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9th std, Social Science, History, Book Solutions, tamilnadu board,Chapter 1, Evolution of Humans, and Society, Prehistoric Period,

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
………….. is genetically closest to humans.
(a) Gorilla
(b) Chimpanzee
(c) Orang-utan
(d) Great Apes
Answer:
(b) Chimpanzee

Question 2.
The period called ……………. marks the beginning of agriculture and animal domestication.
(a) Palaeolithic
(b) Mesolithic
(c) Neolithic
(d) Megalithic
Answer:
(c) Neolithic

Question 3.
Direct ancestor of modem man was ……………..
(a) Homo habilis
(b) Homo erectus
(c) Homo sapiens
(d) Neanderthal man
Answer:
(c) Homo sapiens

Question 4.
………….. refers to the area î Egypt, Israel-Palestine and Iraq.
(a) Great Rift Valley
(b) Fertile Crescent
(c) Solo river
(d) Neander Valley
Answer:
(b) Fertile Crescent

Question 5.
Sir Robert Bruce Foote, a geologist from England first discovered the …………. tools at Pallavaram near Chennai.
(a) Stone Age
(b) Palaeolithic
(c) Mesolithic
(d) Neolithic
Answer:
(b) Palaeolithic

Question 6.
(i) The period before the introduction of writing is called pre-history.
(ii) The pre-historic people developed language, made beautiful paintings and artefacts.
(iii) The pre-historic societies are treated as literate.
(iv) The pre-historic period is called ancient.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (i) and (ii) are correct
(c) (i) and (iv) are correct
(d) (ii) and (iii) are correct
Answer:
(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

Question 7.
(i) The Neolithic people used polished stone axes called Celts.
(ii) Evidence of Neolithic village is found at Payyampalli in Chennai district.
(iii) The cultural period that succeeded the Neolithic is called the Bronze Age.
(iv) The period that witnessed domestication .of animals and cultivation of crops is called Mesolithic.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(a) (i) is correct

Question 8.
Assertion (A): Many of the Mesolithic sites are found nearby rivers and tanks.
Reason (R): Irrigation management developed during Mesolithic period.
(a) A and R are correct and R explains A
(b) A and R are correct but R doesn’t explain A
(c) A is correct but R is incorrect
(d) A and R both are incorrect
Answer:
(d) A and R both are incorrect


II. Fill in the blanks.

1. The primitive multi-cellular life first appeared in the age of ……………..
2. Hand axes and cleavers are the important tool types of the …………. culture.
3. The methods and techniques involved in the production of stone tools are called ………………… technology.
4. ………………… is known as the Middle Stone Age, as it is placed between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic.

Answers:
1. Proterozoic
2. Low Palaeolithic
3. lithic8
4. Mesolithic period


III. Find out the correct statement.

Question 1.
(a) The concept ‘survival of the fittest’ contributed to the scientific understanding of human origins.
(b) The book “On the Origin of Species” was published by Herbert Spencer.
(c) Darwin’s theory of biological evolution connects with the process of natural selection.
(d) Geology is the study of lithic technology.
Answer:
(a) correct
(b) incorrect
(c) correct
(d) incorrect

Question 2.
(a) Among the great Apes Orangutan is genetically the closest to humans.
(b) The ancestors to humans were called Hominins and their origins have been traced to Africa.
(c) Flake is a small chip that has flaking on both sides.
(d) Acheulian is the main block of stone from which small1 chips are flaked by using a hammer stone.
Answer:
(a) incorrect
(b) correct
(c) incorrect
(d) incorrect


IV. Match the following.


V. Answer the following briefly.

Question 1.
Discuss how the age of speculation made humans become conscious and knowledgeable.
Answer:

  1. Humans are the only species on earth concerned with understanding as well as explaining the World and Universe.
  2. Humans became knowledgeable and conscious in the coarse of evolution.
  3. They became curious and began to think and ask questions about nature, organisms and the world around them.
    e.g., At first they worshipped nature as God.
    Later on they developed their own understanding some of which is not scientific. Thus the age of speculation made humans become conscious and knowledgeable.

