Central Government | Aster Classes

Tamilnadu, board, samacheer kalvi, ssc, civics, Chapter 2, Central Government,

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

The Constitutional Head of the Union is:

(a) The President

(b) The Chief Justice

(c) The Prime Minister

(d) Council of Ministers

Answer:

(a) The President

Question 2.

Who is the real executive in a parliamentary type of government?

(a) Army

(b) The Prime Minister

(c) The President

(d) Judiciary

Answer:

(b) The Prime Minister

Question 3.

Who among the following decides whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not?

(a) The President

(b) Attorney General

(c) Parliamentary Affairs Minister

(d) Speaker of Lok Sabha

Answer:

(d) Speaker of Lok Sabha

Question 4.

The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the ……………

(a) The President

(b) Lok Sabha

(c) The Prime Minister

(d) Rajya Sabha

Answer:

(c) The Prime Minister

Question 5.

The Joint sittings of Indian Parliament for transacting legislative business are presided over by?

(a) Senior most member of Parliament

(b) Speaker of the Lok Sabha

(c) The President of India

(d) The Chairman of the Rajya Sabha

Answer:

(b) Speaker of the Lok Sabha

Question 6.

What is minimum age laid down for a candidate to seek election to the Lok Sabha?

(a) 18 Years

(b) 21 Years

(c) 25 Years

(d) 30 Years

Answer:

(c) 25 Years

Question 7.

The authority to alter the boundaries of state in India rest with?

(a) The President

(b) The Prime Minister

(c) State Government

(d) Parliament

Answer:

(d) Parliament

Question 8.

Under which Article the President is vested with the power to proclaim Financial Emergency

(a) Article 352

(b) Article 360

(c) Article 356

(d) Article 365

Answer:

(b) Article 360

Question 9.

The Chief Justice and other Judges of the Supreme court are appointed by:

(a) The President

(b) The Attorney General

(c) The Governor

(d) The Prime Minister

Answer:

(a) The President

Question 10.

Dispute between States of India comes to the Supreme Court under …………….

(a) Appellate Jurisdiction

(b) Original Jurisdiction

(c) Advisory Jurisdiction

(d) None of these

Answer:

(b) Original Jurisdiction

Question 11.

If you are elected as the President of India, which of the following decision can you take on your own?

(a) Nominate the leaders of your choice to the council of minister.

(b) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.

(c) Select the person you like as Prime Minister.

(d) Dismiss a Prime Minister who has a majority in the Lok Sabha.

Answer:

(b) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.

II. Fill in the blanks

………………… Bill cannot be introduced in the Parliament without President’s approval.

………………… is the leader of the nation and chief spokesperson of the country.

………………… is the Ex-officio Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.

The President generally nominates two members belonging to the ………………… community to the Lok Sabha.

………………… has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of both Houses of the Parliament.

The Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court hold the office up to the age of ………………… years.

………………… is the Guardian of the Constitution.

At present, the Supreme Court consists of ………………… judges including the Chief Justice.

Answers:

Money

Prime Minister

Vice-President

Anglo-Indian

Attorney General

65

Supreme Court

28

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

(i) Total members of the Rajya Sabha is 250.

(ii) The 12 nominated members shall be chosen by the President from amongst persons experience in the field of literature, science, art, or social service.

(iii) The Members of the Rajya Sabha should not be less than 30 years of age.

(iv) The members of the Rajya Sabha are directly elected by the peoples.

(a) (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (iii) and (iv) are correct

(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Answer:

(d) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 2.

(i) The Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court hold the office up to the age of 62 years.

(ii) Judiciary is the third organ of the government.

(iii) The cases involving fundamental rights come under the Appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

(iv) The law declared by Supreme Court is binding on all courts within the territory of India.

(a) (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (iii) and (iv) are correct

(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

(d) (i) and (ii) are correct

Answer:

(a) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.

Assertion (A): The Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and it cannot be dissolved.

