8 | Aster Classes

Madhya Pradesh : In Madhya Pradesh’s schools classes for 1st std to 8th std will remain closed till March 31, 2021.
The Madhya pradesh state government has dropped the annual examination till standard 8 and evaluation would be done on project work basis.

As per the decision of Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan, no test would be conducted for them and they will be evaluated on the basis of project work.

But regular classes for classes 10, 12 would begin shortly he added.

The new academic session for others would commence on April 1, 2021, in the state.

This decision was taken in the high-end meeting of CM Chouhan with the Department of Schools Education on Friday.

In the meeting, the Chief Minister also instructed the officials to prepare a year-wise detailed action plan for 10,000 high-quality schools that should be opened in the state in the coming three years.

Bharat Bandh tomorrow: Banking, transport services may be affected – 👈Check details here


Chapter-8- Introduction-to-Management-fyjc-11th std-oc-maharashtra-board-full solution-

Select the correct option and rewrite the sentence

1.Management is …………
Options
  • dynamic
  • static
  • selective
2.Management uses ………. method of observation.
Options
  • unscientific
  • artificial
  • scientific
3.To help top level management in co-ordinating the activities is the function of ……….. level management.
Options
  • middle
  • lower
  • top
4.To look after maintenance of machinery is the function of …………. level management.
Options
  • top
  • middle
  • lower
5.Management is…………. oriented action.
Options
  • policy
  • profit
  • goal

Match the pairs.

Group AGroup B
A)Management1)Need of creativity
B)Management as a profession2)Can be seen
C)Top level management3)Administration
D)Management as an art4)Intangible
E)Lower level management5)Formal education
  6)Policy framing
  7)Implementation of policies
  8)Selective
  9)Directing subordinates to complete the task
  10)Cause effect relationship

SOLUTION

Group AGroup B
A)Management4)Intangible
B)Management as a profession5)Formal education
C)Top level management6)Policy framing
D)Management as an art1)Need of creativity
E)Lower level management9)Directing subordinates to complete the task
  2)Can be seen
  3)Administration
  7)Implementation of policies
  8)Selective
  10)Cause effect relationship

Give one word/phrase/term for the following sentence

1.The art of getting things done through others.

SOLUTION

Management
2.The second level of Management.

SOLUTION

Middle level

3.Systematic body of knowledge.

SOLUTION

Science

4.The level of management related to Managing Director.

SOLUTION

Top level Management

5.Level of management that link top level and lower level management.

SOLUTION

Middle level management


State True or False

1.Management is an ancient activity.
Options
  • True
  • False
2.Management is not objective oriented.
Options
  • True
  • False
3.In small organization also management is required.
Options
  • True
  • False
4.Middle level management forms policy of an k.
Options
  • True
  • False
5.Various principles and techniques are used in management.
Options
  • True
  • False

1.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Management is an art
  • Management is a science
  • Management is commerce
  • Management is a profession

2.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Singer
  • Actor
  • Dancer
  • Doctor

3.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Doctor
  • Chartered Accountant
  • Lawyer
  • Singer

4.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Lower level
  • Middle level
  • Top level
  • High level

5.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Board of Directors
  • President
  • Purchase Manager
  • Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

6.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Departmental Head
  • Finance Manager
  • Production Manager
  • Supervisor

7.Find the odd one.

Options
  • Supervisor
  • Foreman
  • Finance Manager
  • Office Supertendent

Complete the sentence

1.The English verb ‘manage’ came from the Indian word …………….

SOLUTION

The English verb ‘manage’ came from the Indian word managgiare.
2.To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to …………….

SOLUTION

To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.
3.Organization is a group of person who work together to achieve a …………….

SOLUTION

Organization is a group of person who work together to achieve a common goal.
4.Link between the top level and lower level of management is called as …………….

SOLUTION

Link between the top level and lower level of management is called as middle level management.
5.Lower level management works under …………….

SOLUTION

Lower level management works under middle level management.
6.Art is the bringing about a desired result through the application of …………….

SOLUTION

Art is the bringing about a desired result through the application of skills.
7.Any knowledge which is scientifically developed and consists of universally accepted principles is known as a …………….

SOLUTION

Any knowledge which is scientifically developed and consists of universally accepted principles is known as a science.
8.Science is based on systematic experiments, on certain rules and on …………….

SOLUTION

Science is based on systematic experiments, on certain rules and on principles.
9.Teacher, Doctor, C. A., Lawyer comes under the term …………….

SOLUTION

Teacher, Doctor, C. A., Lawyer comes under the term profession.

1.Complete the following table

A B
Top level_____________
Options
  • Fiance Manager
  • Art
  • CEO
  • Profession
  • Supervisors

2.Complete the following table

A B
_____________Lower level
Options
  • Fiance Manager
  • Art
  • CEO
  • Profession
  • Supervisors

3.Complete the following table

A B
Middle level_____________
Options
  • Fiance Manager
  • Art
  • CEO
  • Profession
  • Supervisors

4.Complete the following table

A B
_____________Doctor
Options
  • Fiance Manager
  • Art
  • CEO
  • Profession
  • Supervisors

5.Complete the following table

A B
Singer____________
Options
  • Fiance Manager
  • Art
  • CEO
  • Profession
  • Supervisors

1.What is called as management?

SOLUTION

Getting work done through others is called as management.
2.Name the levels of management?

SOLUTION

Top level, middle level and lower level are the three levels of management.
3.What is Top level management?

