Balbharati solutions | Aster Classes

Balbharati solutions, for, Chemistry, 12th, Standard, HSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, chapter 2, Solutions,

Exercise | Q 1.01 | Page 44

Choose the most correct option.

The vapour pressure of a solution containing 2 moles of a solute in 2 moles of water (vapour pressure of pure water = 24 mm Hg) is ______.

24 mm Hg

32 mm Hg

48 mm Hg

12 mm Hg

Solution

12 mm Hg

The colligative property of a solution is _______

vapour pressure

boiling point

osmotic pressure

freezing point

Solution

osmotic pressure.

In calculating osmotic pressure the concentration of solute is expressed in _______.

molarity

molality

mole fraction

mass percent

Solution

molarity

Ebullioscopic constant is the boiling point elevation when the concentration of a solution is _______.

1 m

1 M

1 mass %

1-mole fraction of solute.

Solution

1m

Cryoscopic constant depends on _______.

nature of solvent

nature of solute

nature of solution

number of solvent molecules

Solution

number of solvent molecules.

Identify the CORRECT statement.

Vapour pressure of solution is higher than that of pure solvent.

Boiling point of solvent is lower than that of solution.

Osmotic pressure of solution is lower than that of solvent.

Osmosis is a colligative property.

Solution

Boiling point of solvent is lower than that of solution.

A living cell contains a solution which is isotonic with 0.3 M sugar solution. What osmotic pressure develops when the cell is placed in 0.1 M KCl solution at body temperature?

5.08 atm

2.54 atm

4.92 atm

2.46 atm

solution

2.54 atm.

The osmotic pressure of blood is 7.65 atm at 310 K. An aqueous solution of glucose isotonic with blood has the percentage (by volume)________.

5.41 %

3.54 %

4.53 %

53.4 %

solution

5.41 %

Vapour pressure of a solution is _______.

directly proportional to the mole fraction of the solute

inversely proportional to the mole fraction of the solute

inversely proportional to the mole fraction of the solvent

directly proportional to the mole fraction of the solvent

solution

inversely proportional to the mole fraction of the solute.

Pressure cooker reduces cooking time for food because _______.

boiling point of water involved in cooking is increased

heat is more evenly distributed in the cooking space

the higher pressure inside the cooker crushes the food material 

cooking involves chemical changes helped by a rise temperature

solution

boiling point of water involved in cooking is increased

Henry’s law constant for a gas CH3Br is 0.159 mol dm-3 atm-1 at 25 °C. What is the solubility of CH3Br in water at 25 °C and partial pressure of 0.164 atm?

0.0159 mol L-1

0.164 mol L-1

0.026 M

0.042 M

solution

0.026 M

Which of the following statement is NOT correct for 0.1 M urea solution and 0.05 M sucrose solution?

Osmotic pressure exhibited by urea solution is higher than that exhibited by sucrose solution

Urea solution is hypertonic to sucrose solution

They are isotonic solutions

Sucrose solution is hypotonic to urea solution

solution

They are isotonic solutions.

Exercise | Q 2.01 | Page 45

Answer the following in one or two sentences.

What is osmotic pressure?

solution

The hydrostatic pressure (on the side of solution) that stops osmosis is called an osmotic pressure of the solution.

OR

The excess of pressure on the side of the solution that stops the net flow of solvent into the solution through a semipermeable membrane is called osmotic pressure.

A solution concentration is expressed in molarity and not in molality while considering osmotic pressure. Why?

solution

1. The osmotic pressure measurements are made at a specific constant temperature. Molarity remains constant at a specific temperature.

2. It is not necessary to express concentration in a temperature-independent unit like molality.

Hence, the solute concentration is expressed in molarity while calculating osmotic pressure rather than molality

Write the equation relating boiling point elevation to the concentration of the solution.

solution

The boiling point elevation is directly proportional to the molality of the solution. Thus,

Δ Tb ∝ m

∴ Δ Tb ∝ Kb m

where, m is the molality of solution. The proportionality constant Kb is called boiling point elevation constant or molal elevation constant or ebullioscopic constant.

A 0.1 m solution of K2SO4 in water has a freezing point of – 4.3 °C. What is the value of van’t Hoff factor if Kf for water is 1.86 K kg mol–1?

solution

Given: Molality of K2SO4 solution = m = 0.1 m 

Freezing point of solution = Tf = – 4.3 °C 

Kf of water = 1.86 K kg mol–1

To find: van’t Hoff factor

Formula: ΔTf = i Kf m

Calculation: 

ΔTf = 

Tf0 – Tf

= 0 °C – (- 4.3 °C) = 4.3 °C = 4.3 K

Now, using formula,

ΔTf = i Kf m

What is van’t Hoff factor?

solution

van’t Hoff factor (i) is defined as the ratio of colligative property of a solution of electrolyte divided by the colligative property of nonelectrolyte solution of the same concentration.

How is van’t Hoff factor related to degree of ionization?

Solution

The van’t Hoff factor is related to degree of ionization as follows:

i = 1 + α (n – 1)

or

α = 

i=  i — 1

     n– 1

where, α = Degree of ionization/dissociation

i = van’t Hoff factor

n = Moles of ions obtained from ionization of 1 mole of electrolyte.

Which of the following solution will have higher freezing point depression and why?

i. 0.1 m NaCl

ii. 0.05 m Al2(SO4)3

Solution

NaCl   →   Na+     +    Cl-

0.1 m       0.1 m         0.1 m 

Total particles in solution = 0.2 mol

For 0.05 m Al2(SO4)3:

Al2(SO4)3    →  2Al3+     + 3

SO42-

0.05 m             0.1 m            0.15 m

Total particles in solution = 0.25 mol

Al2(SO4)3 solution contains more number of particles than NaCl solution. Hence, Al2(SO4)3 solution has maximum ΔTf.

Therefore, the freezing point depression of 0.05 m Al2(SO4)3 solution will be higher than 0.1 m NaCl solution.

State Raoult’s law for a solution containing a nonvolatile solute.

Solution

The Raoult’s law states that, “the vapour pressure of solvent over the solution is equal to the vapour pressure of pure solvent multiplied by its mole fraction in the solution.”

What is the effect on the boiling point of water if 1 mole of methyl alcohol is added to 1 dm3 of water? Why?

Solution

i. When 1 mole of methyl alcohol is added to 1 dm3 of water, the boiling point of water decreases.

ii. Methyl alcohol is a volatile liquid. Therefore, it increases the vapour pressure of a solution at a given temperature. Hence, the solution boils at lower temperature.

Which of the four colligative properties is most often used for molecular mass determination? Why?

Solution

i. Among the four colligative properties, osmotic pressure is most often used for molecular mass determination.

ii. Osmotic pressure is much larger and therefore more precisely measurable property than other colligative properties.

Therefore, it is useful to determine molar masses of very expensive substances and of the substances that can be prepared in small quantities.

How vapour pressure lowering is related to a rise in the boiling point of solution?

Solution

i. At the boiling point of a liquid, its vapour pressure is equal to 1 atm.

ii. In order to reach boiling point, the solution and solvent must be heated to a temperature at which their respective vapour pressures attain 1 atm.

iii. At any given temperature the vapour pressure of a solution is lower than that of pure solvent. Hence, the vapour pressure of solution needs a higher temperature to reach 1 atm than that of needed for vapour pressure of solvent.

Therefore, vapour pressure lowering causes a rise in the boiling point of a solution.

What are isotonic and hypertonic solutions?

