:

(a) 1918

Question 7.

…………….. was established by the Justice Party Government for the selection of Government officials.

(a) Staff Selection Board

(b) Public Service Commission

(c) Provincial Staff Recruitment Board

(d) Staff Selection Commission

Answer:

(a) Staff Selection Board

Question 8.

……………. was the first elected Legislative Council Member from the depressed class in Madras Province.

(a) M. C. Rajah

(b) Rettaimalai Srinivasan

(c) T.M. Nair

(d) P. Varadarajulu

Answer:

(a) M. C. Rajah

II. Fill in the blanks

……………… was the first non-European language that went into print.

The College of Fort St. George was founded by ………………

……………… is considered the father of Tamil linguistic purism.

……………… was the first to approve participation of women in the electoral politics.

The name Suriyanarayana Sastri changed in Tamil as ………………

……………… gave prominence to Tamil music.

The first Woman Legislator in India was

Answers:

Tamil

F.W. Ellis

Maraimalai Adigal

Justice Party Government

Parithimar Kalaignar

Abraham Pandithar

Muthulakshmi Ammaiyar

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) Thirukkural was one of the earliest Tamil literary texts to be published in 1812.

(ii) Maraimalai Adigal collected and edited different palm leaf manuscripts of the Tamil grammars and literature.

(iii) Robert Caldwell established the close affinity between the Dravidian languages in contrast with Sanskrit and also established the antiquity of Tamil.

(iv) Thiru. V. Kalyanasundaram was an early pioneer in Trade union movement.

(a) (i) and (1%) are correct

(b) (i) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iv) is correct

(d) (ii) anA (iii) are correct

Answer:

(b) (i) and (iii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) Margret Cousin was one of the founders of Women’s India Association.

(ii) Periyar spent his entire life campaigning against superstitions through Thinkers or Rationalists Forums he had formed.

(iii) Singaravelar was a staunch supporter of the Hindu Mahasabha.

(iv) Periyar emphasised that the caste system in South India is linked with the arrival of Brahmins from the North.

(a) (iii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(c) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(d) (ii) and (iii) are correct

Answer:

(c) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.

Assertion (A): The Justice Party continued to remain in Government from 192CE1937 in Madras Presidency.

Reason (R): The Congress Party boycotted the Madras Legislature during this period of Dyarchy.

(a) Both A and R are correct

(b) A is correct, but R is not the correct explanation

(c) Both A and R are wrong

(d) R is correct, but it has no relevance to A

Answer:

(b) A is correct, but R is not the correct explanation

Question 4.

Assertion (A): As World War I was in progress, the British Government was considering the introduction of representative institutions for Indians after the war.

Reason (R): In 1920, Dyarchy as a form of Government was introduced in the provinces.

(a) A is correct, but R is not the correct reason

(b) Both A and R are wrong

(c) Both A and R are right

(d) A is wrong and R has no relevance to A

Answer:

(c) Both A and R are right

IV. Match the following

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu 1

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (iii)

C. (i)

D. (ii)

V. Answer briefly

Question 1.

Write a note on Tamil Renaissance.

Answer:

C.W. Damotharanar collected and edited different palm leaf manuscripts of the Tamil grammars and literature. U.V. Swaminathar took efforts to publish the classical texts. These triggered an intellectual revolution and it was popularly known as Tamil Renaissance. Tamil language and culture played a significant role in their identity construction. The introduction of printing press, linguistic research on Dravidian languages, etc., underpinned the process of Tamil renaissance.

Tamil was the first non-European language that went into print. In the nineteenth century, Tamil scholars like C.W. Damotharanar, and U.V. Swaminathar spent their lifetime in the rediscovery of the Tamil classics. This provided the Tamil people with a revelation about their heritage. Therefore, the rediscovery of ancient classics and their publication is considered the foundation of Tamil renaissance.

Question 2.

Highlight the contribution of Caldwell for the cause of South Indian languages.

Answer:

In 1816, F. W. Ellis who founded the College of Fort St. George, formulated the theory that the south Indian languages belonged to a separate family which was unrelated to the Indo – Aryan family of languages.

Robert Caldwell (1814-1891) expanded this argument in a book titled. A comparative grammar of the Dravidian (or) South Indian family of languages in 1856.

He established the close affinity between the Dravidian languages in contrast with Sanskrit and also established the antiquity of Tamil.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu

Question 3.

List out the personalities who contributed to the revival of Tamil literature through their writings.