SOLUTION

The level of management that decides the long term objectives of organization and frame the plans and policies and take decisions is called as top level management.
4.What do you mean by Middle level management?

SOLUTION

The level of management which is concerned with implementation of plans and policies in the organization with the help of lower level management is known as middle level management.
5.What is lower level management?

SOLUTION

The level of management which is considered to do actual execution of plan is called as lower. Level management. 
6.What do you mean by an art?

SOLUTION

An art means skill of individual, creativity, regular practice, personal abilities and Innovativeness.
7.What is seience?

SOLUTION

Science is a systematic body of knowledge and scientific methods.
8.What is the meaning of a profession?

SOLUTION

A profession means an individual having adequate knowledge and abilities which is helpful to handle different situation. They are trained people having formal education in management school and have a code of conduct.

1.Arrange in proper order.

  1. Middle level management
  2. Top level management
  3. Lower level management

SOLUTION

  1. Top level management
  2. Middle level management
  3. Lower level management

2.Arrange in proper order.

  1. Departmental Head
  2. CEO
  3. Supervisor
  4. Managing Director

SOLUTION

  1. CEO
  2. Managing Director
  3. Departmental Head
  4. Supervisor

3.Arrange in proper order.

  1. Office clerk
  2. Shareholders
  3. Managing Director
  4. Board of Directors

SOLUTION

  1. Shareholders
  2. Board of Directors
  3. Managing Director
  4. Office clerk

Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentence.

1.Management is only an art.

SOLUTION

Management is science and a profession.
2.There are five levels of management.

SOLUTION

There are three levels of management.
3.Lower level management works under top level management.

SOLUTION

Middle level management Works under top level management.
4.Middle level management works under lower level management.

SOLUTION

Middle level management works under top level management.
5.Management is a pure science.

SOLUTION

Management is a social science.
6.The entry in any profession is not restricted.

SOLUTION

The entry in any profession is restricted.
7.Profesionals need informal education.

SOLUTION

Profesionals need formal education.

Explain the following term/concept.

1.Top level management

SOLUTION

The top level management decides the long term objectives of organization, frames plans and policies and take decisions.
It consists of Board of Directors, Managing Director, CEO, President, etc.
2.Middle level management

SOLUTION

The middle level management is a link between top level and lower level management.It works under top level management. This level is considered with implementation of plans and policies in the organization with the help of lower level management. It consists of Head of Departments / Branch managers / In charge, etc.
3.Lower level management

SOLUTION

This is the last level of management. It is a supervisory level of management. It consists of superintendents, supervisors foremen and junior executives. Lower level management receives instructions from the authorities i. e. middle level management and direct subordinates wherever necessary.

1.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

While working in a company, Pranav used to give order to his subordinates about what is to be done and which work is to be done? In this organization, various employees like Pratap are doing their work assigned by Pravin. In this company, Pravin submit his report of work completion to Pranav after completing the work done by the employees like Pratap.
  1. Identify different levels of management in above mentioned company.
  2. Find the level of Pranav in management of company.
  3. Explain the functions and role of Pratap in his company.

SOLUTION

  1. There are two levels of management i.e. middle and lower level of management in above mentioned company.
  2. Pranav works in the middle level management of company.
  3. Pratap is an employee in a company. He works at the lower level. He executes the work assigned by Pravin.

2.Study the following case/situation and express your opinion.

Shankar Patil is an advocate and he is running his profession in a very good manner. His younger brother Prashant Patil has done very beautiful and artistic decoration of his brother’s office with seating arrangement and symbol of Justice as his hobby. Vishwas Patil, older brother of Shankar Patil is a science graduate and doing farming in best way. He exports the farm production. On the basis of above information:
  1. Identify the source of income of Shankar Patil.
  2. What is the qualification of Prashant Patil as a decorator?
  3. Mention two features of profession.

SOLUTION

  1. Shankar Patil is a lawyer by profession. He is practicing as a Lawyer / an advocate. He render his services to his clients and against that charges fee from them. So, ‘fee’ is the income source of Shankar Patil.
  2. Prashant Patil may be or may not be a professional interior decorator. His hobby 1s decorating the office / houses. He may be an artist and an art does not require any formal education.
  3. Following are the features of profession:
    (a) Formal Education: Profession needs formal education. Today managers are qualified with management diploma or degrees. They take formal training from management schools which help them to work with perfection.
    (b)Restricted Entry: The entry in any profession is restricted. It needs a formal education. For example Lawyer, Doctor, Interior designs, Architect, Chartered Accountant, etc. Such compulsion is not there for becoming a manager.

Distinguish between

1.Top level management and middle level management.

SOLUTION

No.PointsTop Level ManagementMiddle Level Management
(1)MeaningTop level management refers to top position in the organization such as Board of Directors, CEO, President, Managing Director, etc.Middle level management refers to middle positions in the organization such as Departmental head, Managers like Finance manager, Production manager, Sales manager, Marketing manager, etc.
(2)Nature of workIt is concerned with framing plans and policies of the entire organization.It is concerned withimplementation of policies framed by top level management with the help of lower level management.
(3)SkillsIt requires conceptual or decision making skills than technical skills.It requires combination of conceptual and decision making skills than technical skills.
(4)Promotion policyAt this level promotion is given on merit.At this level promotion is based on merit as well as seniority basis.
(5)Time frameIt considers longer period of time i. e. 5 to 20 years.It considers medium period of time i. e. 1 to 5 years.
(6)ResponsibilityTop level is responsible to shareholders, government and society.Middle level is responsible to top level management.
(7)Flow of orderOrders and instructions are passed to middle level.Orders and instruction arepassed to lower level and report of the work is submitted to top level.