Solution

i. Isotonic solutions:

Two or more solutions having the same osmotic pressure are said to be isotonic solutions.

e.g. For example, 0.1 M urea solution and 0.1 M sucrose solution are isotonic because their osmotic pressures are equal. Such solutions have the same molar concentrations but different concentrations in g/L. If these solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane, there is no flow of solvent in either direction.

ii. Hypertonic solution:

If two solutions have unequal osmotic pressures, the more concentrated solution with higher osmotic pressure is said to be the hypertonic solution.

e.g. For example, if osmotic pressure of sucrose solution is higher than that of urea solution, the sucrose solution is hypertonic to urea solution.

Exercise | Q 3.3 | Page 46

Answer the following.

A solvent and its solution containing a nonvolatile solute are separated by a semipermeable membrane. Does the flow of solvent occur in both directions? Comment giving a reason.

Solution

1. When a solution and pure solvent or two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane, the solvent molecules pass through the membrane.

2. The passage of solvent molecules through the semipermeable membrane takes place in both directions, since the solvent is on both sides of the membrane.

3. However, the rate of passage of solvent molecules into the solution or from a more dilute solution to more concentrated solution is found to be greater than the rate in the reverse direction.

4. This is favorable since the vapour pressure of solvent is greater than that of solution.

The osmotic pressure of CaCl2 and urea solutions of the same concentration at the same temperature are respectively 0.605 atm and 0.245 atm, calculate van’t Hoff factor for CaCl2.

Solution

Given: Osmotic pressure of CaCl2 solution = 0.605 atm

Osmotic pressure of urea solution = 0.245 atm

To find: The value of van’t Hoff factor

Formulae: π = MRT, π = iMRT

Calculation: For urea solution

π = MRT

0.245 atm = MRT       ….(i)

For CaCl2 solution

π = iMRT

0.602 atm = iMRT       ….(ii)

Explain reverse osmosis.

Solution

i. If a pressure larger than the osmotic pressure is applied to the solution side, then pure solvent from the solution passes into pure solvent side through the semipermeable membrane. This phenomenon is called reverse osmosis.

ii. For example, consider fresh water salt water separated by a semipermeable membrane. When the pressure larger than the osmotic pressure of a solution is applied to solution, pure water from salty water passes into fresh pure water through the membrane. Thus, the direction of osmosis can be reversed by applying a pressure larger than the osmotic pressure.

iii. The schematic set up for reverse osmosis is as follows:

How molar mass of a solute is determined by osmotic pressure measurement?

Solution


Balbharati solutions, for, Social Science, History, and, Civics, 10th, Standard, SSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, chapter 4, Social, and, Political Movements, Latest edition,

Exercise | Q 1.1 | Page 96

Choose the correct option from the given options and complete the sentence. 

____________ is the main demand of farmers movement. 

Right to cultivate on the forest land 

To get the right price for agricultural product 

Protection of consumers 

Building of dams

SOLUTION

To get the right price for agricultural product


To increase agricultural production and become self-sufficient with regard to food grains ____________ was initiated. 

Water revolution 

Green revolution 

Industrial revolution 

White revolution

SOLUTION

Green revolution


Exercise | Q 1 | Page 96

Write note on : 

Tribal movement

SOLUTION

The origin of Tribal movement dates back to the pre-independence days. The British government had deprived tribal people of their rights to livelihood on forest resources and as a result of that, a tribal uprising took place in various parts of the country. It included tribes like Kolam (Chota Nagpur), Gond (Orissa), Koli Bhilla Ramoshi (Maharashtra), Santhal and Munda (Bihar).

The main demand of the tribal movement is for the government to accept their rights over forests, they should be allowed to collect forest produce and cultivate forest land.


Workers movement

SOLUTION

Workers movement in India was organized under Trade unions that saw its birth in the background of industrialization in British India.

Industrial workers frequently went on strike for their demands of better wages and improved working hours.

One such incident was reported as the railway workers’ strike in 1899.

The first organization for resolving workers’ issues was established in 1920, known as the All India Trade Union Congress.

In the post-independence era, trade unions got more effective in 1960s and 1970s, organizing several agitations but saw its disintegration in 1980s and its steady decline in the face of globalization in 1990s. Some of the concerns of the workers’ movements are:

• Unstable employment conditions

• Contract labour and financial insecurities of workers

• Absence of legal protection for workers

• Long working hours

• Insecurities at workplace

• Health hazards at work place, etc.


Answer the following question in brief. 

Explain the activities/role/functions  of environmental movement.

SOLUTION

The environmental movement is an important step towards environmental protection which is recognized as a global concern. Its working is organized on several levels (local, national, international) to prevent environmental degradation. It aims to create awareness and drive policy making on issues like sustainable energy, protection of forest and biodiversity, severe effects of pollution and degradation of air, water, soil etc.


Explain the nature of farmers movement in India.

SOLUTION

The history of farmers’ movement in India dates to the time of our independence struggle. It was inspired by the thoughts of Mahatma Phule, Justice Ranade and Mahatma Gandhi against the anti-agriculturist policies of the British. It has continued to be active and became more effective after the Green Revolution which increased the economic gap between rich farmers and poor farmers. Some of the demands of the farmers’ movements are:

• Appropriate prices for agricultural goods

• Industry status for Agriculture

• Implementations of the recommendations of the Swaminathan Commission report

• Debt relief and debt cancellation

• National policy for Agriculture


For which reforms were the women’s movement in the pre-independence period fighting?

SOLUTION

The women’s movements in the pre-independence period were fighting for eliminating injustice and exploitation against women, helping them lead a respectful and socially active life. Some of the reforms it demanded were:

• Widow re-marriage

• Women education

• Right to vote

After Independence, women were granted equal political rights by the constitution, however, the social struggle for equality continued.


Explain the following statement by giving reason. 

Movements are important in a democracy.

SOLUTION

Movements are important in a democracy because:

1. Different social problems are discussed through these movements.

2. It is a way of attracting the attention of Government towards a cause.

3. The Government & common people get more necessary information about the issues through leaders and activists.

4. It helps the government take an informed decision on the subject.

5. Right to protest is an important democratic right, hence social movements strengthen democratic processes.


Movements do not need a strong leadership.

SOLUTION

Movements need a strong leadership to keep it active and effective. A Movement is a collective struggle, people need a strong leader for right guidance to reach their objective.

For instance, India’s freedom struggle was marked with emergence of a strong political leadership in the twentieth century (1900s), prior to that the independence efforts were scattered in regions and divided in their political stances. It found a direction in non-violence and political non-cooperation under the leadership of Gandhi. While multiple groups continued to fight for India’s freedom in their respective ways, the common masses found their aspirations aligned with the Gandhian movement for his charismatic leadership.


Consumer movement came into existence.

SOLUTION

The consumer movement came into existence in 1986 with the Consumer Protection Act to address cases of frauds in the economic exchanges. It takes each citizen to be a consumer and has a broader objective is to protect the consumer against adulteration and frauds, understanding the changing nature of consumer grievances.

The Consumer Protection Act proved its importance with the economic liberalization of India in 1990s. The consumer forums proved to be a good system of check and balance into quality control and after sales services in the market place.


Write a report on movements in your area which are working to resolve general problems.

SOLUTION

In my city, Jodhpur, currently the initiative has been taken by the people to clean in area (Madhuban) by making arrangements to dump the waste rather than throwing it in the corners of the road.

REPORT ON CREATING ARRANGEMENTS FOR DUMPING WASTE

Recently when I visited my town, I found out that to resolve the general problem of dumping waste, the people are taking initiative in various ways. As the situation in this area was worsening, some people took the initiative to solve this problem.