Answer:

C.W. Damotharanar, U.V. Swaminathar, F.W. Ellis, Robert Caldwell, Subramania Bharati, Thiru Vi. Kalyanasundaram, Singaraveiar, PanditViar lyotheethassar, Sundaram Pillar and Maraimalai Adigal.

Question 4.

Discuss the importance of Hindu Religious Endowment Act passed by the Justicite Ministry.

Answer:

The Justice Party further concentrated on reforms in religious institutions.

Tamil Nadu has a large number of temples and these commanded huge resources.

In general, the resources were monopolised and exploited by the ‘ dominant caste in the society and led to mismanagement of public resources.

The Justice Party introduced the Hindu Religious Endowment (HRE) Act in 1926 and enabled any individual irrespective of their caste affiliation to become a member of the temple committee and govern the resources of the religious institutions.

Question 5.

What do you know of the Cheranmahadevi Gurukulam incident?

Answer:

A Gurukulam was established in Cheranmahadevi by V.V.S. Iyer with the financial support of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee. However, students were discriminated on the basis of caste. Brahmin and non-Brahmin students were made to dine separately. Periyar was disturbed to see the discrimination. He questioned the practice, and severely criticized it. Despite his objections, Congress continued to support the iniquitous practice in the Gurukulam. This disappointed Periyar.

Question 6.

Name the newspapers published by the South Indian Liberal Foundation.

Answer:

Dravidian in Tamil, Justice in English and Andra Prakasika in Telugu to propagate ideals of the Party.

Question 7.

Estimate Periyar as a feminist

Answer:

Periyar was a great feminist. He believed in gender equality and raised voice over the plight of women. He emphasized on women’s right to divorce and property. He objected the terms like “giving in marriage”. This, he said, treats woman as a thing. He wanted it to substitute by “valkaithunai,” (companion) a word for marriage taken from the Tirukkural. Periyar’s most important work on this subject is Why the Woman is Enslaved ? He believed that property rights for women would provide them a social status and protection. He welcomed equal rights for males and females in property, guardianship and adoption.

Question 8.

Explain the proceedings of All India Trade Union Congress Conference held in 1920.

Answer:

The first All India Trade Union Conference (AITUC) was held on 31st October 1920 in Bombay. The delegates discussed several resolutions.

These included a demand for protection from police interference in labour disputes, the maintenance of an unemployment register restriction on exporting food stuffs, compensation for injuries and health insurance.

In addition, the delegates demanded that Indian workers be given some representation in the Government just as empolyers had representatives on legislative councils.

VI. Answer the questions given under each caption

Question 1.

Periyar e.v.r

(a) When did Periyar founded the Dravidar Kazhagam?

Answer:

Periyar founded the Dravidar Kazhagam in the year 1944.

(b) What were the Newspapers and Journals run by Periyar?

Answer:

Kudi Arasu (Democracy) (1925) Revolt (1928) Puratchi Revolution (1933) Paguth tharivu (Rationalism) (1934) and Viduthalai (Liberation) (1935).

(c) Why was Periyar known as Vaikom hero?

Answer:

In the name of caste dharma the “lower caste” people were denied access to the temples and the streets surrounding the temple.

In Vaikom Catown in the then princely state of Travancore and in present day Kerala, people protest against this practice.

People hailed him as Vaikom Virar (Hero of Vaikom) because Periyar led the movement and was imprisoned.

(d) Which was the most important work of Periyar?

Answer:

Periyar’s most important work on this subject is why the women is enslaved?

Question 2.

Labour Movement in Tamil Nadu

(a) Highlight the factors that caused the birth of Trade Union Movement in Madras.

Answer:

The factors that caused the birth of Trade Union Movement in Madras are

Retrenchment of workers at the end of the First World War.

Nationalists’ support to the cause of labour.

(b) Identify the three prominent persons associated with the Madras Labour Union.

Answer:

Three prominent persons associated with the Madras Labour Union are B.P. Walia, M. Singaravelar and Thiru.Vi. Kalyanasundaram.

(c) Where was the first conference of All India Trade Union Congress held?

Answer:

The first All India Trade Union Conference was held in Bombay.

(d) Who organized the first ever celebration of May Day in Madras and which year?

Answer:

M. Singaravelar organised the first ever celebration of May Day in Madras in 1923.

Question 3.

Maraimalai adigal

(a) Name the Sangam texts for which Maraimalai Adigai wrote commentaries.