Reason (R): One-third of the members of Rajya Sabha retire every two years, and new members are elected to fill the seats thus vacated.

(a) (A) is false but R is true

(b) (A) is true but (R) is false

(c) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A)

(d) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct reason for (A)

Answer:

(c) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A)

IV. Match the following

1

Answers:

A. (iii)

B. (iv)

C. (i)

D. (v)

E. (ii)

V. Answer the brief questions

Question 1.

How is President of India elected?

Answer:

The President of India is elected by an electoral college in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. The Electoral college consists of the elected members of both Houses of the Parliament and the elected members of the States and elected members of National Capital Territory of Delhi and Puducherry.

Question 2.

What are the different categories of Ministers at the Union level?

Answer:

The ministers are classified under three different categories.

Cabinet Ministers: An informal body of senior ministers who form the nucleus of administration.

Ministers of State: They are also incharge of ministries or departments.

Deputy Ministers: They assist either the Ministers of Cabinet or State.

Question 3.

What is the qualification of Judges of the Supreme Court?

Answer:

Qualification of the Supreme Court Judges are

He must be a citizen of India.

He should have worked as a Judge of a High Court for at least 5 years.

He should have worked as an advocate of the High Court for at least 10 years.

He is in the opinion of the President, a distinguished Jurist.

Question 4.

Write a short note on Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

Answer:

Speaker is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha who is elected by its members.

The Speaker presides over a joint sitting of theTwo Houses of Parliament.

He has the power to decide whether a Bill is a money Bill or an Ordinary Bill.

Question 5.

What is Money Bill?

Answer:

Money Bill refers to a bill (draft law) introduced in the Lok Sabha which generally covers the issue of receipt and spending of money, such as tax laws, prevention of black money etc.

Question 6.

List out any two special powers of the Attorney General of India?

Answer:

Attorney General of India has the right of audience in all Courts in the territory of India.

He has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of both the Houses of the Parliament (or) their joint sitting but without a right to vote.

VI. Answer in Detail

Question 1.

Describe the powers and functions of the President of India.

Answer:

The powers and the functions of the President of India are given below:

(i) He appoints the Prime Minister and the others members of the Council of Ministers, distributing portfolios to them on the advice of the Prime Minister.

(ii) He appoints Governors of States, the Chief Justice and other Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, the Attorney General, the Chief Election Commissioner, Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countries.

(iii) He inaugurates tire session of the Parliament by addressing it after the general elections and also at the beginning of the first session each year.

(iv) Money Bill can be introduced in the Parliaments only with his prior recommendation. Annual Budget of the Central Government is presented before the Lok Sabha by the Union Finance Minister only with the permission of the President.

(v) The President of India has the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remission of punishment, or to commute the sentence of any person convicted of an offence.

(vi) He is the supreme commander of the defence force of the country. He has been empowered to proclaim Emergency in the country.

Question 2.

Explain the Jurisdiction and powers of the Supreme Court of India.

Answer:

Supreme Court is the Apex court in the Country.

It is the guardian of our Constitution. The following are the functions of the Supreme Court.

Original Jurisdiction:

Cases which are brought directly in the first instance come under original Jurisdiction.*

Dispute between two states or more

Dispute between the Centre and the State.

Writs issued for the enforcement of fundamental rights.

Appellate Jurisdiction:

The Supreme Court hears the appeals against the decisions of High court in “Civil, Criminal and Constitutional” cases.

With a certificate from the High Court that it is fit to appeal in the Supreme Court.

The Supreme, Court is the final appellate court in the country.

Advisory Jurisdiction:

President can refer to the Supreme Court if any question of law or fact which in his opinion is of Public importance miscellaneous Jurisdiction.

The Supreme Court has the complete control over its own establishment.

With the approval of the President the supreme court is authorized to make rules for regulatory, generally the practice and procedure of the court.