In Madhuban, People were dumping waste in their nearby corners as the dustbins were already filled. Municipal people didn’t bother to clean up the area at least once on an alternate day depending upon the availability of dustbins provided in the location. Hardly, there was proper facility provided to dump the waste. People had to go to the other areas to dump waste as there were not enough dustbins provided.

There were some people who took initiative firstly by complaining to the Municipal Corporation to provide a required number of dustbins in Madhuban (at least in every colony). Some people started to travel with their own carrier tempo with a song playing with lyrics “Sunlo bhaiya sunlo bhabhi sunlo bhaiyaji, kachre waale dabbe me tum Kachra daalo ji”. They go to every colony with this temp and charge 50 Rs a month for this. They also take waste bags kept outside the houses and charge extra 10 Rs for this otherwise the individual has to dump waste on his own when the tempo comes outside the home.


Prepare a format of a complaint you will submit under consumer protection act if you are cheated in purchase of vegetables or grains.

SOLUTION

CASE: Miss Devika Pillai purchased Grains from Mr. Pankaj & Co. operating in the same town, in January 2019. The grains purchased contained chemicals and colours to make it look more shiny and fresh. As a result, Miss Devika Pillai approaches the District forum.

COMPLAINT PETITION

For being cheated in the purchase of grains

BEFORE THE DISTRICT FORUM CONSUMER DISPUTES REDRESSAL FORUM, <JODHPUR>

Consumer dispute case no. 1234/2019

A petition under Section-11 Consumer Protection Act

And in the matter of :

Miss Devika Pillai

3 GHA 22 Madhuban, Basni, 1st phase, Jodhpur (Raj.)

Vs

Owner of the Shop

Mr. Pankaj & Co.

3B12, Chopasini Housing Board, Jodhpur.

To,

Hon’ble President and

Members of the District Forum

Jodhpur

May it please your honours:

This complaint petition is being filed on behalf of Miss Devika Pillai 3 GHA 22 Madhuban, Basni, 1st phase, Jodhpur (Raj.) referred hereafter as Complainant, and is as follows :

1.0 That this complaint Petition is being filed under Sec.

2 (1)(b)(i) of the Consumer Protection Act.

2.0 That the opposite party is engaged in the business of selling vegetables and grains in the known markets, apart from other activities.

(Narration of the Incident)

3.1 That on 5th January. 2019 (date of purchasing grains), the complainant deposited a sum of Rs 1 lakh to purchase 40 kg of Grains and the receipt (receipt no. -228) has been provided for this. A Photocopy of the said receipt is furnished at Annexure-I.

3.2 After knowing about being cheated, when the complainant approached the shopkeeper, he initially refused to talk on this matter and later denied of such act done by him. Hence, the complainant wrote to the shopkeeper, requesting to take an immediate intervention. Copy of the letter has been furnished at Annexure – II.

3.3 As a result, till date O.P No. 1 did not bother to honour the directives of a complainant, and the complainant is still didn’t receive his money back.

3.4 That the O.P had tried to sell grains which are unhealthy to consume by the complainant.

PRAYER

In the view of the submissions contained in the preceding paragraphs, the complainant most respectfully prays to the Hon’ble Forum to direct the Opposite Parties to:

(a) refund the cost of the purchased grain, Rs. <1 lakh> along with 10% interest;

(b) to pay a sum of Rs. 10,000/- towards the physical strain and mental agony suffered by the complainant and his family members (compensation); and

(c) to pay a sum of Rs. 1,000/- towards cost of this petition (Cost);

For which act of kindness, the complainant shall, as is duty bound, ever pray

Devika Pillai


Balbharati solutions, for, Biology, 11th, Standard, Maharashtra, State Board, Chapter 8, Plant Tissues, and Anatomy, Exercise, [Pages 95 – 96],

Exercise | Q 1. (A) | Page 95

Choose the correct option.

Location or position of meristematic regions is divided into ______ types.

one

two

three

none of the above

SOLUTION

three


Cambium is also called ______.

apical meristem

intercalary meristem

lateral meristem

none of the above

SOLUTION

lateral meristem


Collenchyma is a type of ______ tissue.

living

dead

living and dead

none of the above

SOLUTION

living


______ is a complex permanent tissue.

Parenchyma

Sclerenchyma

Chlorenchyma

Xylem

SOLUTION

Xylem


Mesophyll tissue is present in ______.

root

stem

leaf

flower

SOLUTION

leaf


Exercise | Q 2. (A) | Page 95

Answer the following question.

A fresh section was taken by a student but he was very disappointed because there were only a few green and most colourless cells. Teacher provided a pink colour solution. The section was immersed in this solution and when observed it was much clearer. What is magic?

SOLUTION

The pink coloured solution given by teacher must be a safranin stain. Safranin is used to stain plant tissues, especially lignified tissues such as cell wall and xylem.


While observing a section, many scattered vascular bundles could be seen. Teacher said, in spite of this large number the stem cannot grow in girth. Why?

SOLUTION

1. Students must have observed monocot stems.

2. It is because, monocot stem shows scattered vascular bundles.

3. In monocot stem, vascular bundles are closed i.e. without cambium.

4. Thus, secondary growth does not occur which is required for an increase in girth. Hence, in spite of having large number of scattered vascular bundles, monocot stems do not grow in girth.


A section of the stem had vascular bundles, where one tissue was wrapped around the other. How will you technically describe it?

SOLUTION

Concentric vascular bundle:

1. When one vascular tissue is completely encircling the other, it is called a concentric vascular bundle.

2. When phloem is encircled by xylem, it is called a leptocentric vascular bundle, whereas when xylem is encircled by phloem, it is called a hadrocentric vascular bundle.

3. When xylem is encircled by phloem on both faces, it is called as amphicribral vascular bundle. When phloem is encircled by xylem on both faces it is called an amphivasal vascular bundle.


There were two cut logs of wood lying in the campus. One had growth rings and other didn’t. Teacher said it is due to differences in their pattern of growth which is dependent on the season. How?

SOLUTION

1. It is possible that one of the cut logs was of a tropical tree, whereas the other was of a temperate tree. Since tropical trees grow in a similar manner all year, growth rings are not apparent. Another explanation for this could be that the log which had growth rings must be of an old tree which has experience many seasons, whereas the log without growth rings must be of younger tree, that has not been subjected to seasonal changes and hence not developed prominent growth rings.

2. Growth rings are formed due to cambial activity during favourable and non-favourable climatic conditions.

3. During favourable conditions, spring wood (early wood) is formed which has broader xylem bands, lighter colour, tracheids with thin wall and wide lumen, fibres are less in number, low density. Whereas, during unfavourable conditions, autumn wood (late wood) is formed which has narrow xylem band, darker in colour, a lumen is narrow and walls are thick with abundant fibres, high density.

4. Spring wood and autumn wood that appears as alternate light and dark concentric rings, constitute an annual ring or growth ring.

5. These growth rings can be used to estimate the age of the tree. These are found more in older trees as compare to a younger tree.


While on the trip to Kashmir, Pintoo observed that cut portions of large trees show distinct rings, which he never found in Maharashtra. Why is so?

SOLUTION

1. Cut portions of large tress show distinct rings which are annual rings formed due to activity of cambium during favourable and non-favourable climatic conditions.

2. Kashmir falls under the temperate region where the climatic conditions are not uniform through the year. In the spring season, conditions are favourable due to which cambium is active, whereas, in the autumn season, conditions are unfavourable due to which cambium is less active. This leads to the formation of spring wood and autumn wood that appears as alternate light and dark concentric rings, constitute an annual ring or growth ring.