Answer:

Maraimalai Adigai wrote commentaries on the sangam texts Pattinappalai and Mullaipattu.

(b) Name the Journal where he worked as a young man.

Answer:

Siddhanta Deepika.

(c) Why did he oppose imposition of Hindi?

Answer:

He promoted the use of pure Tamil words, impact on Tamil culture especially in language and literature.

(d) Who were the key influences in Maraimalai Adigal’s life?

Answer:

Maraimalai Adaigal’s teachers such as P. Sundaranar and Somasundra Nayagar were key influences in his life.


VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Attempt an essay on foundation and development of Tamil Renaissance in the 19fh Century.

Answer:

(i) In Tamil Nadu, the proliferation of the printing press acted as a catalyst for the publication and spread of secular ancient Tamil literature.

(ii) In the nineteenth century, Tamil scholars like C.W. Damotharanar, and U.V. Swaminathar spent their lifetime in the rediscovery of the Tamil classics.

(iii) C.W. Damotharanar collected and edited different palm leaf manuscripts of the Tamil grammars and literature. U.V. Swaminathar took efforts to publish the classical texts. These triggered an intellectual revolution and it was popularly known as Tamil Renaissance.

(iv) The transformation not only revived Tamil language and literature but also Tamil culture. It challenged the prevailed caste hierarchy and influenced the rise of Dravidian consciousness and established Tamil as a language of the Dravidian people.

(v) Tamil renaissance questioned the cultural hegemony of Brahminism. These developments were reflected in art, literature, religion, etc.

Question 2.

Describe the background for the formation of the Justice Party and point put its contribution to the cause of social justice.

Answer:

As World War -1 was in progress the British Government was considering the introduction of representative institutions for Indians after the War.

Fearing that such political reforms would further strengthen the political power of Brahmins, educated Non – Brahmins decided to organise themselves politically.

On 20th, November 1916 around 30 prominent Non – Brahmin leaders including Dr. C. Natesanar Sir, Pitti Theyagarayar, T.M. Nair and Alamelu Mangai Thayarammal came together to form the South Indian Liberation Federation (SILF).

Programme and Activities:

The Justice Party is the fountain head of the Non – Brahmin Movement in the country.

The Justicite removed the legal hindrances restricting inter – caste marriages and broke the barriers that prevented Depressed Classes from the use of public wells and tanks.

Hostels were established for the students belonging to this social group in 1923.

The Justice Party Government was the first to approve participation of women in the electoral politics in (1921)

The Justice Party worked towards legislating provisions for communal representation reservations for various communities.

The Justice Party rule established the Staff Selection Board in 1924 for the selection of Government officials and encouraged all the communities to share the administrative powers.

In 1929, the Government of British India adopted the pattern and established the Public Service Commission.

The Justice Party introduced the Hindu Religious Endowment (HRE) Act in 1926 and enabled any individual, irrespective of their caste affiliation, to become a member of the temple committee and govern the resources of the religious institutions.

Question 3.

Estimate Periyar E.V.R’s decisive contribution to the social transformation of Tamil Nadu?

Answer:

Periyar was a great social reformer. His contribution to the social transformation of Tamil Nadu is really praise worthy.

(i) He launched ‘Temple entry’ movement to provide the lower caste people easy access to the temples.

(ii) He also started the Self-Respect movement in 1925, with the determination that there ought to be ‘no God; no religion; no Gandhi; no Congress; and no Brahmins’.

(iii) Periyar was critical of patriarchy. He condemned child marriage and the Devadasi system. Right from 1929, when the Self-Respect conference began to voice its concern over the plight of women, Periyar had been emphasising on women’s right to divorce and property.

(iv) He advocated atheism as a mode of critique to deconstruct the established practices of faith, culture and custom. Periyar wanted religion to be replaced by rationalism.

(v) He welcomed equal rights for males and females in property, guardianship and adoption. He was strong champion of birth control and contraception.

VIII. Students Activity

Question 1.

Students can be taught to distinguish between Labour Movement and Trade Union Movement. Project work on the activities of local trade union organisations may be done by students.

Answer:

Distinguish between Labour Movement and Trade Movement.

Labour Movement:

It is a political movement campaigning to improve the rights and conditions of the working people.

If originated in U.S.A focussing on rights, interests and protection of employees.

Labour movement generally work for better wages, reasonable working hours and safer working conditions.

Trade union Movement:

It is an association of workers forming a legal unit to improve their status by united action.

It originated in Great Britain focussing to protect and promote the welfare of the employees.