2.Middle level management and lower level management.

SOLUTION

No.PointsMiddle Level ManagementLower Level management
(1)MeaningMiddle level management refers to middle positions in the organization such as Departmental head, Managers like Finance manager, Production manager, Sales manager, Marketing manager, etc.Lower level management refers to lower/ last positions in the organization. E.g. superintendents, supervisors, etc.
(2)Nature of workIt is concerned withimplementation of policies framed by top level management with the help of lower level management.It is considered with actual execution of planning.
(3)SkillsIt requires combination of conceptual and decision making skills than technical skills.It requires more technical skills than other skills.
(4)Promotion policyAt this level promotion is based on merit as well as seniority basis.Promotion is based on seniority basis.
(5)Time frameIt considers medium period of time i. e. 1 to 5 years.It considers very short period of time i.e. upto one year.
(6)ResponsibilityMiddle level is responsible to top level management.It is responsible to both top and middle level management.
(7)Flow of orderOrders and instruction arepassed to lower level and report of the work is submitted to top level.Implementation is done as per the orders of middle level and reports are submitted to middle level.

3.Top level management and lower level management.

SOLUTION

No.PointsTop Level ManagementLower Level Management
(1)MeaningTop level management refers to top position in the organization such as Board of Directors, CEO, President, Managing Director, etc.Lower level management refers to lower/ last positions in the organization. E.g. superintendents, supervisors, etc.
(2)Nature of workIt is concerned with framing plans and policies of the entire organization.It is considered with actual execution of planning.
(3)SkillsIt requires conceptual or decision making skills than technical skills.It requires more technical skills than other skills.
(4)Promotion policyAt this level promotion is given on merit.Promotion is based on seniority basis.
(5)Time frameIt considers longer period of time i. e. 5 to 20 years.It considers very short period of time i.e. upto one year.
(6)ResponsibilityTop level is responsible to shareholders, government and society.It is responsible to both top and middle level management.
(7)Flow of orderOrders and instructions are passed to middle level.Implementation is done as per the orders of middle level and reports are submitted to middle level.

Answer in brief.

1.State any four features of mangement

SOLUTION

  1. Management is Goal Oriented:
    Management activity is done to achieve pre-decided goals. The success of organization is calculated on the basis of achievement of desired goals. The success depends on proper management of all available resources. Management decides the goals before conducting the activity. The manager takes efforts achieve these goals. So management is goal oriented.
  2. Management is a Group Activity:
    “Management is an art of getting things done through others.” The above definition explains that management is done through / with the people. It is done by co-ordinating all resources effectively and efficiently. The activities are done under the guidance of manager by its team members. Also in organisation decisions are taken by the group of people such as Board of Directors, Shareholders, etc.
  3. Management is Intangible:
    Management is the collective efforts of manager. It is a process of planning, organizing, decision making, directing and controlling. These cannot be seen physically. However, the results of best management can be experienced in the form of increased profits, attainments of pre-decided so management is tangible in nature.
  4. Management is a Continuous Process:
    Management is essential throughout the life of organisation. It is necessary to start the activity, to run the activity in smooth manner and also to control the activity. It is endless process. It is required for survival of the organization continuously.
2.Write any four functions of Top Level Management

SOLUTION

Following are the functions of Top Level Management:
         To decide long term objectives of the organisation.
To frame plans and policies to achieve the set objectives.
To observe that policies are properly implemented.
To create various department and positions.

3.State any four functions of Middle Level Management.

SOLUTION

Following are the functions of Middle Level Management:
  1. To link the top level management and lower level management.
  2. To understand plans and policies framed by top level management and prepare plan of action according to the nature of department.
  3. To assign duties and responsibilities to the staff of the concerned department to achieve pre-defined goals.
  4. To appoint lower level staff.

4.State any four functions of Lower Level Management.

SOLUTION

Following are the function of Lower Level Management:
  1. Do work under Middle Level Management.
  2. To assign under Middle Level Management.
  3. To give instruction to Subordinates.
  4. To direct the subordinates wherever necessary.

5.State any two point of relationship about management as an Art.

SOLUTION

The relationship between art and management are:
  1. Personal Skills: In organization, every manager has to handle different situations, has to solve various problems, has to handle human resource, etc. with his own style. This style varies from manager to manager and so the result. This is because of the different skills and abilities of each person.
  2.  Creativity: Creativity refers to the ability to find something new and innovative. Manager finds out new ways to conduct organizational activities and to achieve desired goals. Manager develops new ideas according to the changes in business situation and in the business environment.

6.Explain any two points of relationship about management as a Science.

SOLUTION

The following points shows there is a relationship in management as a science:
  1. Systematic Body of Knowledge: Pure science is based on systematic experiments, certain rules and principles. Management principles and functions are also based on the experiments which can be studied through various different management theories, techniques and approaches given by different management thinkers.
  2. Universal Applicability of Principles: Scientific principles can be applied in all over the world in similar situation. Therefore, the same result can be drawn. Management principles are universal in nature. They can be applied everywhere, anytime and in any condition.

7.State any two points of relationship about management as a Profession.