Question 2.
Write a note on the impact of pastoralism on the prehistoric people in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:

  1. The people in the Age practiced agriculture, domesticated cattle and sheep.
  2. Some of the groups were still hunting and gathering.
  3. Millets & rice were cultivated.
  4. Irrigation management developed in this period. In the deltaic regions irrigation as a technology had developed.
  5. Evidences of rice is seen in Megalithic sites like Adidchanallur in Thoothukudi district and Porunthal near Palani.

Question 3.
List out the features of Megalithic Burial types.
Answer:

  1. The Iron Age is also known as Megalithic since people created burials with large stones for the dead people.
  2. Within these burials, the skeletons (or) a few bones of the dead persons were placed along with grave goods including iron objects, carnelian beads and bronze objects.
  3. Some of the burials do not have human bones and they have only the grave goods.
  4. They may be called memorial burials.

Question 4.
Examine the tool making technical skills of lower Palaeolithic people.
Answer:

  1. Hand axes and cleavers are the important tool types of the Lower palaeolithic period.
  2. These tools were fitted with a wooden and bone handle. They were used for cutting, piercing and digging.
  3. The people also used hammer stones and spheroids.
  4. The quartzite pebbles and cobbles were chosen as raw materials.
    The tools are found in the soil deposits and also in the exposed river side.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

Question 1.
Hominid and Hominins.
(a) Who are Hominids?
Answer:
Hominids refers to all the species of the modem and extinct great apes, which also includes humans.

(b) Who was the earliest human ancestor to make tools in Africa?
Answer:
Homo habilis (handy human) was the earliest known human ancestors to make tools in Africa about 2.6 million years ago.

(c) How are the modern humans known?
Answer:
Modem-humans are known as Homo sapiens.

(d) Name any one species of this tribe.
Answer:
Homo erectus – extinct Humans are the only living species.


Question 2.
Earliest Lithic Assemblages of Human ancestors.
(a) Where are Acheulian tools reported to have been found in Karnataka and in Madhya Pradesh?
Answer:
Acheulian tools are reported to have been found in Isampur in Karnataka and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh.

(b) What is meant by Lithic Technology?
Answer:
‘Lith’ means stone. The methods and techniques involved in the production of stone tools are called lithic technology.

(c) What are Biface tools?
Answer:
Bifaces are tools that have flaking on both sides (bi = two, face = side).

(d) Name a few stone tools used by the human ancestors.
Answer:
Core is the main block of stone. Flake is a small chip removed from a large stone block. Levalloisian tools includes long blades and burins. Burin is a stone-made chisel with a sharp cutting edge.


VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
The developments in the fields of agriculture, pottery and metal tools are considered a landmark in the life of Megalithic period- Substantiate.
Answer:

  1. As the name suggests, people used iron technology.
  2. An exchange relationship developed among the people.
  3. The people of this age had knowledge of metallurgy and pottery making.
  4. The Iron Age is also known as Megalithic period since people created burials with large stones for the dead people.
  5. Weapons such as swords and daggers, axes, chiesels, lamps and tripod stands are also found.
  6. The Iron tools were used for agriculture, hunting, gathering and in battles.
  7. Bronze bowls, vessels with stylish finials decorated with animals and birds, bronze mirrors and bells have also been found. So these developments are considered a landmark in the life of Megalithic period.

Question 2.
The history of humans is closely related to the history of the earth. Elucidate.
Answer:

  1. The history of humans is closely related to the history of the earth.
  2. The earth contains geological, archaeological and biological records of historical times in its upper layers.
  3. They are important for reconstructing the history of the earth and various living organisms.
  4. The fossil bones of the human ancestors are embedded in the earth’s layers.
  5. Palaeoanthropologists and archaeologists excavate the soil and rock layers on the earth and extract evidence about human ancestors.
  6. These layers and the fossils are scientifically dated to study the various stages in human evolution and prehistory.
  7. Through the gathered evidence they attempt to understand the evolution of human history and developments in a chronological order.
  8. The earth was formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago.
  9. Gradually conditions emerged for the growth of organisms. Then plants and animals came into being and thereby foundation was laid for the evolution of humans. The long span of time in earth’s history is divided into eras, periods and epochs by the Geologists. Thus the history of humans is closely related to the history of the earth.

