2021 | Aster Classes

With this unconfirmed news, board exams have become a hotly debated topic again. 

While some students and schools support the move saying that they are prepared to sit for the exams any time, others say that it will ruin their chances of applying for higher education.

An ICSE student said, “We are still not sure when offline classes will start. 

As of now, many of us feel that the online classes are only supplementary to the actual offline classes and hence, conducting exams based on online classes may not be a good idea.”

However another student said, “If the exams are delayed, then we might not be able to apply for higher studies, as the results will be further delayed.”

Gayethri Devi, Secretary of Karnataka State ICSE Schools’ Association, said that she preferred a “win-win situation” for students and councils.

“The decision of holding exams should be aligned with what happened at state board schools last academic year.

I feel that the schools should be prepared to conduct exams in March/April. We also need to understand the psychological constraints of the students.

If the exams are delayed further, it will definitely increase anxiety among the students.

The earlier the exams are finished, the better it will be for students to plan for their future.” She also said that the council has been periodically asking the schools to give an update on when the portions would be completed, adding that schools are on track with completing the syllabus via online classes.

Prashant Fernandes, Principal of Cambridge School, said that a formal decision on the exams was yet to be taken.

We don’t want to make a premature announcement that will confuse students. In fact, we are prepared to handle the exams at any time.

“If there is a delay, it will provide us an opportunity to conduct more practical classes for students and it will also allow students to clear their doubts and get more time to revise. At the same time, if the exams are deferred, we will have to re-adjust the next academic session.”

CBSE Marking Scheme for Class 10

Given below are some questions from the CBSE Class 10 Home Science sample paper 2021 and their answers from the CBSE Class 10 Home Science Marking Scheme 2021:

Multiple Choice Questions

Choose the correct answer:

1. Which of the following statement is incorrect

a. In warm climate light meals should be planned.

b. In cold climate energy giving food are preferred.

c. Non vegetarian dishes are the only source of protein in one’s diet.

d. Food group is a collection of foods which have similar nutrients.

Answer:

c. Non vegetarian dishes are the only source of protein in one’s diet.

OR

1. Which of the following statement is correct-

a. Expensive food is more nutritious.

b. Meals planned should be rigid.

c. Seasonal food is expensive.

d. Meals planned should be attractive and appealing.

Answer:

d. Meals planned should be attractive and appealing.

2. Your friend does not like to include fruits and vegetables in her meals. She does not like to eat homemade meals. Convince your friend to include fruits and vegetables in his/her diet as it provides

a. Fibre

b. Fats

c. Protein

d. Omega fatty acids

Answer:

a. Fibre

OR

2. What is the main purpose of carbohydrates in our body?

a. They provide chemicals to repair cells.

b. They help to maintain body temperature.

c. They are the main source of energy for the body.

d. They help in building the muscles of the body

Answer:

c. They are the main source of energy for the body

3. For preparing fruit pudding , you need tinned pineapples and cherries. What point/s you will consider while buying tinned fruits? The tin should not be

a. Bulging

b. Dented

c. Rusted

d. All of the above

Answer:

d. All of the above

4. Your younger brother is going to buy vegetables from the vendor for the first time. Advice him which of the following point he can ignore while buying vegetables-

a. Freshness of vegetables

b. Price of vegetables

c. Measurement of weighing table

d. Pointer in the weighing balance

Answer:

c. Measurement of weighing table

5. Predict the changes which occurs in relation to physical development –

a. Height

b. Weight

c. Body proportion

d.All of the above

Answer:

d. All of the above

OR

5. Choose an emotional characteristic of a child who is in early childhood –

a. Unpredictable

b. Socially approved

c. Intense

d. Imaginary

Answer:

a. Unpredictable

6. When Rahul took out his shirt from cupboard hung on iron hanger ,it had a stain on it. Identify this stain –

a. Oil

b. Curry

c. Rust

d. Grease

Answer:

c. Rust

OR

6. Raj stained his shirt with newly painted door. This stain can be classified as

a. Dye stain

b. Mineral stain

c. Animal stain

d. Vegetable stain

Answer:

a. Dye stain

7. You always find your mother doing many activities before she leaves for her office like preparing breakfast and lunch, ironing clothes, cleaning home, laundering of clothes, etc. This is called as-

a. Dovetailing

b. Peak load period

c. Leisure time

d. Flexible activities

Answer:

b. Peak load period

8. Nitish always prepare time plan for his day and he is good in studies as well as swimming. Which of the following is/are advantage of time management

a. It helps in saving time.