SOLUTION

The relationship between profession and management can be seen with the help of following points:
  1. Expertise: A professional is an expert in his field. He has acquired specific knowledge through formal education. Also he has particular skill in practicing as a professional. Manager also becomes an expert by practicing regularly in the specific field and can acquire certain knowledge and skill.
  2. Registration: Professionals need to register themselves with their associations. For example, a Chartered Accountant should register himself with Institute of Chartered Accountant of India i.e. ICAI. Without registration certificate he cannot practice. In case of managers, there is no such body to register themselves. However, managers can take the membership of ‘Chambers of Commerce’ which gives them benefits.

Justify the following statement

1.Management is essential in professional and non-professional activities.

SOLUTION

As management is universal in nature it is applicable everywhere, either it is a professional activity or non-professional activity.
Every person performs certain activity to achieve pre-decided goals. E.g. earning of profit, winning games competitions, to increase goodwill, etc.
Organisations either large, medium or small, profit making or non-profit making, government or non-government organisation, etc. to get success, to attain goals every time management plays a vital role It’s application ensures smooth functioning of business.
A professional acquires certain specific formal education. He has specific skill to achieve his goals. He performs management functions like planning, organizing, controlling, etc. Similarly, while performing nonprofessional activities, like plantation of tree, blood donation campaign, a person also requires to perform certain management functions.
Thus, management is essential in performing professional as well as non-professional activities.

2.Levels of Management depends on the size of organization.

SOLUTION

Making different parts for the smooth functioning of business and to “achieve decided goals is called levels of management.
The size of business is small, medium or large. Every business needs to manage the activities efficiently and effectively.
The levels of management depends on size of organization. If the size of organization is small the classification of levels becomes easy and simple. Whereas in large organization, it becomes difficult and complicated. The levels of management in such organisation may be classified into three parts i.e. Top level, Middle level and Lower level.
These levels of management are important in organization. These levels have their own functions. As per that they have to perform their duties and responsibilities to attain their set goals and objectives.
Thus, levels of management depends on size of organisation.

3.Management is a group oriented action.

SOLUTION

In the words of Mary Parker Follet, “management is an art of getting things done through others”. Management focuses on completing the work through human resource.
It is co-ordinating of all available resources effectively and efficiently. In organisation, the activities are done by the subordinates, employees under the guidance of a manager.
A manager, though he is competent, able, has capacity, skills to perform the organizational task, ‘it is not possible for a single manager to perform all the activities related to the said task alone.
To fulfill or accomplish the objectives and goals, he needs the help of other people, as it should be divided among all the employees, as per their skill, qualification, interest, knowledge and experience.
Thus, management is a group oriented activity.

4.Management is an art.

SOLUTION

 An art is the bringing about a desired result through the application of skills. It is an innovativeness and creativeness of a person. This is a natural and inborn quality of a person. But with the help of proper education and practice one can developed the quality or qualities. E. g. acting, dancing, cycling, magician, singing, drawing, skating, musician, sports etc. comes under art.
Art does not require any specific educational qualification or it not any compulsion. It is inborn quality or a skill.
As a manager, in organisation he has to handle various kinds of situations, employees, other resources effectively and efficiently with his own style. So he uses his skills which are either inborn or developed by practice and formal education.
A manger must be innovative. He should handle the conditions. He should not use same methods all the time. Like an artist, he has to develop his skills by regular practice. He should use different techniques and skills to get perfect result. This is possible due to regular practice.
Every managers has different abilities and skills. They have to use their own abilities and skills to guide the people to achieve their goals.
Thus, manager need to be creative and skilled like an artist. Hence, management is an art.

5.There is no need of registration for managers.

SOLUTION

Every professional is registered with the concerned body or organisation. A professional is formally educated and also a skilled person.
A manager, now-a-days, possess a diploma or degree in management studies like Indian Institute of Management (IIM), PUMBA (Savitribai Phule Pune University, MBA) etc. A person who wants to be a manager acquires the required knowledge of the profession and trains himself/ herself for the managerial job.
As management is a profession, a manager is not practicing independently. He is an employee of the organisation.
Thus, there is no need of registration for managers.

6.Management is a continuos process.

SOLUTION

Management is a continuous process. It is an important feature of management.
A manager of an organisation has to perform managerial work to achieve pre-defined goals of the organisation. To achieve these goals, he as a manager applies various functions of management, principles of management and also techniques of management.
From the beginning till the achievement of success, continuous efforts of every individual is required.
Continuity is an integral part of management. It is necessary through out the life of an organisation.
Therefore, management has become necessary to start the activity and to run the activity at the business smoothly.
Thus, management is a continuous activity. It is not a one time process, but it is never ending process.

7.Planning is a task of top level management.

SOLUTION

Planning means thinking before doing. It is thinking in advance. Before the action, there is a thinking process.
In the large organisation, management levels are divided into three parts i. e. top, middle and lower. At the top level management, very few personnels are involves. They are Board of Directors, Managing Directors, President, Chief Executive Officer, etc.
The main function of top level management is to frame the plans and policies of the Whole organisation to achieve its goals.
It decides the long term objectives of the organisation and also frames particular plans and policies to get them. Further, it also sees that the policies are properly implemented.
Framing of organizational objectives and accordingly plans and policies to achieve them becomes a tough task of top level management.
Thus, Planning is a task of top level management.

Attempt the following.

1.State the features of management.