Trade Union Movement regulate employer – employee relationship and generally work for better wages, reasonable working hours and safer working conditions.

Activities of a local trade union: Students should visit with few of their classmates (with prior permission from the subject teacher and school authorities and parents) to visit a nearby industry where trade unions are organised by the workers.

They have to meet the trade, union leader and gather information on the activities performed by them in the factory. The collected information should be written down neatly and submit to the subject teacher.

Eg: In general, the following are the few activities performed by the trade union.

Negotiate wages.

Regulate relationship between workers (employees) and the employers.

Raise demand for new uniform, or safer working condition, pure drinking water, sanitary facilities etc.,

Protect the workers against discrimination.

Protect the workers from exploitation.

Question 2.

Students can compile the activities of the local writers’ associations or women’s collectives.

Answer:

Local writers Association/women collectives: Students should find people who are writers and they write scripts for audio formats, digital media (or) T.V or screenwriters for films. Later, students can collect information about their.

Name of their Association.

Location.

Job site.

Nature of work.

Year of joining the Association

Membership fee

Total no. of members

Usefulness being the member

and submit in this format to the subject teacher. If students can find women organised themselves as a group, in the above-mentioned format can be used for that also. Eg: Women collectives (self-help group)

They work for their betterment together as a group (Sua Udavi Kuzhu).


Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

………………. is also identified as the Indian renaissance.

(a) Historical development

(b) Political development

(c) Economic development

(d) None

Answer:

(a) Historical development

Question 2

Periyar transformed the justice Party into ………….

(a) Akali Dal

(b) Dravidar kazhagam

(c) Swarajya

Answer:

(b) Dravidar kazhagam

Question 3.

The basic inspiration of renaissance is:

(a) Knowledge

(b) Humanism

(c) Painting

(d) Transition

Answer:

(b) Humanism

Question 4.

Vaikom is a place in ……………

(a) Tamil Nadu

(b) Andhra Pradesh

(c) Kerala

Answer:

(c) Kerala

Question 5.

The introduction of ………………. on Dravidian languages are underpinned the Process of tamil renaissance

(a) Printing press

(b) linguistic research

(c) both (a) and (b)

(d) knowledge

Answer:

(c) both (a) and (b)

Question 6.

The Justice Party was established in 1916 by ……………

(a) Periyar

(b) Anna

(c) C. Natesanar, Pitti Theyagarayar, T.M. Nair and Alamelu Mangai Thayarammal

Answer:

(c) C. Natesanar, Pitti Theyagarayar, T.M. Nair and Alamelu Mangai Thayarammal

Question 7.

In which year Thirukkural, Tamil literary text to be published?

(a) 1810

(b) 1805

(c) 1808

(d) 1812

Answer:

(d) 1812

Question 8.

Self Respect Movement was started in the year …………….

(a) 1927

(b) 1925

(c) 1930

Answer:

(b) 1925

Question 9.

Who was collected and edited different palm – leaf manuscripts of the Tamil grammerand literature?

(a) U.V. Swaminathar

(b) C.W. Damotharanar

(c) Meenakshi Sundaranar

(d) P. Sundaranar

Answer:

(b) C.W. Damotharanar

Question 10.

Devadasi system was abolished by …………..

(a) Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy

(b) Ramamirdhan

(c) Dr. S. Dharmambal

Answer:

(a) Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy

Question 11.

………………. was popularly known as Vallalar.

(a) Ramalinga Adigal

(b) Parithimar Kalaignar

(c) Thiru.Vi. Ka

(d) Maraimalai Adigal

Answer:

(a) Ramalinga Adigal

Question 12.

Whose name is associated with the ‘Self-Respect’ movement?

(a) Muthulakshmi Reddy

(b) Rajaji

(c) Rettimalai Srinivasan

(d) Periyar

Answer:

(d) Periyar

Question 13.

Who was the first to argue that Tamil is a classical languages?

(a) Parithimar Kalaignar

(b) Maraimalai Adigal

(с) E.V. Ramasamy

(d) M. Singaravelar

Answer:

(a) Parithimar Kalaignar

Question 14.

Whose efforts led to the abolition of the devadasi system?

(a) Muthulakshmi Reddy

(b) Muvalur Ramamirtham

(c) M.C. Rajah

(d) Periyar

Answer:

(a) Muthulakshmi Reddy

Question 15.

Which organisation focused on educating and supporting Non – Brahmin graduates?