The law declared by Supreme Court is binding on all courts within the territory of India.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Central Government

Judicial Review:

The power of the Judiciary to declare ‘a law as un-constitutional’ is known as Judicial Review.

Individual Review power with regard to

Protecting the fundamental right.

The laws passed by the legislature which are not in accordance with the Constitutional.

Dispute between the Centre and the States.

Question 3.

What are the Duties and Functions of Prime Minister of India?

Answer:

Duties and functions of the Prime Minister are given below

The Prime Minister decides the rank of his ministers and distributes various departments among them.

He decides the dates and the agenda of the meeting of the Cabinet which he presides.

He supervises the work of various ministers

The Prime Minister acts as a link between the President and the Council of Ministers.

He is the leader of the nation and the chief spokesperson of the country.

He is the head of the Cabinet and other Ministers are his colleagues.

As the leader of the nation, the Prime Minister represents our nation at all international conferences like the commonwealth etc.

Question 4.

Critically examine the Powers and Functions of the Parliament.

Answer:

Parliament is the legislative organ of the Union Government.

Article 79 to 122 in part V of the Constitution deal with the organisation, composition, duration, officers, procedures, privileges of the Parliament.

The President, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha are the three parts of the Parliament.

It is bicameral legislature.

Functions of the Parliament:

Legislation, passing of budget, ventilation of public grievances, over seeing of administration discussion of various subjects like developments plans, International relations and internal policies.

After passing of the bill in both the houses it is forwarded to the President for his assent.

If the President send back the bill to the Parliament for reconsideration and the bill is passed in both the houses without any amendment the President has to give his assent.

A bill has to pass three stages in the Parliament before it becomes an Act.

Parliament is also vested with powers to impeach the President and to remove judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. Chief Election Commissioner and Comptroller and Auditor – General of India in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Constitution.

Two-third majority from both the houses of the Parliament is needed in support for the impeachment.

The Parliament exercises control over the executive through asking questions and supplementary, questions, moving motions of adjournment, discussing and passing resolutions, discussing and pushing motion or vote of no¬confidence.

The first hour when the Parliament is in session is allotted for question hour.

The members can put forth questions to the concerned Ministry and pertain to get answers.

The Parliament has the power to change the boundaries of the states.

By Fifth Amendment under Article 3 of our Constitution the Parliament is empowered to the formation of new states, alteration of areas and boundaries or change the name of the existing state.

A government bill should get passed in the Parliament with majority vote in this regard.

Question 5.

List out the functions of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

Answer:

Functions of Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha is the lower House of the Parliament. It is also known as the House of the people. Any Bill including Money Bill can be introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha.

It has equal power as the Rajya Sabha in passing any Bill for constitutional amendment.

Lok Sabha members have the power to elect the President and Vice-President.

Motion of no confidence can only be introduced in Lok Sabha. If it is passed then the Prime Minister and other councils of ministers need to resign from their post.

Functions of the Rajya Sabha

Any bill (except the money bills) needs to be approved by Rajya Sabha

It has the same power as Lok Sabha for passing any Bill for a constitutional amendment?

The members of Rajya Sabha have the electoral power for selection for President and Vice – President.

It has power in the impeachment procedure of the President and judge of the Supreme Court and High Courts.

VII. Project and activity

Question 1.

Organise a mock Parliament in your class. Discuss the role of President,Prime Minister and Ministers.

Answer:

Mock Parliament:

Role of President

Role of Prime Minister and Ministers.

(mock Parliament video in you tube)

14th National youth Parliament.

Mock Parliament session Anan kids Jim 26th 2018.

Mock Parliament in village school-Final Rehearsal of youth.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi intends to organise a mock Parliament in Delhi with representation from every district.

Key points:

Each class should prepare a list of activities.

This enables them to prepare themselves for the discussions in the House.

It is of two types:

Government Business (the member of the Cabinet rank) and

Private members business – the other members of the Parliament who is not in Minister rank.

Question 2.

Bring out the differences and similarities between the US and Indian President’s.