SOLUTION

Features of Management:
Managements is Dynamic: Management is dynamic and not static in character. It deals with human efforts, different situations and different activities. It adopts changes in the form of technological, socio economical, political, environmental, etc.
Management is Intangible: Management is intangible in nature. It can’t be seen and touched. It is abstract. The principles, theories, techniques, concept are practically invisible. The result of best management can be experienced in the form of increased profit, smooth functioning of the organization and achievement.
Management is a Social Process: Management is a process because it sets objectives and takes steps to achieve them. It is said to be a social process because management is concerned with people. For example employees, shareholders, investors, customers, community, etc.
Management is a Continuous Process: Management is essential through the life of an organization. It is necessary to begin the activity, to run the activity smoothly and to control the activity. This is never ending process.
There are more feature of management:
Management is Different from Ownership
Management is an Inborn Quality
Management is Situational
Management is Goal Orientated
Management is Universal

2.State management is as a science.

SOLUTION

Systematic Body of Knowledge: Management is not a science like physics, chemistry or biology. It is a science which deals with human beings. Management has a theories and concepts. Various principle of management like unity of command, division of labour, unity of direction are all universally accepted principle. Management follows procedures like collecting data, analyzing and drawing inferences from it. This makes management a science.
Use of Scientific Methods of Observation: In science the conclusions are drawn only on the basis of scientific methods of observation. Management also uses systematic methods of data collection, verification and analysis of that collected data and interpretation of data, then a manager takes decisions in the organisation.
Cause and Effect Relationship: Science is based on cause and effect relationship. After using specific formulae or their combination, we get particular result in science. Management theories are also based on relationships. Fair and regular salary along with good working conditions motivates people to work hard and to give best results. Whereas, old machineries, techniques, untrained employees may not give good / excepted output to the organization.
Universal Applicability of Principles: The management principles are universally accepted just like scientific principles are accepted all over the world. For e.g. Newton’s law, Archimedes principle, etc. are all accepted principles, similarly in management also the principle of authority and responsibility, unity of command, direction, etc. are all universally accepted and are used in all organization whether big or small. Management follows these principles in all kind of organizations, at all levels in the same organization.

3.State the relation between the management and art.

SOLUTION

Creativity: Managers must posses the quality of being creative. Every manager should be able to bring innovations in the business. This quality is developed with experience. The more experienced manager can bring about changes according to the situation.
Regular Practice: Practice makes a man perfect. This is the rule applied by a manager. The more the experience, the manager will be able to meet any challenge or difficult situation with ease. He is in a position to make the required changes according to the circumstances.
Personal Skill: Every manager being an individual is different. A good manager must posses good skills in dealing with human beings. He should use his skill in knowing the problem, allotment of work to employees, give judgment and understanding to deal with various situations in business.
Personal Abilities: Every person has different abilities and skills. Manager uses his own abilities to co-ordinate the activities, to guide the people and to achieve their goals.

4.State the importance of management.

SOLUTION

Utilisation of Resources Optimally: Effective management is all about optimum use of available resources in the organization. Proper distribution of resources and work to right person results in higher output. It also reduces wastage and cost. Maximisation of output by reducing cost is the ultimate objective of every organization.
Better Relation: Different groups work at different levels in organization. The employer and the employees have different sets of demands from each other. Effective management ensures that employees fulfill their social responsibilities towards their employers. This helps in establishing good relationship among different groups in an organization.
Achievement of Goals: In an organization group of people performs various activities to achieve common goals of the organization. Effective management brings about harmony (cordial relationship) and good co-ordination in efforts of all group. A manager creates a feeling of team spirit among the members of the group.
Division of Work: Division of Work means the entire work is divided into smaller lots. Each job is given to a particular employee as per his ability and skill to carry out the required activity. Division of work leads to specialization of work and completion of the work in the stipulated period of time.

5.State the similarities between management and profession.

SOLUTION

Formal Education: Professionals need formal education. Today’s managers are qualified with management diploma or degrees from various institutes like IIMS, PUMBA etc. They also take formal training from management schools which helps them to work professionally.
Code of Conduct: Code of conduct means set of rules and regulations to be followed by practicing in their field. Every profession has their own code of conduct to control the activities. It emphasis on ethical practice in that profession. E.g. Chartered Accountants have to work according to ICAI, Lawyers have to follow the code of conduct framed by Bar Council of India, etc. However for managers there is no such association of managers. Generally managers follow the code of conduct based on customs and traditions.
Expertise: A professional is an expert in his field. He has acquired specific knowledge through formal education. He has particular skill of practicing as professional. He becomes an expert due to regular practice in specific field.
Registration: Professionals need to register themselves with their associations. For example, Lawyers must get registered themselves with India Bar Council, Chartered Accountants With Institute of Chartered Accountant of India, where as for managers there is no need of such registration with any body. They can take membership of ‘Chambers of Commerce’ which give them membership benefits.
Restricted Entry: The entry in any profession is restricted. It needs formal education e.g. Lawyers, Architect, Interior designer, Doctors, Chartered Accountant, etc. However, such compulsion is not there for working as a manager.

6.State the functions of lower level management.