(a) Madras Dravidian Association

(b) Tani Tamil Iyakkam

(c) Tamil Isai Iyakkam

(d) None

Answer:

(a) Madras Dravidian Association

Question 16.

Who was the founder of Tani Tamil Iyakkam? (Pure Tamil Movement).

(a) M. Singaravelar

(b) Parithimar Kalaignar

(c) Ramalinga Adigal

(d) Maraimalai Adigal

Answer:

(d) Maraimalai Adigal

Question 17.

In which year Non – Brahmin Manifesto was released?

(a) 1905

(b) 1910

(c) 1912

(d) 1916

Answer:

(d) 1916

Question 18.

In which year the Congress contested the electron for the first time?

(a) 1930

(b) 1933

(c) 1935

(d) 1937

Answer:

(d) 1937

Question 19.

In which year Justice Party Government was the firstto approval participation of women in the electrol politics?

(a) 1910

(b) 1915

(c) 1919

(d) 1921

Answer:

(d) 1921

Question 20.

Which Party introduced the Hindu Religious Endowment? (HRE)

(a) The Justice Party

(b) The Congress Party

(c) both (a) and (b)

(d) none

Answer:

(a) The Justice Party

Question 21.

Who was the founder of the Self – Respect Movement?

(a) E.V. Ramasamy

(b) Rajaji

(c) Rettaimalai

(d) none

Answer:

(a) E.V. Ramasamy

Question 22.

In which year Rettaimalai Srinivasan was born?

(a) 1849

(b) 1852

(c) 1855

(d) 1859

Answer:

(d) 1859

Question 23.

Who was one of the prominent leaders from the “depressed class”?

(a) B.R. Ambedkar

(b) M.C. Rajah

(c) Rajaji

(d) none

Answer:

(b) M.C. Rajah

Question 24.

Who was a pioneer in the labour movement activities?

(a) M. Singaravelar

(b) M.C. Rajah .

(c) B.R. Ambedkar

(d) Rajaji

Answer:

(a) M. Singaravelar

Question 25.

Who was in the forefront of the campaign pressing for legislation to abolish Devadasi system?

(a) Nagammai

(b) Dr. Muthulakshmi

(c) Rukmani

(d) Neelambikai

Answer:

(b) Dr. Muthulakshmi


II. Fill in the blanks

………………. traditions were treated as primitive.

………………. was portrayed as conservative.

………………. brought changes in the socio – cultural life of the Indian sub – continent.

Manonmaniam written by ……………….

Tamil renaissance questioned the cultural hegemony of ……………….

………………. an early pioneer in Buddhist revival promoted communism and socialism.

………………. worked in a Journal Siddhanta Deepika.

………………. held high in the radical philosophy.

………………. complied a dictionary that provide pure Tamil equivalent to Sanskirt.

The Madras Non – Brahmins Association was founded in ……………….

………………. founded the Madras United League.

………………. won the election and formed the first ever Indian Cabinet in Madras.

………………. later renamed as Madras Dravidian Association to support Dravidian uplift.

………………. became the chief minister of the Madras Presidency during (1920-26).

………………. is the fountain head of the Non – Brahmin Movement in the country.

In 1929, the Government of ………………. adopted the pattern and established the public service commission.

………………. proposed a resolution regarding the rights of “Untouchables” to temple entry.

………………. demand for a separate electorates for scheduled castes.

………………. The Chief Minister of Madras State (1952 – 54) introduced to vocational training.

………………. wanted religion to be replaced by rationalism.

………………. who had worked for the the progress of the deprived castes.

The first All India Trade Union (AITUC) was held in ……………….

………………. demanded abolition of untouchability.

………………. was a pioneer in the Labour Movement Activities.

The first Tamil Isai conference was held in ……………….

………………. was one of the important objectives of the Self – Respect Movement.

………………. formed the All India Women’s Conference (AlWC).

The Madras ………………. was enacted by the Government.

………………. founded the Tanjore Sangitha Vidhya Mahajana Sangam.

 ………………. published a Tamil Newspaper Thozhilalan (Worker).

Answers:

Indigenous

Indian society

The rise of Humanism

P. Sundaranar

Brahminism

M. Singaravelar

Maraimalai Adigal

E.V. Ramasamy

Neelambikai

1909

C. Natesanar

The Justice Party

Madras United League

A. Subbarayalu

The Justice Party

British India

Periyar

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Rajaji

Periyar

Rettaimalai Srinivasan

Bombay

M.C. Rajah

M. Singaravelar

1943

Women’s Liberation

Women’s India Association (WIA)

Devadasis Act

Abraham Pandithar

M. Singaravelar


III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) C.W. Damotharanar collected and edited different palm-leaf manuscripts of the Tamil grammar.