b. It helps in saving energy

c. It generates free time.

d. All of the above

Answer:

d. All of the above

OR

8. Radha always complains of lack of time to finish all her assignments. She fails to manage her time. Failing to manage time can lead to some consequences like

a. Less Stress

b. Greater productivity and efficiency

c. A better professional reputation

d. Missed deadlines

Answer:

d. Missed deadlines

9. You have appointed a new cook at your home. Advice him at what temperature should cold and hot foods held to keep them safe?

a. Below 5° C and above 57° C

b. Below 8° C and above 47° C

c. Below 2° C and above 67° C

d. Below 6° C and above 77° C

Answer:

a. Below 5° C and above 57° C

10. Mrs. Verma’ s three year old son has started going to nursery school. Advise her what kind of food should be given to him

a. Finger foods

b. Fried food

c. Sweet food

d. Strongly flavoured food

Answer:

a. Finger food

OR

10. Your grandfather has turned seventy years old. Advise what kind of food should be preferred by him

a. Spicy food

b. Fried food

c. Strong flavoured food

d. Light and digestible food

Answer:

d. Light and digestible food

To check all the answers, download the complete marking scheme along with the CBSE Home Science sample paper from the following links:

CBSE Class 10 Home Science Marking Scheme 2021 👈 Click here

And

CBSE Class 10 Home Science Sample Question Paper 2020-2021 👈 Click here


Chapter 5, Towards Green Energy, Science Part II, Solutions, for, Class 10, Maharashtra board, 2020, 2021,

Question 1

Remake the table taking into account relation between entries in three columns.

Solution


Question 2:

Which fuel is used in thermal power plant? What are the problems associated with this type of power generation?

ANSWER:

Coal is used in thermal power plant.
Problems associated with this type of power generation are:
Air pollution caused due to burning of coal:
Burning of coal emits gases like carbon dioxide, sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide which are harmful to living beingsRelease of soot particles in the environment:
Along with the gases released due to burning of coal, soot particles are released in the environment which can cause fatal respiratory problems.
Coal is non-renewable source of energy. So, this method of power generation will put a limit on the availability of coal in future.

Question 3:

Other than thermal power plant, which power plants use thermal energy for power generation? In what different ways is the thermal energy obtained?

ANSWER:

Other than thermal power plant, nuclear power plants, solar power plants use thermal energy for power generation.
Different ways of generating thermal energy are:
Using fossil fuels:
By burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, the chemical energy stored in them is converted into thermal energy.
Using natural gas: Chemical energy in natural gas is converted into thermal energy.
Using nuclear fuels: Controlled chain reaction in nuclear power plants releases huge amount of thermal energy.
Using solar energy: Solar energy can be reflected and absorbed in aborbers where it gets converted to thermal energy. 
Using geothermal energy: Underground water, sometimes, comes in contact with hot spots (where hot molten rocks are found), and thus steam is generated which is then collected via hot springs.
Thus, geothermal energy is converted to heat energy.

Question 4:

Which type/types of power generation involve maximum number of steps of energy conversion? In which power generation is the number minimum?

ANSWER:

 The types of power generation involving maximum number of steps of energy conversion are:
(i) Thermal energy based power generation:
It involves 5 steps of energy conversion.
Chemical energy in coal→thermal energy→kinetic energy in steam→kinetic energy in turbine→electrical energy.

(ii) Nuclear energy based power generation:
It also involves 5 steps of energy conversion.
Nuclear energy→thermal energy→kinetic energy in steam→kinetic energy in turbine→electrical energy.

The power generation using solar photovoltaic cell involves least number of steps of energy conversion. It involves only two steps of energy conversion.
Energy in sunlight→electric energy.