SOLUTION

  1. Planning day to day working.
  2. Acting as a link between middle level of management and workers.
  3. Carrying out the instructions given by the middle level management.
  4. Delegating duties to workers, inspecting and supervising their work.
  5. Attending the problems of workers and making arrangements for their training and development.
  6. To maintain discipline and good human relations among the workers.
  7. Image building of the enterprise before workers and creating sense of belongingness.
  8. Ensuring safety of workers, machine, tools, etc.
  9. Making arrangement of materials and tools and preventing the misuse and wastage of such material.
  10. Providing feedback information about the workers problems to the higher authorities.

Answer the following.

1.What is management?

SOLUTION

Meaning: The word management is derived from the Latin word ‘Manus’ which means ‘hands’. It means management is handling some activity. Many thinkers said that management means a fine consideration of co-ordinating and controlling the work either from direct individual or from a group.
Definitions:
Some definitions of management given by different management thinkers as follows:
Mary Parker Follet– “Management is an art of getting things done through others”.
Henry Fayol-“To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control”.
Fredrick Winslow Taylor- “Management is knowing exactly what is to be done and seeing that it is done in the best possible manner.”

2.State the characteristics of management.

SOLUTION

Managements is Dynamic: Management is dynamic and not static in character. It deals with human efforts, different situations and different activities. It adopts changes in the form of technological, socio economical, political, environmental, etc.
Management is Intangible: Management is intangible in nature. It can’t be seen and touched. It is abstract. The principles, theories, techniques, concept are practically invisible. The result of best management can be experienced in the form of increased profit, smooth functioning of the organization and achievement.
Management is a Social Process: Management is a process because it sets objectives and takes steps to achieve them. It is said to be a social process because management is concerned with people. For example employees, shareholders, investors, customers, community, etc.
Management is a Continuous Process: Management is essential through the life of an organization. It is necessary to begin the activity, to run the activity smoothly and to control the activity. This is never ending process.
Management is Different from Ownership: In an organization, management is different from ownership. Owners contribute capital which is taken care of by efficient and paid managers.
Management is an Inborn Quality: Management in the older days, was considered to be an inborn quality. But with the inception of various business schools, management is a quality which can be developed if a person has the interest and perseverance.
Management is Situational: Management helps to take decisions and also to handle specific situation. The decisions are based on the principles, theories and techniques. They are applicable in certain situation only.
Management is Goal Orientated: Every business organization either small, medium or large, profit -making or non-profit making, Governmental or N GOs have their own goals. When the organization achieves its desired goals, it is called success of that organisation. This success depends on proper management of all available resources. A manager takes lots of efforts to achieve these goals. So management is goal oriented.
Management is Universal: Management principles and theories are equally applicable every Where and in every field like business, profession, hospital, education, politics, government administration social activities. These principles are the guidelines to the manager. They are flexible and capable of adaptation to every type of organization.
Management is Group Activity: Management is defined as “getting work done through others” or “With the people in formally organized groups”. The tasks set by the organization is compiled by employees, all levels of managers and even with the help of outside parties.

Answer the following.

1.Discuss whether management is an art, science or profession.

SOLUTION

Management is an art:
  1. Creativity: Managers must posses the quality of being creative. Every manager should be able to bring innovations in the business. This quality is developed with experience. The more experienced manager can bring about changes according to the situation.
  2. Regular Practice: Practice makes a man perfect. This is the rule applied by a manager. The more the experience, the manager will be able to meet any challenge or difficult situation with ease. He is in a position to make the required changes according to the circumstances.
  3. Personal Skill: Every manager being an individual is different. A good manager must posses good skills in dealing with human beings. He should use his skill in knowing the problem, allotment of work to employees, give judgment and understanding to deal with various situations in business.
  4. Personal Abilities: Every person has different abilities and skills. Manager uses his own abilities to co-ordinate the activities, to guide the people and to achieve their goals.
Management is an science:
  1. Systematic Body of Knowledge: Management is not a science like physics, chemistry or biology. It is a science which deals with human beings. Management has a theories and concepts. Various principle of management like unity of command, division of labor, unity of direction are all universally accepted principle. Management follows procedures like collecting data, analyzing and drawing inferences from it. This makes management a science.
  2. Use of Scientific Methods of Observation: In science the conclusions are drawn only on the basis of scientific methods of observation. Management also uses systematic methods of data collection, verification and analysis of that collected data and interpretation of data, then a manager takes decisions in the organisation.
  3. Cause and Effect Relationship: Science is based on cause and effect relationship. After using specific formulae or their combination, we get particular result in science. Management theories are also based on relationships. Fair and regular salary along with good working conditions motivates people to work hard and to give best results. Whereas, old machineries, techniques, untrained employees may not give good / excepted output to the organization.
  4. Universal Applicability of Principles: The management principles are universally accepted just like scientific principles are accepted all over the world. For e.g. Newton’s law, Archimedes principle, etc. are all accepted principles, similarly in management also the principle of authority and responsibility, unity of command, direction, etc. are all universally accepted and are used in all organization whether big or small. Management follows these principles in all kind of organizations, at all levels in the same organization.
Management is an profession:
  1. Formal Education: Professionals need formal education. Today’s managers are qualified with management diploma or degrees from various institutes like IIMS, PUMBA etc. They also take formal training from management schools which helps them to work professionally.
  2. Code of Conduct: Code of conduct means set of rules and regulations to be followed by practicing in their field. Every profession has their own code of conduct to control the activities. It emphasis on ethical practice in that profession. E.g. Chartered Accountants have to work according to ICAI, Lawyers have to follow the code of conduct framed by Bar Council of India, etc. However for managers there is no such association of managers. Generally managers follow the code of conduct based on customs and traditions.
  3. Expertise: A professional is an expert in his field. He has acquired specific knowledge through formal education. He has particular skill of practicing as professional. He becomes an expert due to regular practice in specific field.
  4. Registration: Professionals need to register themselves with their associations. For example, Lawyers must get registered themselves with India Bar Council, Chartered Accountants With Institute of Chartered Accountant of India, where as for managers there is no need of such registration with any body. They can take membership of ‘Chambers of Commerce’ which give them membership benefits.
  5. Restricted Entry: The entry in any profession is restricted. It needs formal education e.g. Lawyers, Architect, Interior designer, Doctors, Chartered Accountant, etc. However, such compulsion is not there for working as a manager.