(ii) Ramalinga Adigal gave prominence to Tamil music.

(iii) Maraimalai Adigal promoted the use of pure Tamil words and removal of the Sanskirt influence from the Tamil language.

(iv) Muvalur Ramamirtham to became the first women legislator in India in 1926.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iv) is correct

(d) (ii) and (iii) are correct

Answer:

(b) (i) and (iii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) The Justice Party Rule established the Staff Selection Board in 1924 for the selection of Government officials.

(ii) Periyar had a close relationship with Singaravelar who is considered the first communist of South India.

(iii) The anti – Hindi agitation (1932 -1936) had a big impact on Tamil Nadu’s politics.

(iv) Rettaimalai Srinivasan criticised it as Kula Kalvi Thittam and opposed it tooth and nail.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i) and (iv) are correct

(c) (iii) is correct

(d) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 3.

(i) Periyar was keen on the introduction of reservation in representative bodies such as the legislative council for Non – Brahmins.

(ii) All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) in 1937 to address the problem of Non – Brahmins.

(iii) The First World War (1912 -1920) provided stimulus to industrial growth ih India.

(iv) Women’s Liberation was one of the important objectives of Self – Respect Movement.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i) and (iii) are correct

(c) (iv) is correct

(d) (i) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(d) (i) and (iv) are correct

Question 4.

Assertion (A): Rettaimalai Srinivasan who had experienced the horrors of untouchability worked for the progress of the deprive castes.

Reason (R): He served as president of the scheduled castes federations and the Madras Provincial Depressed Classes.

(a) Both A and R are correct.

(b) A is correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

(c) Both A and R wrong.

(d) R is correct but it has no relevance to A.

Answer:

(a) Both A and R are correct.

Question 5.

Assertion (A): Periyar E.V. Ramasamy was the founder of the Self – Respect movement.

Reason (R): The movement was concerned with the marginalised sections of the society and criticised Brahminism and it advocated a casteless society.

(a) Both A and R are wrong.

(b) A is correct and R is correct explanation of A.

(c) A is correct and R is wrong.

(d) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Answer:

(b) A is correct and R is correct explanation of A.


IV. Match the following

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (iv)

C. (ii)

D. (v)

E. (i)


Question 2.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (v)

C. (ii)

D. (iii)

E. (i)


Question 3.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (v)

C. (i)

D. (ii)

E. (iv)


Question 4.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (iii)

C. (v)

D. (i)

E. (ii)


Question 5.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iii)

B. (iv)

C. (v)

D. (i)

E. (ii)


Question 6.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iii)

C. (iv)

D. (i)

E. (ii)


Question 7.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (v)

C. (ii)

D. (i)

E. (iii)


Question 8.

Match the Column I with Column II.

Answer:

A. (iv)

B. (v)

C. (a)

D. (ii)

E. (iii)


V. Answer briefly

Question 1.

What are the aims of Self Respect Movement?

Answer:

The Self Respect Movement condemned and fought against Brahmin domination over other castes, society, politics and religion.

It fought to abolish traditionalism and superstitions.

It advocated women education, widow remarriage, inter-caste marriages and opposed child marriage.

Question 2.

Explain about the basic inspiration of renaissance.

Answer:

The basic inspiration of renaissance is humanism and questioning the fundamentalist religious practices that denied humans their dignity.

This ideology of humanism stimulated creative energy in all spheres of social life and knowledge such as language, literature, philosophy, music, painting, architecture etc.

Question 3.

What were the causes for the failure of the Justice Party?

Answer:

The Justice Party came to power when the world was in economic depression.

The Nationalist Movement was popular and heading for freedom.

Caste and wealth played vital role. Hence the party lost its hold.

The rise of congress under the leadership of Ghandhi became a formidable challenge to Jus¬tice Party.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu

Question 4.

List out a few manuscripts of the Tamil grammar edited by C.W. Damotharanar and U.V. Swaminathar.

Answer:

C.W. Domotharanar collected and edited different palm – leaf manuscripts of the Tamil grammar and literature.

His edition included such texts as Tholkappiyam, Viracholiyam, Iraiyanar Akapporul, Illakkana Villakkam, Kaliththokai, and Culamani.