Question 5:

Solve the following crossword puzzle.

a. Maximum energy generation in india is done using….. energy.

b. …… energy is a renewable source of energy

c. Solar energy can be called…. energy.

d …. energy of wind is used in wind mills.

e. ….. energy of water in dams is used for generation of electricity.


ANSWER:


Question 6:

Explain the difference.

a. Conventional and Non-conventional Sources of energy.

b Thermal electricity generation and solar thermal electricity generation.

ANSWER:

B.

Thermal electricity generationSolar thermal electricity generation
It uses non-renewable source of energy for electricity generation such as fossil fuels, natural gas or nuclear fuels.It uses a renewable source of energy i.e. solar energy for electricity generation
This method of electricity generation is not environment friendly. It causes air pollution.
This is environment friendly method of electricity generation. It does not cause air pollution.
This method requires maintenance.This method does not require maintenance.

Question 7:

What is meant by green energy? Which energy sources can be called as green energy sources and why? Give examples.

ANSWER:

Green energy is that energy which does not pollute the environment and is renewable in nature.
The energy sources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, etc. can be called as green energy.
This is because these are readily available on Earth, can be naturally replenished and do not even harm the environment much.

Question 8:

Explain the following sentences.

a. Energy obtained from fossil fuels is not green energy.

b. Saving energy is the need of the hour.

ANSWER:

a. Fossil fuels are non renewable sources of energy. These are getting depleted rapidly. Also, the usage of the fossil fuels for energy generation adversely impacts the environment and living beings. Burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas etc. leads to emission of gases and soot particles in the environment which pollute the air and cause many respiratory diseases. For example, incomplete combustion of some fossil fuels leads to formation carbon monoxide which affects the health of living beings. Also, burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide in the environment which is the main greenhouse gas. Thus, it can be said that energy obtained from fossil fuels is not green energy.

b. Yes, certainly energy conservation has become the need of the hour. We know our day to day life runs on electricity. Be it fans, lights, televisions, escalators, vehicles on roads or water supply to our homes, each and everything requires energy- “The Electrical Energy” for its working. Even the technology advancement has made it possible to supply electricity to most remote places. Thus, to produce such huge amount of electrical energy, we are getting more and more dependent on non-renewable sources of energy such as coal, petroleum, etc. It is observed that the rate at which these fuels are consumed is much greater than at which it is produced. So, if it continues like this, a day will come when we would get deprived of these sources of energy and thus will not even get the basic amenities of life. So, take a pledge to not waste energy wherever possible for the betterment of our and future generations.

Question 9

Answer the following questions.

a. How can we get the required amount of energy by connecting solar panels?

b. What are the advantages and limitations of solar energy?

ANSWER:

a. Many identical solar cells connected together forms a solar panel.
Now, many such solar panels are connected in series in a form of solar string to get required voltage.
Also, many such identical solar strings are connected in parallel to get the required current.
Hence, in this way we get the required amount of energy by connecting solar panels.

b. Advantages of solar energy:
Solar energy is green energy i.e. it is renewable and does not cause pollution.
Solar panels for the generation of electricity requires less maintenance.
With the help of solar energy, electricity is possible to be generated even in the most remote, inaccessible locations where electric power lines cannot be laid.
Limitations of solar energy: 
Electricity generation based on solar energy is weather dependent and hence it is less reliable.
In winter and on cloudy days, the production becomes less. 
The whole set-up of the panels requires lots of space to generate considerable amount of electricity. 
The initial cost of a solar panel is sufficiently high.

Question 10:

Explain with diagram step-by-step energy conversion ina. Thermal power plantb. Nuclear Power Plant.c. Solar thermal power plantd. Hydroelectric power plant

ANSWER:

a. Water is heated in a boiler. Using the thermal energy released due to burning of coal, steam of very high temperature and pressureis generated. The energy in the steam drives the turbine. Thus, the generator connected to the turbine rotates and electrical energy is produced.