Answer:

Both the US President and the Indian President are elected through election by voting.

The President of US and the President of India both are the Head of the Union and the first citizen.

Election to the US President is direct.

Election to the Indian President is indirect.

The President of US is the Real Executive of the government.

The President of India is only the Nominal Head.

Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.

Articles 52 to 78 in Part V deals with the:

(a) Judiciary

(b) Union Executive

(c) State Legislature

(d) None of the above

Answer:

(b) Union Executive

Question 2.

Who is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India?

(a) Prime Minister

(b) Chief Justice of Supreme Court

(c) President

(d) Vice – President

Answer:

(c) President

Question 3.

The …………….. is the Constitutional head of the Union Executive.

(a) President

(b) Prime Minister

(c) Chief Justice

(d) Council of Minister

Answer:

(a) President

Question 4.

Who occupies the second highest office in the country?

(a) President

(b) Vice President

(c) Attorney General

(d) Prime Minister

Answer:

(b) Vice President

Question 5.

Article …………….. lays down that the Supreme command of the Defense Force of the Union shall be vested in the President.

(a) 53(1)

(b) 53 (2)

(c) 53(3)

(d) 51(A)

Answer:

(b) 53 (2)

Question 6.

The eligible age to be appointed as the President of India is ……………..

(a) 25 years

(b) 35 years

(c) 21 years

Answer:

(b) 35 years

Question 7.

The Vice-President can act as the President for a maximum period of …………….. months.

(a) 3

(b) 6

(c) 9

(d) 12

Answer:

(b) 6

Question 8.

The council of Rajya Sabha consists of …………… members

(a) 250

(b) 238

(c) 245

Answer:

(a) 250

Question 9.

If the office of the President and Vice President lie vacant …………….. of India works as President.

(a) Prime Minister

(b) Deputy Ministers

(c) Ministers of State

(d) Chief Justice

Answer:

(d) Chief Justice

Question 10.

The members of the Rajya Sabha are ……………

(a) elected indirectly

(b) mostly nominated

(c) elected directly as well as indirectly

Answer:

(a) elected indirectly

Question 11.

The …………….. is instrumental in moving amendments to the Constitution.

(a) Cabinet

(b) Council of States

(c) President

(d) Attorney General

Answer:

(a) Cabinet

Question 12.

The …………….. is a permanent house and cannot be dissolved.

(a) Legislative Assembly

(b) Lok Sabha

(c) Rajya Sabha

(d) Electoral College

Answer:

(c) Rajya Sabha

Question 13.

The Supreme Court of India, New Delhi was inaugurated on January 28 ……………..

(a) 1935

(b) 1940

(c) 1947

(d) 1950

Answer:

(d) 1950

Question 14.

In …………….. jurisdiction the Supreme Court hears appeals against the decisions of High Court.

(a) Original

(b) Appellate

(c) Advisory

(d) Judicial Review

Answer:

(b) Appellate

Question 15.

The law declared by the …………….. is binding on all courts within the territory of India.

(a) Supreme Court

(b) High Court

(c) District Court

(d) Revenue Court

Answer:

(a) Supreme Court

II. Fill in the blanks

The legislature in Central Government is known as ……………….

The President of India apart from Rashtrapathi Bhavan conducts office at least once a year in ………………. Hyderabad.

Once elected as the President, he has to take an oath of office before the ……………….

The present President of India is ……………….

The President summons Parliament at least ………………. a year.

President can make advances out of the ………………. of India to meet any unexpected expenditure.

………………. emergency is declared by the President if there is a threat to financial stability or the credit of India.

The President may be removed from office for violation of Constitution by

At least a minimum of ………………. days notice should be given for the resolution for the removal of Vice President from his office.

When there is a tie of voting on Bill in Rajya Sabha the ………………. can cast his vote for or against using his discretion power.

The post of ………………. of India has adopted the West Minister (England) model of the Constitutional democracy.