U.V. Swaminathar took efforts to publish the classical texts such as Civakachinthamani, Paththupattu, Chilapathikaram, Purananuru, Purapporul – Venpa – Malai, Manimekalai, Ainkurunuru, and Pathitrupathu.

Question 5.

What was the different official positions hold by Periyar?

Answer:

Periyar held different official positions of Erode that included the chairmanship of Municipal Council, President of the Tamil Nadu Congress and President of the Justice Party.

Question 6.

What was the impact of Tamil language movement in the 20th century?

Answer:

In the 20th century Tamil language movement such as Tani Tamil Iyakkam and Tamil Isai Iyakkam made a significant cultural impact in creating a pure Tamil free from the influence of Sanskrit.

Question 7.

Discuss the work done by the Justice Party towards legislating provisions for communal representation?

Answer:

The Justice Party rule established the Staff Selection Board in 1924 for the selection of government officials and encouraged ail the communities to share the administrative powers. This ensured equitable distribution in appointments among various castes and communities as a part of achieving social justice.

Question 8.

Whom was Women’s India Association (WIA) started and what was its work?

Answer:

Women’s India Association was started in 1917 by Annie Besant, Dorothy JinaraJadasa and Margaret cousins at Adyar Madras.

The Association published pamphlets and bulletins in different languages to detail the problems of personal hygiene, marriage laws, voting rights, child care and women’s role in the public.

Question 9.

Who initiated the Self-Respect movement? What was it about?

Answer:

The Self-Respect movement was initiated by Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy. The movement was concerned with the marginalised sections of the society and criticised Brahminism and the cultural hegemony of the Brahmins. It advocated a casteless society devoid of rituals and difference based on birth. The movement declared rationality and self-respect as the birthright of all human beings and held these as more important than self-rule.

Question 10.

Who worked hard to abolish the Devadasi system?

Answer:

Dr. Muthulakshmi ammaiyar, was in the forefront of the campaign pressing for a legislation to abolish the devadasis system.

The Madras Devasasis (prevention of Dedication) Act 1947 was enacted by the Government.

Question 11.

What was the devadasi system? Why was it abolished?

Answer:

The devadasi system was a custom of dedicating young girls to the Hindu temples as a servant of God. Though intended as a service to God, it soon got corrupted leading to extensive immorality and abuse of the women.

Muthulakshmi Reddi started a campaign pressing for a legislation to abolish this system. Finally, the Madras Devadasis (Prevention of Dedication) was enacted by the government in 1947.

Question 12.

What were the titles given to Rettaimalai Srinivasan?

Answer:

Rettaimalai Srinivasan was honoured with such titles as Rao Sahib (1926), Rao Bahadur (1930) and Divan Bahadur (1936) for his selfless social services.


VI. Answer the question given under each caption

Question 1.

Rise Of the Dravidian Movement

(a) In what situation the Dravidian movement emerged?

Answer:

The Dravidian movement emerged as a defence of the Non – Brahmins against the Brahmin dominance.

(b) When was Madras Non – Brahmin Association formed?

Answer:

In 1909.

(c) Who was founded the Madras United League?

Answer:

C. Natesanar, a medical doctor founded the Madras United League.

(d) What is the main aim of the organisation?

Answer:

The organisation focused on educating and supporting Non – Brahmin graduates and conducting regular meetings to share their grievances.


Question 2.

Self Respect Movement:

(a) Who started the Self Respect Movement?

Answer:

E.V. Ramaswamy Periyar started the self respect movement.

(b) Why did he start?

Answer:

He started it in order to spread and execute his ideas and policies.

(c) When was it started?

Answer:

It was started in 1925.

(d) Name the laws passed by the Government due to the constant struggle of Self Respect Movement.

Answer:

Widow Remarriage Act, Women’s Right to property Act and abolition of Devadasi Act.


Question 3.

M.G. rajah

(a) Who was popularly known as M.C. Rajah?

Answer:

Mylar Chinnathambi Raja, popularly known as M.C. Rajah.

(b) What was his demand?

Answer:

He demanded abolition of untouchability and organised a number of political meetings for the “Untouchable castes” to have access to public wells and pathways to burial grounds.

(c) In which year All India Depressed Classes Association was formed?

Answer:

In 1928.

(d) What was the terms he advocated?

Answer:

He advocated the use of such as terms Adi – Dravida and Adi – Andhra.


VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.

Explain briefly about the self- respect movement.

Answer:

The Self- Respect Movement introduced a programme of Non – Brahmin uplift in Tamil Nadu.