Student Activities

Question 2.
Assignment with teacher’s guidance.
Answer:
A power-point presentation on the origin of human life.
A power-point presentation on the pre-historic tools.
A power-point presentation on the scripts of the ancient.


Evolution of Humans and Society – Prehistoric Period Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.

1. …………….. is the study of the human past through the analysis and interpretation of material remains.
(a) Geology
(b) Archaeology
(c) History
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(b) Archaeology

Question 3.
The DNA of a Chimpanzee is ……………. identical to that of a human being.
(a) 95%
(b) 96%
(c) 97%
(d) 98%
Answer:
(d) 98%

Question 4.
………….. are stone artefacts of small size.
(a) Microliths
(b) Bifaces
(c) Acheulian
(d) core
Answer:
(a) Microliths

Question 5.
Evidence of Neolithic village is found at …………… in Vellore district.
(a) Gudiam
(b) Athirampakkam
(c) Payyampalli
(d) Salem
Answer:
(c) Payyampalli

Question 6.
The ……………. was a formative period and the foundation for the Sangam Age.
(a) Iron Age
(b) Bronze Age
(c) Stone Age
(d) Age of Information Technology
Answer:
(a) Iron Age


Question 8.
(i) The chimpanzee is genetically the closest to humans.
(ii) Hominins & their origin have been traced to Asia.
(iii) The Hominins emerged around 6 to 5 million years ago.
(iv) The Great Rift valley in Africa has many sites for the Prehistoric period.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) & (iii) are correct
(c) (i) & (iv) are correct
(d) (iii) is correct
Answer:
(a) (i) is correct and (c) (i) & (iv) are correct

Question 9.
……………… are tools used for scraping the surfaces.
(a) Lunates
(b) Triangles
(c) Scrapers
(d) Cists
Answer:
(c) Scrapers

Question 10.
…………… are pottery jars and were used for burying the dead.
(a) Urns
(b) Cists
(c) Dolmens
(d) Menheirs
Answer:
(a) Urns


II. Fill in the blanks.

1. Prehistoric people were the pioneers of ……………..
2. …………… were the apes from which modem humans evolved.
3. Prehistoric animal (or) plant that turns to stone over a period of time …………….
4. The earliest tools made by human ancestors are found in ……………. in Kenya.
5. …………….. people buried the dead people systematically.
6. Rice was probably cultivated in India and China around …………… (or) even earlier.
7. Oxen were used in ………….. civilisation for tilling the land.
8. ……………. discovered the first Palaeolithic tools in India at Pallavaram.
9. ………….. people perhaps devised the first pottery.
10. The black and Red colour pottery were used by ……………. and people.


Answers:


1. Creative Knowledge
2. Australopithecines
3. Fossil
4. Lomekwi
5. Neanderthals
6. 7000 BCE
7. Sumerian
8. Sir Robert Bruce Foote
9. Neolithic
10. Iron Age & Sangam Age


III. Match the following

Answer:
1. (d)
2. (e)
3. (a)
4. (b)
5. (c)


Solution

1. (d)
2. (e)
3. (a)
4. (b)
5. (c)


IV. Answer the following briefly.

Question 1.
Discuss when the earth was formed.
Answer:

  1. The earth was formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago.
  2. Gradually, conditions emerged for the growth of organisms.
  3. Then plants and animals came into being and thereby foundation was laid for the evolution of humans.
  4. The long span of time in earth’s history is divided into eras periods and epochs by the geologists.

Question 2.
Who proposed the idea of the Three Age system?
Answer:

  1. The idea of the Three Age system proposed by CJ. Thomsen became the basis for understanding early human history.
  2. He classified the artefacts in the Danish National Museum, Copenhagen, into Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age.

Question 3.
The Great Rift valley in Africa has evidence for the Prehistoric period. Discuss.