3. Maharashtra falls under the tropical region where climatic conditions are favourable throughout the year. In tropical areas, the continuous growth of secondary xylem occurs. Thus, trees growing in tropical regions show less or no annual rings as compared to trees in the temperate region.


A student was observing a slide with no label under a microscope. The section had some vascular bundles scattered in the ground tissue. It is a section of a monocot stem! He exclaimed. No! it is a section of fern rachis, said the teacher. Teacher told to observe vascular bundle again. Student agreed, Why?

SOLUTION

1. In fern rachis, the number of vascular bundles is less as compared to the number of vascular bundles in monocot stem. In monocot stem, vascular bundles are numerous.

2. In fern rachis, xylem consists of only tracheids whereas in monocot stem, xylem consists of vessels (protoxylem and metaxylem) as well as tracheids. Monocot stem shows the presence of lysigenous cavity just below protoxylem.

3. In fern rachis, phloem consists of only sieve cells whereas in monocot stem, phloem consists of sieve tubes and companion cells.

Thus, a student must have observed these differences in the given section and agreed to teacher’s statement that the given section is of fern rachis and not of monocot stem.


Student found a wooden stopper in lab. He was told by an old lab attendant that it is there for many years. He kept thinking how it did not rot?

SOLUTION

1. The wooden stopper or cork is obtained from the phellem (cork) part of a bark.

2. Phellem (cork) is impervious in nature and does not allow entry of water due to suberized walls.

3. Due to this it does not rot and remains as it is for many years.


Student while observing a slide of leaf section observed many stomata on the upper surface. He thought he has placed slide upside down. Teacher confirmed it is rightly placed. Explain.

SOLUTION

1. In a dicot leaf, stomata are generally absent on the upper epidermis but are present on the lower epidermis. Thus, the student must have thought that he has placed slide upside down.

2. According to teacher, the section was placed rightly, thus the given section must be of monocot leaf.

3. It is because in monocot leaf stomata are present on both upper and lower epidermis.


Exercise | Q 3. (A) | Page 95

Write a short note on

Structure of stomata.

SOLUTION

1. Small gateways in the epidermal cells are called stomata.

2. Stoma is controlled or guarded by specially modified cells called guard cells.

3. These guard cells may be kidney-shaped (dicot) or dumbbell-shaped (monocot), collectively called as stomata.

4. Guard cells have chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis.

5. Change in turgor pressure of guard cells causes opening and closing of stomata, which enables the exchange of gases and water vapour.

6. Stomata are further covered by subsidiary cells.

7. Stoma, guard cells and subsidiary cells form a unit called stomatal apparatus.


secondary growth.

SOLUTION

1. Dicotyledonous plants and gymnosperms exhibit increase in girth of root and stem.

2. In dicot stem, secondary growth begins with the formation of a continuous cambium ring.

3. The cambium present between the primary xylem and primary phloem of a vascular bundle is called intrafascicular cambium.

4. The cells of medullary rays adjoining these intrafascicular cambium strips become meristematic (regain the capacity to divide) and form the interfascicular cambium.

5. Thus, a complete and continuous ring of vascular cambium is formed.

6. The cambium ring cuts off new cells, towards both inner and outer sides.

7. The cells that are cut-off towards pith (inner side) mature into secondary xylem and cells that are cut-off towards the periphery mature into secondary phloem.

8. Generally, amount of secondary xylem is more than the secondary phloem.


peculiarity of a sclerenchyma cell wall.

SOLUTION

1. Cell wall of sclerenchyma is evenly thickened due to uniform deposition of lignin.

2. Cell wall of sclereids is extremely thick and strongly lignified.


Differentiate between Vascular bundle of monocot and Vascular bundle of dicot.

SOLUTION


Differentiate between Xylem and Phloem functioning

SOLUTION


Distinguish Between Internal or anatomical difference between monocots and dicots.

SOLUTION


Exercise | Q 5. (A) | Page 96

Draw a neat labelled diagram.

T. S. of Dicot leaf

SOLUTION

T. S. of Monocot root

SOLUTION

T. S. of dicot stem

SOLUTION


Exercise | Q 6 | Page 96

Write the information related to the diagram given below.

SOLUTION

1. Small gateways in the epidermal cells are called as stomata.

2. Stoma is controlled or guarded by specially modified cells called guard cells.

3. These guard cells may be kidney-shaped (dicot) or dumbbell-shaped (monocot), collectively called as stomata.

4. Guard cells have chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis.

5. Change in turgor pressure of guard cells causes opening and closing of stomata, which enables exchange of gases and water vapour.

6. Stomata are further covered by subsidiary cells.

7. Stoma, guard cells and subsidiary cells form a unit called stomatal apparatus.


Write the information related to the diagram given below.

SOLUTION


Exercise | Q 7. (a) | Page 96

Identify the following diagram, label it and prepare a chart of characteristics.

1. Epiblema:

It is the outermost single layer of cells without cuticle. Some epidermal cells prolong to form unicellular root hairs.

2. Cortex:

It is made up of many layers of thin walled parenchyma cells. Cortical cells store food and water.

3. Exodermis:

After the death of epiblema, outer layer of cortex become cutinized and is called Exodermis.

4. Endodermis:

The innermost layer of cortex is called Endodermis. The cells are barrel-shaped and their radial walls bear Casparian strip or Casparian bands composed of suberin. Near the protoxylem, there are unthickened passage cells.

5. Stele:

It consists of pericycle, vascular bundles and pith.

a. Pericycle:

Next to the endodermis, there is a single layer of thin walled parenchyma cells called pericycle. It forms outermost layer of stele or vascular cylinder.

b. Vascular bundle:

Vascular bundles are radial. Xylem and Phloem occur in separate patches arranged on alternate radii. Xylem is exarch in root that means protoxylem vessels are towards periphery and metaxylem elements are towards centre. Xylem bundles vary from two to six number, i.e. they may be diarch, triarch, tetrarch, etc. Connective tissue: A parenchymatous tissue is present in between xylem and phloem.

c. Pith:

The central part of stele is called pith. It is narrow and made up of parenchymatous cells, with or without intercellular spaces.

6. At a later stage cambium ring develops between the xylem and phloem causing secondary growth.


Identify the following diagram, label it and prepare a chart of characteristics.

SOLUTION

1. It is a type of simple permanent tissue.

2. Cells in this tissue are thin walled, isodiametric, round, oval to polygonal or elongated in shape.

3. Cell wall is composed of cellulose.

4. Cells are living with prominent nucleus and cytoplasm with large vacuole.

5. Parenchyma has distinct intercellular spaces. Sometimes, cells may show compact arrangement.

6. The cytoplasm of adjacent cells is interconnected through plasmodesmata and thus forms a continuous tissue.

7. This is less specialized permanent tissue.

8. Occurrence:

These cells are distributed in all the parts of a plant body viz. epidermis, cortex, pericycle, pith, mesophyll cells, endosperm, xylem and phloem.

9. Functions:

These cells store food, water, help in gaseous exchange, increase buoyancy, perform photosynthesis and different functions in plant body.

10. Dedifferentiation in parenchyma cells develops vascular cambium and cork cambium at the time of secondary growth.


Identify the following diagram, label it and prepare a chart of characteristics.

SOLUTION

Structure of stomata:

1. Small gateways in the epidermal cells are called as stomata.

2. Stoma is controlled or guarded by specially modified cells called guard cells.

3. These guard cells may be kidney shaped (dicot) or dumbbell shaped (monocot), collectively called as stomata.

4. Guard cells have chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis.

5. Change in turgor pressure of guard cells causes opening and closing of stomata, which enables exchange of gases and water vapour.