The movement was concerned with the marginalised sections the society and Criticised Brahminism and the cultural hegemony of the Brahmin.

It advocated a casteless society devoid of rituals and diffemeces based on birth.

The movement declared rationality and Self – Respect as the birth right of all human beings and held these as more important than self – rule.

The movement demanded women’s emancipations, deplored superstition and emphasised rationality.

The movement also advocated self – respect marriage.

The Self – Respect Movement championed not only the cause of the Non – Brahmin Hindus, but also that of the Muslims.

The Self Respect Movement extrolled the lofty principles of Islam such as equity and brotherhood.

Muslim elite considered the Tamil Muslims as Dravidian.

He wanted the Dravidian Muslim to follow Mustapha Kemal Pasha of Turkey and Amanullah of Afghanistan who initiated reforms in Islamic society.

Question 2.

Give an account of Labour Movements in Tamil Nadu.

Answer:

The first World War (1914 – 18) provided stimulus to industrial growth India.

These industries catering to war time needs, had employed a huge number of workers.

At the end of the War there were retrenchments across the industries as the War time requirements receded.

Combined with high prices, this gave a momentum to the labour movement.

The nationalist realising the value of organised labour power began to supported the cause of labour,

B.P. Wadia, M. Singaravelar, ThiruVi. Ka and others initiated the formation of labour unions in the Madras presidency.

In 1918 India’s first organised trade union the Madras Labour Union, was formed.

The first All India Trade Union Conference (AITUC) was held on 31st October 1920 in Bombay.

These included a demand for protection from police interference in labour disputes, the maintenance of an unemployment register restriction on exporting food stuffs, compensation for injuries and health Insurance.

In addition, the delegates demanded that Indian workers be given some representation in the Government, just as employers, had representatives on legislative councils.

M. Singaravelar (1860 – 1946) was a pioneer in the Labour Movement activities in the Madras Presidency.

He organised the first over celebration of May Day in 1923.

He published a Tamil newspaper Thozhilalan (workers) to address the problem of the working class.


VIII. Draw a time line for the following

Question 1.

Write any five important events between 1905 -1927.

Answer:

Given period: 1905 – 1927

Question 2.

Write any five important events between 1920 -1930.

Answer:

Given period: 1920 – 1930

Question 3.

Write any five important events between 1930 -1947.

Answer:

Given period: 1930 – 1947

Question 4.

Write any five important events between 1931 -1945.

Answer:

Given period: 1931 – 1945

Question 5.

Write any five important events between 1937 -1947.

Answer:

Given period 1937 – 1947

Question 6.

Write any five important events between 1906 -1925.

Answer:

Given period: 1906 – 1925


Tamilnadu, Samacheer Kalvi, 10th, Social Science, Solutions, History, Chapter 10, Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu,

Question 1.
…………….. was the pioneer of social Reformers in India.
(a) C. W. Damotharanar
(b) Periyar
(c) Raja Rammohan Roy
(d) Maraimalai Adigal
Answer:
(c) Raja Rammohan Roy

Question 2.
…………… established a full-fledged printing press in 1709, at Tranquebar.
(a) Caldwell
(b) F.W.Ellis
(c) Ziegenbalg
(d) Meenakshisundaram
Answer:
(c) Ziegenbalg

Question 3.
…………….. was the official newspaper of the Self Respect Movement.
(a) Kudi Arasu
(b) Puratchi
(c) Viduthalai
(d) Paguththarivu
Answer:
(a) Kudi Arasu

Question 4.
Periyar wanted religion to be replaced by ………………
(a) Nationalism
(b) Iconoclasm
(c) Rationalism
(d) Spiritualism
Answer:
(c) Rationalism

Question 5.
…………….. founded Adi Dravida Mahajana Sabha in 1893.
(a) Rettaimalai Srinivasan
(b) B.R. Ambedkar
(c) Rajaji
(d) M.C. Rajah
Answer:
(a) Rettaimalai Srinivasan

Question 6.
India’s first organised trade union, the Madras Labour Union was formed in ………….
(a) 1918
(b) 1917
(c) 1916
(d) 1914
Answer:
(a) 1918

Q.6. Following are the pictures of the some disaster. How will be your pre and post disaster management in case poi face any of those disaster? 4 Marks.


Q.5. Complete the following chart. 2 Marks.


Q.4. Explain about the symbols. (Any 6) 6 Marks.


Q.3. Identify the types of disaster. 3 Marks.


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