Chemical energy in coal→Thermal energy→Kinetic energy in steam→Kinetic energy in turbine→Electrical energy

b. Nuclear power plants consist of nuclear reactors. These reactors use uranium rods as fuel and heat is generated by the process of nuclear fission. Neutrons smash into the nucleus of the uranium atoms, which roughly split into half and release energy in the form of heat. Carbon dioxide gas is pumped through the reactor to take the heat away. The hot gas then heats water to form steam. This steam drives the turbines of generators to produce electricity.
Thus, the steps of energy conversion are:
Nuclear energy→Thermal energy→Kinetic energy in steam→Kinetic energy in turbine→Electrical energy.

c. Following energy conversion takes place in the solar thermal power plant:

Thermal energy in radiation→Kinetic energy in steam→Kinetic energy in turbine→Electrical energy.

d. In a hydroelectric power plant, the potential energy in water stored in dam is converted into kinetic energy of water. Fast flowing water is brought from the dam to the turbine at the bottom of the dam. The kinetic energy of the flowing water drives the turbine. The turbine in turn drives a generator to generate electricity.
Potential energy in water→Kinetic energy in flowing water→Kinetic energy in turbine→Electrical energy.

Question 11:

Give scientific reasons

a. The construction of turbine is different for different types of power plants.

b. It is absolutely necessary to control the fission reaction in nuclear power plants.

c. Hydroelectric energy, solar energy and wind energy are called renewable energies.

d. It is possible to produce energy from mW to MW using solar photovoltaic cells.

ANSWER:

a. The construction of turbine is different for different types of power plants. This depends on the type of energy source used for driving the turbine. Like in thermal power plants, steam turbine is used whereas in hydro-power plant, water turbine is used.


b. If fission reaction in nuclear power plants is not controlled, then enormous amount of heat released during this process will lead to explosion of the plant and cause fatal destruction to the environment and mankind. Thus, it is absolutely necessary to control the fission reaction in nuclear power plants.


c. Hydroelectric energy, solar energy and wind energy are called renewable energies because they are abundant in nature and can be regenerated or replenished again and again. These will never extinct even with their excessive use.


d. Solar photovoltaic cells can be arranged according to the requirement of electric power. If power requirement is within mW, use of few number of photovoltaic cells will be able to achieve this much power. But, if the requirement of power is in MW, then large number of cells are grouped together to form a solar panel. Then, large number of solar panels are connected in series and parallel to get the required electric power. Thus, it is possible to produce energy from mW to MW using solar photovoltaic cells.

Question 12:

Draw a schematic diagram of solar thermal electric energy generation.

ANSWER:

The schematic diagram of solar thermal electric energy generation is as follows:


Question 13:

Give your opinion about whether hydroelectric plants are environment friendly or not?

ANSWER:

No waste products and harmful gases are released in water bodies and atmosphere when power is generated using hydroelectric power plants. Also, water is available in plenty on Earth and is renewable. Hence, there is no fear of this energy source dying out. Thus, it has no harmful effects on the environment and hence is environment friendly.

Question 14:

Draw neat and labelled diagrams.

ANSWER:

a. Energy transformation in solar thermal electric energy generation.

b. One solar panel produces a potential difference of 18 V and current of 3 A. Describe how you can obtain a potential difference of 72 Volts and current of 9 A with a solar array using solar panels.

You can use sign of a battery for a solar panel.


Thermal energy in radiation→Kinetic energy in steam→Kinetic energy in turbine→Electrical energy.


b. We can obtain a potential difference of 72 V by forming a string of 5 solar panels in series. Now, to obtain current of 9 A, connect 3 such identical strings in parallel.

The same has been shown below.


Question 15:

Write short note on Electrical energy generation and environment.

ANSWER:

Today electrical energy generation has become the need of the hour.

We cannot imagine our life without electricity.

We have been able to generate electrical energy by various methods.

In these methods, a generator is present which works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.

A turbine is used to rotate this generator and this turbine itself is rotated with the help of an energy source.

This energy source can be a renewable source such as wind, sunlight, nuclear fuels etc.

as well as non-renewable sources such as coal, petrol, water etc. The energy sources such as wind, sunlight have proved to be green sources as they do not pollute the environment and are economical too.