6. Stomata are further covered by subsidiary cells.

7. Stoma, guard cells and subsidiary cells form a unit called stomatal apparatus.


Identify the following diagram, label it and prepare a chart of characteristics.

SOLUTION

Structure of dorsiventral leaf:

The mesophyll tissue is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma in a dorsiventral leaf. This type is very common in dicot leaf. The different parts of this leaf are as follows:

Upper epidermis:

It consists of a single layer of tightly packed rectangular, barrel shaped, parenchymatous cells which are devoid of chloroplast. A distinct layer of cuticle lies on the outside of the epidermis. Stomata are generally absent.

Mesophyll:

Between upper and lower epidermis, there is chloroplast-containing photosynthetic tissue called mesophyll It is differentiated into Palisade parenchyma and Spongy parenchyma.

1. Palisade parenchyma:

Palisade parenchyma is present below upper epidermis and consists of closely packed elongated cells. The cells contain abundant chloroplasts and help in photosynthesis.

2. Spongy parenchyma:

Spongy parenchyma is present below palisade tissue and consists of loosely arranged irregularly shaped cells with intercellular spaces. The spongy parenchyma cells contain chloroplast and are in contact with the atmosphere through stomata.

Vascular system:

It is made up of a number of vascular bundles of varying size depending upon the venation. Each one is surrounded by a thin layer of parenchymatous cells called bundle sheath. Vascular bundles are closed. Xylem lies towards upper epidermis and phloem towards lower epidermis. Cambium is absent, hence there is no secondary growth in the leaf.

Lower epidermis:

It consists of a single layer of compactly arranged rectangular, parenchymatous cells. A thin layer of cuticle is also present. The lower epidermis contains a large number of microscopic pores called stomata. There is an air-space called substomatal chamber at each stoma.


Exercise | Q 8 | Page 96

Distinguish between dicot and monocot leaf on the basis of following characters.

SOLUTION


Chapter 7: Cell Division

Balbharati solutions, for, Biology, 11th, Standard, fyjc, Maharashtra, State Board, Chapter 7, Cell Division, Exercise, [Pages 83 – 84],

Exercise | Q 1. (A) | Page 83

Choose the correct option.

The connecting link between Meiosis-I and Meiosis-II is ______.

interphase – I

interphase – II

interkinesis

anaphase – I

SOLUTION

interkinesis


Synapsis is pairing of ______.

any two chromosomes

non-homologous chromosomes

sister chromatids

homologous chromosomes

SOLUTION

homologous chromosomes


Spindle apparatus is formed during which stage of mitosis?

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

SOLUTION

Metaphase


Chromosome number of a cell is almost doubled up during ______.

G 1 – phase

S – phase

G 2 – phase

G 0 – phase

SOLUTION

S – phase


How many meiotic divisions are necessary for the formation of 80 sperms?

80

40

20

10

SOLUTION

20


How many chromatides are present in anaphase-I of meiosis-I of a diploid cell having 20 chromosomes?

4

6

20

40

SOLUTION

40


In which of the following phase of mitosis chromosomes are arranged at the equatorial plane?

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

SOLUTION

Metaphase


Find incorrect statement.

Condensation of chromatin material occurs in prophase.

Daughter chromatids are formed in anaphase

Daughter nuclei are formed at metaphase.

Nuclear membrane reappears in telophase

SOLUTION

Daughter nuclei are formed at metaphase


Histone proteins are synthesized during ______.

G 1 phase

S – phase

G 2 phase

Interphase

SOLUTION

S – phase


Exercise | Q 2. (A) | Page 83

Answer the following question.

While observing a slide, student observed many cells with nuclei. But some of the nuclei were bigger as compared to others but their nuclear membrane was not so clear. Teacher inferred it as one of the phase in the cell division. Which phase may be inferred by the teacher?

SOLUTION

Prophase


Students prepared a slide of onion root tip. There were many cells seen under a microscope. There was a cell seen under a microscope. There was a cell with two groups of chromosomes at opposite ends of the cell. This cell is in which phase of mitosis?

SOLUTION

Anaphase


Students were shown some slides of cancerous cells. Teacher made a comment as if there would have been control at one of its cell cycle phase, there wouldn’t have been a condition like this. Which phase the teacher was referring to?

SOLUTION

The phase teacher was referring would be G 1 phase.


Some Mendelian crossing experimental results were shown to the students. Teacher informed that there are two genes located on the same chromosome. He enquired if they will be ever separated from each other?

SOLUTION

1. Genes are located on chromosomes at specific distances and positions.

2. The greater this distance, the greater the chance that a crossover can occur between the genes and the greater the chances of recombination.

3. The chances of recombination are less between the genes that are placed closed to each other on the chromosome.

4. Therefore, due to recombination, the two genes located on the same chromosome have the possibility of separating from each other.


Students were observing a film on Paramoecium. It underwent a process of reproduction. Teacher said it is due to cell division. But students objected and said that there was no disappearance of the nuclear membrane and no spindle formation, how can it be cell division? Can you clarify?

SOLUTION

1. Paramoecium is a unicellular organism. The division in Paramoecium occurs by amitosis.

2. It is the simplest mode of cell division.

3. In amitosis, nucleus elongates and a constriction appears. This constriction deepens and divides the nucleus into two daughter nuclei followed by the division of cytoplasm.


Exercise | Q 2. (F) | Page 84

Answer the following question 

Is the meiosis responsible for evolution? Justify your answer.

SOLUTION

1. Meiosis ensures that organisms produced by sexual reproduction contain the correct number of chromosomes.

2. Meiosis exhibits genetic variation by the process of recombination.

3. Variations increase further after the union of gametes during fertilization creating offspring with unique characteristics. Thus, it creates diversity of life and is responsible for evolution.


Why mitosis and meiosis – II are called as homotypic division?

SOLUTION

1. In mitosis, the chromosome number and genetic material of daughter cells remain the same as that of the parent cell.

2. In meiosis – II, two haploid cells formed during the first meiotic division divide further into four haploid cells.

This division is identical to mitosis.

The daughter cells formed in the second meiotic division are similar to their parent cells with respect to the chromosome number formed in meiosis – I.

Hence mitosis and meiosis – II are called homotypic division.


Explain the significance of mitosis.

SOLUTION

(i) It helps to maintain linear heredity of an organism by keeping the chromosome number constant in daughter cells.

(ii) It helps in the development of an organism from zygotic stage to adult stage.

(iii) It is the means of repair and regeneration of cells.

(iv) Asexual reproduction is accomplished only through mitosis.

(v) Details of mitosis are similar in all organisms which emphasizes the unity of life.

SOLUTION 2

1. As mitosis is equational division, the chromosome number is maintained constant.

2. It ensures equal distribution of the nuclear and the cytoplasmic content between the daughter cells, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Therefore, the process of mitosis also maintains the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio.

3. The DNA is also equally distributed.

4. It helps in the growth and development of organisms.

5. Old and worn-out cells are replaced through mitosis.

6. It helps in the asexual reproduction of organisms and vegetative propagation in plants.


Answer the following question.

Enlist the different stages of prophase – I.

SOLUTION

It is the most complicated and longest phase of the meiotic division. It is further divided into five sub-phases viz. leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis.

1. Leptotene:

The volume of the nucleus increases. The chromosomes become long distinct and coiled. They orient themselves in a specific form known as bouquet stage. This is characterized by the ends of chromosomes converged towards the side of the nucleus where the centrosome lies. The centriole duplicates into two and migrates to opposite poles.