Answer:

  • The Great Rift valley in Africa has many sites that have evidence for the prehistoric period.
  • The Great Rift valley is a valley – like formation that run for about 6,400 km from the Northern part of Syria to Central Mozambique in East Africa.
  • This geographical feature is visible even from the space, and many prehistoric sites are found in Africa.

Question 4.
Write a short note on “Prehistoric cultures”.

Answer:


While the fossil bones are classified as various species such as Homo habilis, Homo erectus and Neanderthalensis, based on the lithic tools, cultures are assigned names such as Earliest Lithic, Assemblages, Oldowan Technology, Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic cultures.


Question 5.
Why were the Levalloisian tools called so?
Answer:

  1. The lithic tool – making tradition of the Levalloisian belonged to this period.
  2. Levalloisian tools are the implements made after preparing the core.
  3. These tools are found in Europe and Central and Western Asia.
  4. The Levalloisian tools are the implements made after preparing the core. It was named after the town of Levallois in France.

Question 6.
What was the main factor for the development of early civilisations?
Answer:

  1. As a result of domestication and cultivating plants, there was an excess food production.
  2. The surplus food production was a main factor for the development of early civilizations.

Question 7.
Describe the burials in the Sangam Age.
Answer:

  1. The Sangam literature mentions the various burial practices of the people.
  2. The Megalithic burials are classified as dolmens, cists, menheirs, rock-cut caves, um burials and sarcophagus.
  3. The burial types of Kodakkal (umbrella stone), Toppikkal (hatstone) and Paththikal (hood stone) are found in Kerala.

V. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

Question 2.
When was it established?
Answer:
It was established in 530 BCE.


Question 3.
Which is the oldest surviving museum at present?
Answer:
The Capitoline museum in Italy is perhaps the oldest surviving museum at present (1471 CE).


Question 4.
Name the bldest university museum in the world.
Answer:
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford University is the oldest University Museum in the world.


(B) Mesolithic culture.


1.Mention the evidence for the existence of Mesolithic hunt-gatherers.
Answers:
They are found at Chennai, North Arcot, Dharmapuri, Salem, Coimbatore, Ariyalur, Trichi, Pudukottai, Madurai, Sivagangai, Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari.


Question 2.
What type of artefacts were used by the people of this period?
Answer:
The people of this period used small artefacts made of Chert and Quartz.


Question 3.
What are the tool types used by them?
Answer:
The tool types are scrapers, lunates and triangles.


Question 4.
What did they do for their subsistence?
Answer:
These people hunted wild animals and gathered fruits, nuts and roots for their subsistence.


VI. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
Discuss the Neolithic culture in Tamilnadu.
Answer:

  • The culture that domesticated animals and cultivated crops is called Neolithic.
  • It is known as the New Stone Age. The Neolithic people used polished stone axes called celts.
  • Cattle rearing was their main occupation. They lived in small villages with houses made of thatched roof and walls plastered with clay.
  • Evidence of Neolithic village is found at Payyampalli in Vellore district and a few sites in the Dharmapuri region.
  • Payyampalli is a village in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu. The earliest evidence for the domestication of animals and the cultivation of plants is found at this site, which was excavated by the Archaeological Survey of India.
  • Evidence for pottery making and cultivation of horse gram and green gram has been found in this village.
  • These Neolithic sites were part of the Southern Neolithic Culture of India. They are mainly concentrated in the Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka regions.
  • The Neolithic people used stone axes fitted on a wooden handle.
  • These polished stone axes are worshipped in many village temples of Tamil Nadu even today.

Question 2.
Domestication of Animals and plants. A milestone in Human History. Explain.
Answer:

  1. Rice was probably cultivated in India and China around 7000 BCE or even earlier.
  2. Wheat and barley were cultivated at Mehrgarh in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent (Pakistan) before 6000 BCE.
  3. Animal domestication developed as part of symbiotic life.
  4. Dogs may have been domesticated first. Friendly animals were gradually domesticated. Sheep and goat were domesticated around 10,000 BCE in Southwest Asia.
  5. Oxen were used in Sumerian civilization for tilling the land. Mehrgarh in Pakistan has evidence of sheep, goat and cattle domestication in the Neolithic period.

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