But the use of fossil fuels such as natural gas, coal, nuclear energy etc.

as energy source has harmful effects on the environment.
The harmful radiation emitted from the nuclear waste has fatal effect on the environment and humans.

Even the release of soot particles and various greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide on burning or incomplete burning of fossil fuels affects the health of living beings as well as the environment adversely.

Also, the release of these greenhouse gases is day by day increasing the danger of global warming.

We need to as soon as possible find suitable environment friendly substitutes to fossil fuels to save our


CBSE Class 12 sample papers 2021 are designed as per the latest exam pattern and reduced syllabus. CBSE is expected to release the CBSE Class 12 date sheet 2021 for theory and practical exams in the month of December. Last year the Board had released the date sheet in December. CBSE will release the time table for the 2021 board examination for theory and practical examination on its official website – cbse.nic.in.

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has released CBSE Class 12 sample papers 2021 for arts, science and commerce on cbseacademic.nic.in. CBSE Class 12 sample papers 2021 are designed as per the latest exam pattern and reduced syllabus.

CBSE Class 12 Sample Papers: 👈 Direct Link

An Exam all the three streams- science, commerce, and arts will be sent out as a CBSE board Class 12 date sheet 2021 for the students appearing in examinations, however, authorities are likely to release a datasheet for practical exams first.


Chapter 9, Tourism, Transport and Communication, ssc, Maharashtra board, 2020,2021, geography,

1.Answer the questions after reading figure.

a) What type of graph is shown here?

b) What does the graph show?

c) Which country’s tourism has a larger shar in the contribution towards GDP?

d) Which country has a larger population engaged in tourism sector but contributes lesser in GDP?

SOLUTION

a. The graph depicted is a double bar diagram depicting the tourism industry in India and Brazil. It depicts the percentage of the population engaged in tourism and its contribution to GDP in both countries.

b. The graph depicted is a double bar diagram depicting the tourism industry in India and Brazil. It depicts the percentage of the population engaged in tourism and its contribution to GDP in both countries.

c. The contribution towards GPD of Brazil is more than that of India. In Brazil, nearly 8% of the population is engaged in the tourism industry. But their contribution to GDP is nearly 10%.

d. In India, the population engaged in the tourism industry is much greater than the contribution to GDP. Nearly 10% of the population is engaged in the tourism industry, but their contribution is only 8%


2.What are the factors responsible for development of these tourism sites in Brazil?

SOLUTION

Tourism is one of the largest growing service industries in Brazil. Tourism rates are rising steeply in Brazil from the 2000s. There was a setback in the tourism industry between 2006 and 2008, but the economy is back on track from then. Today, Brazil is one of the most visited countries in South America.

Brazil’s cultural integrity and natural beauty are not the only factors that draw tourists. Brazil is also a very popular business destination. Many MNCs have their headquarters in Brazil. The Amazon River basin and the impenetrable forests, wide beaches and bays in the coast, attractive islands and the innumerable species of flora and fauna makes Brazil an attractive tourist destination. Many places are tagged by the UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. Besides the capital city of Brasilia, cities like Rio-de-Janeiro and Sao Paulo also attract vast tourist traffic. Because of the abundance of natural resources in the country, ecotourism is also being promoted with the participation of local people.

Most of the visitors are from Argentina, the United States and Italy. To promote tourism, tourist VISA requirements have been renounced for many countries including Greece, Italy, Hong Kong, Poland, Turkey and many others. Thus, tourism is a largely developing industry in Brazil.


3.considering the development of transport in a place, which factors do you think are responsible for the development of transport in Brazil? Also, think which means of transport could be used in Brazil given its topography and drainage?

SOLUTION

The transport system is the service by which persons and goods move from one place to the other using humans, animals or vehicles. Transport system establishes the links between producing centres and consuming centres. Transport provides the link through which trade takes place. Transport system also acts as an artery for communication within the nation and among the nations. The principal modes of transportation are land ways, waterways, airways and through pipelines. To be established as a major trading centre, the country must have a well-connected transit network. The integrated operation of all the means of transportation is essential for its effective functioning. Thus the development of transport is very important for a country’s progress.