Question 1:

Write names.

a. Alloy of sodium with mercury.

b. Molecular formula of the common ore of aluminium.

c. The oxide that forms salt and water by reacting with both acid and base.

d. The device used for grinding an ore.

e. The nonmetal having electrical conductivity.

f. The reagent that dissolves noble metals.

ANSWER:

a. Sodium amalgam, commonly denoted as Na(Hg), it is an alloy of mercury and sodium.

b. Bauxite(Al2O3.2H2O) is the common ore of aluminium.

c. Metal oxides which react with both acids as well as bases to produce salts and water are also known as amphoteric oxides. For example: Al2O3 is an amphoteric oxide. An amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both an acid as well as a base to produce salt and water.

d. The device used for grinding an ore is grinding mill.

e. Graphite an allotrope of carbon is a good conductor of electricity.

f. Aqua Regia is 1:3 mixture of concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids. It dissolves noble metals such as gold, palladium, and platinum.

Question 2:

Substance  Property 
a. Potassium bromide1. Combustible
b. Gold2. Soluble in water
c. Sulphur3. No chemical reaction
d. Neon4. High ductility.

ANSWER:

Substance  Property 
a. Potassium bromideSoluble in water
b. GoldHigh ductility.
c. SulphurCombustible
d. NeonNo chemical reaction


Question 3:

Identify the pairs of metals and their ores from the following.

ANSWER:

Group AGroup B
a. Bauxitei. Aluminium
b. Cassiteriteii. Tin
c. Cinnabariii. Mercury

Question 4:

Explain the terms.

a. Metallurgy

b. Ores

c. Minerals

d. Gangue

ANSWER:

a. Metallurgy: The various processes involved in the extraction of metals from its ores and refining is called metallurgy.

The major steps involved for the extraction of a metal from its ore are:

(i) Concentration of ores (or enrichment of ore)

(ii) Conversion of concentrated ore into metal

(iii) Refining (purification) of impure metal

b. Ores: Those minerals from which metals can be extracted conveniently and profitably.

c. Minerals:” A mineral is an element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline and that has been formed as a result of geological processes” (Nickel, E. H., 1995).


 “Minerals are naturally-occurring inorganic substances with a definite and predictable chemical composition and physical properties.” (O’ Donoghue,1990).


 “A mineral is a naturally occurring homogeneous solid, inorganically formed, with a definite chemical composition and an ordered atomic arrangement” (Mason, et al,1968).


 “These… minerals …can be distinguished from one another by individual characteristics that arise directly from the kinds of atoms they contain and the arrangements these atoms make inside them” (Sinkankas, 1966).


 “A mineral is a body produced by the processes of inorganic nature, having usually a definite chemical composition and, if formed under favorable conditions, a certain characteristic atomic structure which is expressed in its crystalline form and other physical properties” (Dana & Ford,1932).


 “Every distinct chemical k occurring in inorganic nature, having a definite molecular structure or system of crystallization and well-defined physical properties, constitutes a mineral species” (Brush & Penfield


d. Gangue: – is the unwanted impurities like rock material, dust, soil, sand, earthy particles, limestone, mica etc. present in an ore.

Question 5:

Write scientific reasons.

a. Lemon or tamarind is used for cleaning copper vessels turned greenish.
b. Generally the ionic compounds have high melting points.
c. Sodium is always kept in kerosene.
d. Pine oil is used in froth flotation.
e. Anodes need to be replaced from time to time during the electrolysis of alumina.

ANSWER:


a. Copper vessels turned greenish due to the formation of copper carbonate layer.
The citric acid present in the lemon or tamarind neutralizes the basic copper carbonate and dissolves the layer.
That is why, tarnished copper vessels are cleaned with lemon or tamarind juice to give the surface of the copper vessel its characteristic lustre.

b. In an ionic compound there is strong electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions.
To overcome these forces a considerable amount of energy is needed.
Therefore, ionic compounds have high melting points.

c. Sodium is a very reactive metal. It is kept in kerosene to prevent it from coming in contact with oxygen and moisture.
If this happens, it will react with the moisture present in air and form sodium hydroxide.
This is a strongly exothermic reaction and lot of heat is generated.

d. Pine oil is added in the froth flotation method to create froth or bubble so that metal can be purify easily because pine oil prevents the ore from gangue for further mixing.
Pine oil also acts as the best substance for forming froth for the minerals.
It also increases the non wettability of mineral particles.

e. In the electrolysis of alumina, graphite rod is used as anode.
During the electrolytic reduction of alumina, aluminium is produced at the cathode and oxygen gas is evolved at the anode.
This gas reacts with the graphite rods (anode) and forms carbon dioxide.
Thus, the graphite rods are continuously eroded.
Hence, the graphite rods i.e. anodes be replaced from time to time during the electrolysis of fused alumina. 

