End of bipolarity
Rise of regionalism in Asia
End of non-alignment
Demand for a new international economic order
United Nations Peace Keeping Force
American interventions in Kuwait
Creation of BRICS
When a state influences other states without the use of military force. - Soft power.
Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, France.
Norway, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia.
(i) SAARC has eight member States from South Asia. It aims to accelerate economic growth and promote the welfare of the people of South Asia.
(ii) In 1993, the South Asian Association for Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA) came into existence. It was replaced in 2006 by the South Asian Association Free Trade Area (SAFTA).
This helps in trade and economic activity in the region.
(i) On 7th February 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was signed to create the European Union.
(ii) This treaty led to the expansion of spheres of cooperation in internal affairs, foreign policies and defence policies.
(i) The 1990s are seen as the ‘golden age of humanitarian intervention.’ In 1993, the World Conference on Human Rights was held in Vienna, which led to the creation of the office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.
(ii) Increasing awareness about human rights and their protection in international law gave rise to the phenomenon for protection of rights in the form of ‘humanitarian intervention’.
One of the main purposes of the UN in the maintenance of international peace, security, and cooperation. UN Peacekeeping Force comprises of military personnel and resources sent by member States.
In the post-cold war era, the UN rationale for intervention was not just to stop ongoing wars but also to prevent the reoccurrence of conflicts and protect the human rights of the affected people.
The UN intervened in Cambodia, Somalia, Yugoslavia, East Timor, Eritrea, Syria, etc., for this purpose. In 1993, over 170 nations participated in the World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna to reaffirm their commitment to protecting human rights.
The office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights was created to coordinate human rights initiatives. The increasing awareness about human rights protection in international law gave rise to humanitarian intervention, especially in conflict zones. NGO’s have contributed significantly to the spread of humanitarian intervention for e.g. ICRC, Oxfam, etc.
The 1990s are described as the “golden age of humanitarian intervention.
Countries that lie in geographical proximity create or join regional organisations that are based on common political, ideological, economic, and infrastructural concerns. Some nations make special agreements regarding trade and economic cooperation. This is called a trade bloc.
(i) European Union (EU) was created in 1992 by the Maastricht Treaty. It led to increased spheres of cooperation between European nations e.g. foreign affairs, defense, trade, and the creation of the Euro as a common currency. The creation of the Schengen Area is one of the achievements of the EU since the Schengen visa allows eligible individuals to travel freely within the 26 nations of the Schengen area.
(ii) ASEAN created in 1967 with headquarters at Jakarta comprises of 10 South-East Asian nations such as Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, etc. It aims to promote political economic and security cooperation among its members.
(iii) SAARC formed in 1985 at Dhaka with 7 members. Today, it has 8 member countries of South Asia like India, Bhutan, Pakistan, etc. It aims to promote regional integration and economic development. Its main achievement is the SAFTA.
(iv) BIMSTEC – is a regional organisation founded in 1997 comprising of 7 member countries lying around the Bay of Bengal for eg Bangladesh, India. Thailand, Myanmar. It aims to facilitate collaboration in economic, security, and other concerns between member States.
According to American academic, Joseph Nye there are two types of power viz. hard power and soft power.
(i) Hard power is the ability to get others to act in ways that are contrary to their preferences and wills. It is the ability to coerce through threats and inducements for e.g., Iraq invasion of Kuwait.
(ii)Soft power is when a country influences other countries without the use of military force. It is the ability to get others to want the outcomes that you want i.e. through attraction rather than coercion. Such influence is spread through economic, socio-cultural means. Soft power was an important aspect of US domination. It implied the use of monetary aid, cooperative programmes, cultural exchanges, strong relations with allies. Examples of US soft power are cultural exports like fast-food chains, movies, educational exchange programmes as well as disaster assistance programmes such as tsunami relief (Japan), flood control (Pakistan).
The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSO) and the European Economic Community (EEC) was created to foster economic interdependence. On 7 February 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was signed to create the European Union. This led to the expansion of spheres of cooperation to include internal affairs, judicial matters, foreign policy, etc. The Euro (is the official currency of 19 out of 28 countries of the EU. These nations are collectively called Eurozone’.
The Commission is the executive bureaucratic arm of the EU. It is mainly responsible for drawing up proposals for new European legislation and it implements the policy decisions of the European Parliament and the Council of the EU.
The European Parliament is composed of 751 members, who are directly elected every five years. It is a body entrusted with legislative, supervisory, and budgetary responsibilities.
The structure of the European Council consists of the Presidents or Prime Ministers of each Member State, accompanied by their foreign ministers, and a full-time President of the European Council. The European Council meets four times a year and provides strategic leadership for the EU.
The ECJ interprets, and adjudicates on, EU law and treaties. As EU law has primacy over the national law of EU Member States.