The ………………. is an informal body of senior ministers who forms the nucleus of administration.

The ………………. belong to the second category of ministers in the council who are also incharge of ministries or departments.

The council of state or Rajya Sabha consists of ………………. members.

Any biii except money bill needs to be approved by ……………….

Answers:

Parliament

‘Rashtrapati Nilayam’

Chief Justice of India

Thiru, Ramnath Govind

twice

contingency fund

Financial

impeachment

fourteen

Vice-President

Prime Minister

Cabinet

Ministers of State

Rajya Sabha

250

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.

Assertion (A): The Cabinet forms the nucleus of administration

Reason (R): All important decisions of the government are taken by the cabinet such as defence, finance, external affairs and home affairs.

(a) (A) is false, but R is true.

(b) (A) is true but (R) is false.

(c) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for A.

(d) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct reason for A.

Answer:

(c) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for A.

Question 2.

(i) The Parliament has the power to change the boundaries of the states.

(ii) Parliament exercises control over the executive.

(iii) Parliament is an independent organ.

(iv) ft is a bicameral legislature

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (i) and (iii) are correct

(c) (i) and (ii) are correct

(d) (i) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.

(i) Article 74 (1) says there shall be a council of ministers with the Prime Minister as the head to aid and advice the President.

(ii) The Prime Minister has no power to decide the dates and agenda of the Cabinet meeting.

(iii) The Prime Minister decides th’e rank of his ministers and distributes various departments,

(iv) The Prime Minister is the leader of the nation and chief spokes person of the country.

(a) (i), (ii) are true

(b) (i),(iii) and (iv) are true

(c) (i) and (iii) are true

(d) (i) and (iv) are true

Answer:

(b) (i),(iii) and (iv) are true

Question 4.

(i) Lok Sabha as of today has 552 members.

(ii) The President generally nominates 2 persons from Anglo-Indian community to the Lok Sabha.

(iii) It is the house of the people.

(iv) It is the permanent house of the Parliament.

(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

(b) (i) and (iv) are correct

(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 5.

(i) Under Article 352 President has the power to proclaim National Emergency on the grounds of War.

(ii) Due to Constitutional failure in the State President can declare an Emergency under Article 356.

(iii) Article 61 deals with the removal of the President by impeachment.

(iv) The President is answerable to the court of law.

(a) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct

(b) (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct

(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

Answer:

(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

IV. Match the following

Question 1.

Match the Column I with Column If.

2

Answer:

A. (ii)

B. (v)

C. (iv)

D. (vi)

E. (i)

F. (iii)

Question 2.

Match the Column I with Column II.

 3

Answer:

A. (v)

B. (iv)

C. (i)

D. (iii)

E. (ii)

V. Answer the brief questions

Question 1.

Describe briefly the diplomatic powers of the President.

Answer:

The President appoints Indian diplomats to other countries and receives foreign diplomats posted to India.

The ambassador-designate becomes ambassador after calling on the President and presenting his credentials.

All treaties and agreements with foreign states are entered into in the name of the President.

Question 2.

“Prime Minister represents our nation at all International Conferences”- Explain.

Answer:

The Prime Minister is the leader of the Nation and chief spokes person of the country.

As the leader of the nation, the Prime Minister represents our nation at all International Conferences like the Common Wealth Summit of Non aligned Nations and SAARC.

Question 3.

What is meant by integrated judicial system?

Answer:

Integrated judiciary means that the judicial system is hierarchical one. At the top there is the Supreme Court and its decisions aie bonding precedent for low er subordinate Courts.

Question 4.

What are the qualification to become the member of Lok Sabha?

Answer:

He should be a citizen of India.

He should not be less than 25 years of age.

He should have his name in the electoral rolls in some part of the country.

He should not hold any office of profit under the Union or State Government.

He should be mentally sound and economically solvent.

Question 5.

Throw light on the compositions of the Lok Sabha.