Question 6:

When a copper coin is dipped in silver nitrate solution, a glitter appears on the coin after some time. Why does this happen? Write the chemical equation.

ANSWER:


Copper is more reactive than silver. Hence, displacement reaction occurs.
When copper coin is dipped in silver nitrate solution, it forms copper nitrate and silver metal.
A shining white deposit of silver metal is formed on copper coin.
The grey solid crystal(glitters) of Ag metal appears on the copper coin and solution turns blue in colour.
Balanced equation: 
2AgNO3(aq) + Cu(s) → Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)

Question 7:

The electronic configuration of metal ‘A’ is 2,8,1 and that of metal ‘B’ is 2,8,2. Which of the two metals is more reactive? Write their reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid.

ANSWER:


On moving from left to right in a period of periodic table, the chemical reactivity of elements first decreases from sodium to silicon and then increases from phosphorus to chlorine.
The electronic configuration of metal ‘A’ is 2,8,1. This is electronic configuration of sodium metal.
The electronic configuration of metal ‘B’ is 2,8,2.
This is electronic configuration of magnesium metal.
In the first element of third period, sodium, there is 1 valence electron which it can lose easily to react with other substances, so it is very reactive metal.
The second element magnesium has 2 valence electrons.
It is not easy for an atom to lose 2 electrons, so magnesium is less reactive than sodium.
Reaction with dil hydrochloric acid:

Question 8:

Draw a neat labelled diagram.

a. Magnetic separation method.

ANSWER:

b. Froth floatation method.

ANSWER:

c. Electrolytic reduction of alumina.

ANSWER:

d. Hydraulic separation method.

ANSWER:

Question 9:

Write the chemical equation for the following events.

a. Aluminium came in contact with air.

b. Iron filings are dropped in aqueous solution of copper sulphate.

c. A reaction was brought about between ferric oxide and Aluminium.

d. Electrolysis of alumina is done.

e. Zinc oxide is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid.

ANSWER:

a. Aluminium came in contact with air.

Aluminum is a very reactive metal.

The outer surface of the metal is actually covered by a very thin layer of the oxide which keeps the metal protected from the air.

But when the oxide layer is damaged, aluminum comes in contact with the air.

It is easily attacked by air.

Then aluminium starts reacting with the oxygen.

It will burn as bright white flame to change into aluminum(III) oxide.

Chemical Equation: 

  

b. Iron filings are dropped in aqueous solution of copper sulphate.

Iron is more reactive than copper.

It can displace Copper (Cu) from its salt Copper sulphate (CuSO4) and its colour changes from blue to green.

Chemical Equation: 

c. A reaction was brought about between ferric oxide and aluminium.

Aluminium is more reactive than iron.

Aluminium metal replaces iron from ferric oxide to form aluminium oxide and iron

Chemical Equation:

d. Electrolysis of alumina is done.

The electrolysis of alumina is carried out in a steel tank lined inside with graphite.

The graphite lining serves as cathode.

Anode is also made up of graphite rods hanging in the molten mass.

The electrolyte consists of alumina dissolved in fused Cryolite(Na3AlF6) and Fluorspar(CaF2).

Cryolite lowers the melting point of alumina and fluorspar increases the fluidity of the mass so that the liberated aluminum metal may sink at the bottom of the cell.

When electric current is passed through this mixture, the aluminum is collected at the cathode in molten state and sinks at the bottom.

e. Zinc oxide is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid.

Zinc Oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.

It is insoluble in water.

When Zinc oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid it forms zinc chloride and water.

It also leads in the formation of small bubbles of hydrogen.

This is a double displacement reaction.

Chemical Equation: 

Question 10:

Complete the following statement using every given options.

During the extraction of aluminium…………..

a. Ingredients and gangue in bauxite.

b. Use of leaching during the concentration of ore.

c. Chemical reaction of transformation of bauxite into alumina by Hall’s process.

d. Heating the aluminium ore with concentrated caustic soda.

ANSWER:

a. Bauxite is the main ore of aluminium.

Silica (SiO2), ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and titanium oxide (TiO2) are the impurities present in bauxite.

Ingredient in bauxite are molten cryolite (Na3AIF6), fluorspar (CaF2).


b. The separation of impurities(silica (SiO2), ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and titanium oxide (TiO2)) in bauxite ore is done by leaching process using either Bayer’s method or Hall’s method.


c. In the Hall’s process the bauxite is in powdered form and then leached by heating with aqueous sodium carbonate in the digester to form water soluble sodium aluminate.

Then the insoluble impurities are filtered out.

The filtrate is warmed and neutralised by passing carbon dioxide gas through it.

This results in the precipitation of aluminium hydroxide.

The precipitate of Al(OH)3 obtained in both, Bayer’s and Hall’s processes is filtered, washed, dried and then calcined by heating at 10000C to obtain alumina.

d. When Aluminium ore is heated with caustic soda  (NaOH) solution under high pressure for 2-8 hours at 1400-1500C, water soluble sodium aluminate is formed.

Question 11:

Divide the metals Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, Li into three groups, namely reactive metals, moderately reactive metals and less reactive metals.

ANSWER:

Highly reactive metals
moderately reactive metalsless reactive metals.
CaFeAu
MgZnAg
NaCuPt
Li

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