2. Zygotene:

Pairing of non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes takes place by the formation of the synaptonemal complex. This pairing is called synapsis. Each pair consists of a maternal chromosome and a paternal chromosome. Chromosomal pairs are called bivalents or tetrads.

3. Pachytene:

Each individual chromosome begins to split longitudinally into two similar chromatids. Therefore, each bivalent now appears as a tetrad consisting of four chromatids. The homologous chromosomes begin to separate but they do not separate completely and remain attached to one or more points. These points are called chiasmata (Appear like a cross-X). Chromatids break at these points and broken segments are exchanged between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes resulting in recombination.

4. Diplotene:

The chiasma becomes clearly visible in diplotene due to the beginning of repulsion between synapsed homologous chromosomes. This is known as desynapsis. Synaptonemal complex also starts to disappear.

5. Diakinesis:

The chiasmata begin to move along the length of chromosomes from the centromere towards the ends of chromosomes. The displacement of chiasmata is termed as terminalization.

The terminal chiasmata exist till the metaphase. The nucleolus and nuclear membrane completely disappear and spindle fibres begin to appear.


Exercise | Q 3. (A) | Page 84

Draw labelled diagram and write an explanation.

With the help of a suitable diagram, describe the cell cycle.

SOLUTION

1. Series of events occurring in the life of a cell is called cell cycle. Interphase and M – phase are the two phases of cell cycle.

2. Interphase: It is the stage between two successive cell divisions. It is the longest phase of a cell cycle during which the cell is highly active and prepares itself for cell division.

The interphase is subdivided into three sub-phases as G 1 -phase, S-phase and G 2 -phase.

i. G 1 – phase (First gap period/First Gap Phase):

It begins immediately after cell division. RNA (mRNA, rRNA and tRNA) synthesis, protein synthesis and synthesis of membranes take place during this phase.

ii. S – phase (Synthesis phase):

In this phase DNA is synthesized (replicated), so that amount of DNA per cell doubles. Synthesis of histone proteins takes place in this phase.

iii. G 2 – phase (Second growth phase/Second Gap Phase):

Metabolic activities essential for cell division occur during this phase.

Various proteins which are necessary for the cell division are also synthesized in this phase.

Apart from this, RNA synthesis also occurs during this phase.

In animal cells, a daughter pair of centrioles appears near the pre-existing pair.


Draw labelled diagrams and write an explanation.

Solution


Distinguish between mitosis and meiosis.

SOLUTION


Mitosis

Prophase:

Metaphase:

Anaphase:

Telophase:

Meiosis:

Prophase I:

Metaphase-I:

Anaphase-I:

Cytokinesis-I:


Draw labelled diagrams and write an explanation.

Draw the diagram of metaphase.

SOLUTION

1. Chromosomes are completely condensed and appear short.

2. Centromere and sister chromatids become very prominent.

3. All the chromosomes are arranged at the equatorial plane of cells. This is called the metaphase plate.

4. The mitotic spindle is fully formed in this phase. e. Centromere of each chromosome divides horizontally into two, each being associated with a chromatid.


Exercise | Q 4 | Page 84

Match the following column A with column B.

SOLUTION


Is a given figure correct? why?

SOLUTION

1. The given figure is incorrect as the spindle fibres are not attached to the centromere of the chromosomes.

2. During metaphase, chromosomes are attached to spindle fibres with the help of centromeres.


Exercise | Q 6 | Page 84

If an onion has 16 chromosomes in its leaf cell, how many chromosomes will be there in its root cell and grain?

SOLUTION

1. The chromosomes in root cell will be 16 as root cell is a diploid cell.

2. The chromosomes in pollen grain will be 8 as pollen grain is a haploid cell.


Exercise | Q 7 | Page 84

Identify the following phase of mitosis and label the ‘A’ given in the diagram.

SOLUTION

The diagram shown is of Metaphase.

A: Chromosomes arranged on the metaphase plate


Identify the following phase of mitosis and label the ‘B’ given in the diagram.

SOLUTION

The diagram shown is of Anaphase.

B: Chromatids moving to opposite poles.


Find the Odd one.

General reserve

Creditors

Machinery

Capital


The decrease in Furniture

Patents written off

Increase in Bills Payable

RDD written off 


Super profit method

Valuation method

Average profit method

Fluctuating capital method


Balbharati solutions, for Economics, HSC, 12th Standard, Maharashtra State Board, Chapter- 3 (A), Demand Analysis, [Latest edition],

Chapter 3 – (A) Demand Analysis [Latest edition]

Q.1. Complete the following statement:

The relationship between demand for a good and price of its substitute is ______.

direct

inverse

no effect

can be direct and inverse


The relationship between income and demand for inferior goods is ______.

direct

inverse

no effect

can be direct and inverse


Symbolically, the functional relationship between Demand and Price can be expressed as ______.

Dx = f(Px)

Dx = f(Pz)

Dx = f(y)

Dx = f(T)


When less units are demanded at a high price it shows ______.

increase in demand

expansion of demand

decrease in demand

contraction in demand


Q.2. Give economic term:

1. A situation where more quantity is demanded at lower price ______.

A situation where more quantity is demanded at lower price expansion of demand.

Explanation:

Expansion of demand refers to a rise in quantity demanded due to falling in price alone while other factors like tastes, income of the consumer, size of the population, etc. remain unchanged.

Demand moves in a downward direction on the same demand curve.


2. Graphical representation of demand schedule _____.

Graphical representation of demand schedule demand curve.

Explanation:

Demand curve is a graphical representation of the individual demand schedule


3. A commodity which can be put to several uses ______.

A commodity which can be put to several uses composite demand.

Explanation:

The demand for a commodity which can be put to several uses is known as composite demand.

For example:

Electricity is demanded by several uses such as light, washing machines, etc.


4. More quantity is demanded due to changes in the factors determining demand other than price _____.

More quantity is demanded due to changes in the factors determining demand other than price increase in demand.

Explanation:

increase in demand: It refers to increase in quantity demanded due to favourable changes in other factors like tastes, income of the consumer, climatic conditions etc. and price remains constant.

Demand curve shifts to the right-hand side of the original demand curve.


5. A desire which is backed by willingness to purchase and ability to pay _______.

A desire which is backed by willingness to purchase and ability to pay demand.

Explanation:

Demand: According to Benham, “the demand for anything at a given price is the amount of it, which will be bought per unit of time at that price.”

In ordinary language, demand means a desire. 

Desire means an urge to have something. In Economics, demand means a desire which is backed by a willingness and ability to pay.


Q.3. Distinguish between:

1. Desire and demand.

DesireDemand
Desires refer to those wishes that a human being cherishes.Demand refers to the quantity of goods that individuals are willing to buy.
They may or may not be backed by financial power.It should be backed by financial power.
For example: Walking on the moonFor example, a consumer demands 2 kg sugar at Rs 10 per kg and 3 kg sugar at Rs 8 per kg.

2. Extension of Demand contraction of Demand

EXTENSION OF DEMANDCONTRACTION OF DEMAND
1. Meaning: – Extension of demand is a case of variation of demand. It takes place when quantity demanded is more due to a fall in price alone. Other factors remain constant.Contraction is also a case of variation of demand. It takes place when quantity demanded is less due to rise in price alone. Other factors remain constant.
2. Movement: –The movement is downwards along the same demand curve. The movement is upward along the same demand curve.