Answer:

The Lok Sabha is the Lower House of the Parliament. It is also known as the House of the people. It contains elected representatives of the people. The maximum number of members can be elected for the Lok Sabha is 552. Presently, the Lok Sabha has 543 elected members. Out of these, 530 members are elected members from different States and 13 members from the Union Territories. The President generally nominates two members belonging to the Anglo – Indian community. At present, the total strength of the Lok Sabha is 545.

Question 6.

Write a brief note on the appointment of judges of the Supreme Court?

Answer:

The Chief Justice of Supreme Court in India is appointed by the President of India.

The other judges are appointed by the President in consultation with the collegiums with Chief Justice Head.

Question 7.

Who is the head of the Union Executive?

Answer:

The President is the nominal executive authority in the Parliamentary systems of Government. He is also the Constitutional head of the Union Executive.

Question 8.

What do you know about motion of no confidence?

Answer:

Motion of no confidence can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha.

When it is passed then the Prime Minister and other Council of Ministers need to resign from their post.

Question 9.

What is the qualification of President of Indi?

Answer:

The Constitution lays down the following qualifications for a Presidential candidate:

He should be a citizen of India.

He must have completed the age of thirty-five years.

He must not hold any office of profit under the Union, State or local government.

He should have the other qualifications required to become a member of the Lok Sabha.

He/her name should be proposed by at least ten electors and seconded by another ten electors of the Electoral college which elects the President.

Question 10.

What makes the Indian Parliament powerful?

Answer:

The representative of the people makes the Parliament powerful.

VI. Answer in Detail

Question 1.

Write about the composition location and term of the judges of the Supreme court.

Answer:

In the beginning in 1950 our Supreme Court consisted of 8 judges including the Chief justice. As passage of time in need at present the Supreme Court consists of 28 judges including Chief justice.

The Constitution also provides appointment of judges to the supreme court on ad – hoc (temporary) basis.

The Chief justice and other judges of the Supreme Court can hold office up to the age of 65 yearn.

The judges of the Supreme Court can resign before their term by giving their resignation in writing to the President.

The Parliament also has power to remove the judges by invoking impeachment provisions for their proven misbehaviour.

The Supreme Court sits at New Delhi. It may also sit any other place in India which may be decided by the Chief Justice of India with the approval of the President.

Question 2.

Describe the duties and functions of the Attorney General of India.

Answer:

The Constitution (Article 76) has provided for the office of the Attorney General for India. He is the highest law officer in the country. He is appointed by the President.

Duties and functions of the Attorney General of India.

To give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters which are referred to him by the President.

To perform such other duties of a legal character that are assigned to him by the President and discharge the functions conferred on him by the constitution are any other law.

In the performance of his official duties, the Attorney General of India has the right of audience in all courts in the territory of India.

He has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of both Houses of the Parliament or their joint sitting and any committee of the Parliament of which he may be named a member but without a right to vote.

He enjoys all the privileges and immunities that are available to a member of Parliament.

Question 3.

What are the functions of the Vice-President? How he can be removed?

Answer:

Functions of the Vice-President: The Vice-President is Ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

As the chairman of the house

He regulates the proceeding of the House.

He decides the order of the house.

He decides the admissibility of a resolution or questions.

He suspends or adjourns the house in case of a grave disorder.

He issues directions to various committees on matters relating to their functions.

Removal of the Vice-President:

The Vice President may be removed from his office by a resolution of the council of states passed by a majority of all the then members of the council and agreed to by the House of the people.

A resolution for this purpose may be moved only after a notice of atleast a minimum of 14 days has been given of such an intention.

Question 4.

What is the role of the Vice President in the absence of the President?

Answer:

When the President is unable to discharge his duties due to illness or absence from the country he attends to the functions of the President.

When the President is unable to do his duties due to sickness or when the post of the President becomes vacant due to resignation, death or removal by impeachment etc., the Vice President can act as the President for a maximum period of six months.


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