3. Increase in demand and Decrease in demand.

Increase in DemandDecrease in Demand
a) An increase in demand refers to a rise in demand due to changes in other factors, price remaining constant.a) A decrease in demand refers to fall in demand due to changes in other factors, price remaining constant.
b) An increase in demand occurs when more are purchased at the same price and the same quantity is purchased at a higher price.b) A decrease in demand occurs when less is purchased at the same price or the same quantity at a lower price.
c) Increase in demand is a result of(1) Increase in income(2) Increase in price of substitutes(3) Decrease in price of complementary goods(4) Increase in population/(5) When goods are in fashion.c) Decrease in demand is a result of(1) Decrease in income.(2) Decrease in price of substitutes.(3) Increase in price of complementary goods.(4) Decrease in population.(5) When goods go out of fashion.
d) When there is an increase in demand, the demand curve shifts to the right from DD to D1​D2​ as shown in the figure.d) When there is decrease in demand the demand curve shifts to the left from DD to D2​D2​ as shown in the figure.

Q.4. State with reason, whether you Agree or Disagree with the following statement. 

1. Demand curve slopes downward from left to right. 

Agree

Disagree

I agree with the given statement.

Yes, we agree that the demand curve slopes downward from left to right.

Demand curve is the graphical representation of the relationship between the demand for a good and its price, for a given income, price of related goods, tastes, and preferences.

This curve slopes downwards from left to right because of the negative relationship between the price of the commodity and its demand. 

The following are the main reasons as to why demand curve is downward sloping:

i. Law of diminishing marginal utility– Due to this law, consumers tend to buy more quantity of a good when price falls.

ii. Income effect– With a fall in price, the purchasing power of a person rises. As a result, he demands more of a good.

iii. Substitution effect– With a rise in price, the substitutes of good become cheaper in comparison. As a result, person demands less of that good and more substitute goods.

iv. Multipurpose uses– The demand for goods having multipurpose uses rise with a fall in price and vice-versa.


2. price is the only determinant of demand

Price is not the only factor that affects demand of a commodity.

Agree

Disagree

No, we do not agree with the given statement.

This is because there are various factors that determine demand other than price. 

The following are a few determinants:

Income of the consumer– Change in the income of the consumer also affects the market demand for goods. The effect of the change in income on the market demand depends on the type of the good.

Type of Good– The market demand for normal goods shares a positive relationship with the consumer’s income. The market demand for inferior goods (such as coarse cereals) has a negative relationship with the consumer’s income. The market demand for Giffen goods also has a negative relationship with the income.

Consumers tastes and preferences– Consumers’ tastes and preferences highly influence the demand for goods. Other things being constant, if all consumers prefer a commodity over another, then the market demand for that commodity increases and vice versa.

Population size– The market demand for a commodity is also affected by the population size.

Other things being equal, an increase in the population size increases the market demand for a commodity and vice-versa.

This is because with the change in population size, the number of consumers in the market changes.


3. When the price of Giffen goods fall, the demand for it increases.

Options

Agree

Disagree

I Disagree with the statement. 

Explanation:

When the price of Giffen goods falls, the demand for it decreases.

Inferior goods or low-quality goods are those goods whose demand does not rise even if their price falls.

At times, demand decreases when the price of such commodities fall. 

Sir Robert Giffen observed this behaviour in England in relation to bread declined, people did not buy more because of an increase in their real income or purchasing power. 

They preferred to buy superior-good like meat.

This is known as Giffen’s paradox.


Q.5. 1. Observe the following table and answer the following question:

Quantity demanded
Price per kg in ₹Consumer AConsumer BConsumer CMarket demand (in kgs.)(A + B + C)
25161512 
30121110 
35100908 
40080604 

Draw market demand curve based on above market demand schedule.

SOLUTION: –

Quantity demanded
Price per kg in ₹Consumer AConsumer BConsumer CMar
ket dem
and (in kgs.)(A + B + C)
2516151243
3012111033
3510090827
4008060418

Q.5. 2. Observe the following table and answer the following question

2. Observe the given diagram and answer the following question:

DIAGRAM (REF. TEXT BOOK)

SOLUTION: –

1. Rightward shift in demand curve increase in the quantity demanded.

2.Leftward shift in demand curve decrease in the quantity demanded.

3. Price remains constant.

4. Increase and decrease in demand comes under changes in demand.

Q.5. 3. Observe the following table and answer the following question

3. Explain the diagram:

SOLUTION FOR ‘A’

1) The diagram represents contraction in demand.

2) In the diagram, A movement of the demand curve is in upward direction.

SOLUTION FOR ‘B’

1) The diagram represents expansion in demand.

2) In the diagram, A movement of the demand curve is in downward direction.

Q.6. Answer in detail:

1. State and explain the ‘law of demand’ with its exceptions.

         Law of Demand:-

Law of demand is one of the important basic laws of consumption. Dr Alfred Marshall, in his book “Principles of Economics“, has explained the law of demand as follows.

Other things being constant the higher the price of the commodity, smaller is the quantity demanded and lower the price of the commodity larger is the quantity demanded.”

The law of demand explains a change in the behaviour of consumer demand due to various changes in price.

Marshall’s Law of demand describes the functional relation between demand and price.

It can be expressed as D = f (P) that is demand is a function of price.

The relation between price and demand is inverse because larger quantity is demanded when a price falls and smaller quantity will be demanded when the price rises.

The law of demand is explained with the help of the following schedule and diagram.

      Table No. 3.3 = Demand Schedule

Price of Mangoes
Per Kg. (Rs.)
Demand for Mangoes
(Kg.)
501
402
303
204
10

As shown in the schedule when the price of mangoes is Rs. 5O/- per kg. demand is 1 kg. When the price falls to the level of Rs. 40/- per kg. and demand rises to 2 kg. Similarly, at the price Rs. 10/- per kg. The demand for mangoes is 5 kg., whereas 4 kg. of mangoes are demanded at price Rs. 20/- per kg. This shows an inverse relationship between price and demand.

In this diagram, X-axis represents demand for mangoes, whereas Y” axis represents the price of mangoes.

DD is demand! a curve which slopes downwards from left to right.

In other words, its slope is negative because of an inverse relationship between price and demand.

Exceptions to the Law of Demand:-

The Law of Demand explains an inverse relationship between the price of a commodity and the quantity demanded of it.

Sometimes, however, we see a direct relationship between price and quantity demanded of a commodity.

Under exceptions to the Law of Demand, the demand curve slopes upwards from left to right which shows a direct relationship between price and quantity demanded. 

It can be shown in the following diagram. REF. T.B

1. Giffen goods:-

Certain inferior goods are-ca1Md Giffen goods, when the price falls, quite often less quantity will be purchased than before because of the negative income effect and people’s increasing preference for a superior commodity with the rise in their real income.

Sir Robert Giffen observed the situation related to demand for bread & meat in England.

When the price of bread was decreasing, less bread was purchased.

Here surplus money was transferred to purchase meat, as a result, demand for meat increased.

This behaviour is known as Giffen’s paradox.

Thus Giffen goods are inferior goods which have a direct relationship between price and quantity demanded, In this case, the demand curve slopes \ upwards from left to right as shown in the above diagram.

2. Prestige goods:-

Diamonds, high priced motor cars, luxurious bungalows are prestige goods. Such goods have a “snob appeal”. Rich people consume such goods as a status symbol. Therefore, when the price of such goods rises their demand also rises.

3. Price illusions or  Consumers Psychological bias:-

Consumers have an illusion that high priced goods are of a better quality. Therefore the demand for such goods tends to increase with a rise in their price. e.g. Branded products which are expensive are demanded at a high price

4. Demonstration effect:-

The tendency of the low-income group to imitate the consumption pattern of high-income groups is known as Demonstration effect. For example demand for consumer durables such as washing machines, latest mobile etc.

5. Ignorance:-

Sometimes people do not have proper market knowledge. They may not be aware of the fall in the price of a commodity and thus they tend to purchase more at a higher price.

6. Speculation:-

When people speculate a change in the price of a commodity in the future, they may not act according to the Law of demand. People may tend to buy more at rising prices, when they anticipate further price rise. For example, in the stock market, people tend to buy more shares at rising prices. Even if prices of some goods like sugar, oil etc. are rising before Diwali, people go on purchasing more of these things at rising prices, because they think that prices of these goods may increase further during Diwali.

7. Habitual Goods:-

Due to a habit of consumption certain goods like tobacco, cigarettes etc are purchased even if prices are rising. Thus it is an exception.

2. Explain in detail the determinants of demand.

Introduction: –

In ordinary language, demand means a desire. Desire means an urge to have something. In Economics, demand means a desire which is backed by a willingness and ability to pay.

Definition of Demand:

According to Benham, “the demand for anything at a given price is the amount of it, which will be bought per unit of time at that price.”

The demand for goods is determined by the following factors:

Price: Price determines the demand for a commodity to a large extent. Consumers prefer to purchase a product in large quantities when the price of a product is less and they purchase a product in small quantities when the price of a product is high.

Income: Income of a consumer decides purchasing power which in turn influences the demand for the product. The rise in income will lead to a rise in demand for the commodity and a fall in income will lead to a fall in demand for the commodity.

Prices of Substitute Goods: If a substitute good is available at a lower price then people will demand cheaper substitute good than costly goods. For example, if the price of sugar rises then demand jaggery will rise.

Price of Complementary Goods: Change in the price of one commodity would also affect the demand for other commodities. For example, cars and fuel. If the price of fuel rises, then demand for cars will fall.

Nature of product: If a commodity is a necessity and its use is unavoidable, then its demand will continue to be the same irrespective of the corresponding price. For example, medicine to control blood pressure.

Size of population: Larger the size of population, greater will be the demand for a commodity and smaller the size of population smaller will be the demand for a commodity.

Expectations about future prices: If the consumer expects the price to fall in future, he will buy less in the present at the prevailing price. Similarly, if he expects the price to rise in future, he will buy more in the present at the prevailing price.

Advertisement: Advertisement, sales promotion scheme, and effective sales-manship tend to change the preferences of the consumers and lead to demand for many products. For example, cosmetics, toothbrush, etc.

Fill in the blank:

1.Increase in asset is debited and decrease in asset is ______

SOLUTION

Increase in asset is debited and decrease asset is credited.

2.Assets = Liabilities +______

SOLUTION

Assets = Liabilities + Capital.

3.Increase in capital is credited and decrease in capital is ______

SOLUTION

Increase in capital is credited and decrease in capital is debited.

4.Scientific and complete system of recording is known as ______

SOLUTION

Scientific and complete system of recording business transactions is known as double entry system.

5.Debit all expenses and losses, Credit all ______

SOLUTION

Debit all expenses and losses, Credit all incomes and gains.

6.Land and Building account is ______ account.

SOLUTION

Land and Building account is a real account.

7.Cash Book and Personal Accounts are only maintained under ______ system.

SOLUTION

Cash book and Personal accounts are only maintained under Single entry system.

8.Debit what comes in and credit what goes out is the rule of ______ account.

SOLUTION

Debit what comes in and credit what goes out is the rule of real account.

9.Travelling expenses account is ______ type of Account

SOLUTION

Travelling expense account is Nominal type of account.

10.Every transaction has ______ effect.

SOLUTION

Every transaction has two fold effects.

11.______ accounts are accounts of properties and assets.

SOLUTION

Real accounts are accounts of properties and assets.

12.Laptop account is a ______ account.

SOLUTION

Laptop account is a real account.

State whether the following statement is True or False with reasons

1.Outstanding expense is a nominal account.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is False.

The amount payable to a person is known as an outstanding expense in the business. As a person is involved, the outstanding expense is nothing but a personal account.

2.Capital account is a real account.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is False.

The amount invested by the owner in the form of goods, cash, or assets is known as capital. As the owner is involved in a transaction, the capital account is a personal account.

3.Every debit has equal and corresponding credit.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is True.

As per the Dual aspect concept, every business transaction has a debit effect with equal and corresponding credit effect which is a base for the double-entry system.

4.Discount received is a nominal account.

Options

  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is True.

Discount received is an income for the business therefore discount received is a nominal account.

5.Drawings account is a nominal account.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is False.

Drawings mean amount withdrawn by the owner from business and the owner’s account is a personal account. Therefore, we can say that the drawings account is a personal account.

6.Outstanding salary is a nominal account.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is False.

Salary payable to an employee means an outstanding salary. As an employee (person) is involved, an outstanding salary is nothing but a personal account.

7.Loan account is personal account.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is True.

Amount received or paid for a temporary period from or to a person is known as loan account. Here, the person is involved, therefore loan account is a personal account.

8.Goodwill account is a real account.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is True.

Goodwill is an intangible asset for the business, and every asset account is a real account.

9.Trade discount account is a nominal account.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is False.

When a discount is allowed on catalogue price or list price, it is known as a Trade discount, which is a general discount to be allowed to every customer. From the accounting view point, it is not to be recorded in the books. So, we can say that the trade discount itself is not an account.

10.Personal transactions of proprietor are recorded in the books of account of the business.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is False.

As per the Business entity concept, business is a separate and distinct unit from the owner/s. So, personal transactions of proprietor are not to be recorded in the books of account of the business.

11.Motor car account is a Real Account.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is True.

Motor car is an asset for the business and asset account is real account.

12.The rule of Nominal Account in Debit the receiver and Credit the giver.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is False.

The rule of the nominal account is to Debit all expenses and losses and credit all incomes and gains.

13.Bank loan account is a Nominal account.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is False.

Amount of loan given by the bank is known as a bank loan. Here, the bank is a legal entity, therefore we can say that a bank loan account is a. personal account.

14.Assets = Capital + Liabilities

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is True.

Capital amount of a proprietor is a liability of the business and asset of the proprietor. Therefore, the total liabilities of the business are capital plus other liabilities. The accounting equation signifies that the assets of a business are always equal to the total of its liabilities and capital. Therefore, the equation is expressed as Assets = Liabilities + Capital.

15.Trademark account is a personal account.

Options
  • True
  • False

SOLUTION

This statement is False.

Trademark is an invisible asset for the business and every asset account is a real account Therefore, the Trademark account is a real account.

Select the most appropriate alternatives from the given below and rewrite the statement:

1.International Accounting day is observed on ______

  1. 10th November
  2. 12th November
  3. 10th December
  4. 15th December

2.Conventional system of accounting is ______

  1. English entry system
  2. Double entry system
  3. Indian system
  4. None of these

3.Every debit has corresponding ____________

  1. Debit
  2. Credit
  3. Right hand side
  4. None of these

4.Radha’s Account is a type of ______ account.

  • Nominal
  • Personal
  • Real
  • Expenses

5.Machinery Account is ______ account.

  • Nominal
  • Real
  • Personal

6.Goodwill is ______ asset.

  • Tangible
  • Current
  • an intangible
  • None of these

7.Prepaid expenses is ______ account.

  • Real
  • Personal
  • Nominal
  • Income

8.Debit the receiver, Credit the ____________

  • Goes out
  • Giver
  • Income and gains
  • Comes in

9.Debit what comes in, Credit what ______

  • Giver
  • Expenses and losses
  • Goes out
  • Income and gains

10Debit all ______ and Credit all income and gains.

  • Giver
  • Expenses and losses
  • Goes out
  • None of these

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