The most common method of transportation in Brazil is the roadways. Most of the country’s transportation requirements are fulfilled by the roadways. But the density of the road network is more in the eastern part. Brazil has the potential to be the country using waterways as an important means of transportation. Sea transportation is mostly used in Brazil and the inland river transportation is not highly utilised. Inland river transportation network is only 13% of the total transportation network of Brazil. The waterways are not highly developed especially in the interior regions because of the occurrence of many waterfalls and the difficulty in navigation in these areas having strong currents. Also, these areas are far from the other major centres making its development highly uneconomical.

Rail transport started in Brazil from the 19th century. Still, the most common means of transportation in Brazil is the roadways or the waterways. The extent of railways in much smaller in Brazil. It is nearly five times smaller than the extent of roadways in Brazil. The density of the rail network is concentrated in the eastern part of the country. The internal region is actually devoid of the rail network. There are many difficulties in the development of the rail network in the internal areas. The dense, impenetrable Amazon forests and the vast tributaries that form the Amazon basin are the main reason for the lack of a rail network in the internal regions compared to the eastern side of the country. Some areas may be defined by certain tribal groups. The acquisition of land for commencing rail network is also a big issue. The use of the rail network for transportation is highly restricted in the country.

Thus, the development of roadways and waterways is the main modes of transportation that could be used in Brazil given its topography and drainage.


4.Arun called his mother from Digboi at 7 am. At what local time will his mother pick up his call at Jaisalmer?

SOLUTION

Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Thus sun moves from east to west as the earth rotates from west to east. Earth can be seen as a sphere of 360 ̊. Earth rotates this 360 ̊ in 24 hours.

Rotation of earth in 1 hour = 360/24 = 15 ̊

Arun calls from Digboi, Assam at 7.00 AM. The longitudinal coordinates that determine the time of Brasilia are 95.63 ̊ E. Jaisalmer is at the longitudinal time zone coordinate of 70.9 ̊ E.

The difference in longitude between Brasilia and New Delhi = 95.63 ̊ E – 70.9 ̊ E

= 24.73 ̊ E

Difference in time = 24.73/15 = 1.64 hours

= 1 hour + (0.64*60) minutes

= 1 hour + 38 minutes (approx.)

Since the earth rotates from west to east, time zone at 70.9 ̊ E will be ahead of 95.63 ̊ E. Thus when the time would be ahead in Jaisalmer by 1 hour 38 minutes. But since India is following a standard time at the longitudinal coordinate 82.5 ̊ E, the whole country will have the same time zone that is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of the Greenwich Time. Thus the local time at Jaisalmer would be 7 AM.


5.It is 12 noon at Delhi. What would be the local time in Brasilia?

SOLUTION

Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Thus sun moves from east to west as the earth rotates from west to east. Earth can be seen as a sphere of 360 ̊. Earth rotates this 360 ̊ in 24 hours.

Rotation of earth in 1 hour = 360/24 = 15 ̊

The time at India is 12.00 in the noon. It has the longitudinal time zone in the coordinates 82.5 ̊ E. The longitudinal coordinates that determine the time of Brasilia is 47.52 ̊ W.

The difference in longitude between Brasilia and India = 47.52 ̊ W + 82.5 ̊ E

= 130.02 ̊ E

Difference in time = 130.02/15 = 8.6 hours

= 8 hours + (0.6*60) minutes

= 8 hours 36 minutes (approx.)

Since the earth rotates from west to east, time zone at 82.5 ̊ E will be ahead of 47.52 ̊ W. Thus Brasilian time would be behind the Indian time by 8 hours 36 minutes.

Time in Brasilia = 3.24 AM


6.On what basis will you decide how many standard times should be there in a country?

SOLUTION

Standard time of a country is the time of the country determined legally and is binding on all the regions. It is the harmonisation of different time zones in a geographical area rather than using the solar time. It was established in the 19th century to enable weather forecasting and set railway timings.

Some of the importance of following a standard time is should be considered while deciding the number of standard times to be followed in any country:

• It helps in avoiding confusions of time differences that can happen between the extreme points in the same country.

• It helps in properly scheduling the railway and the airway timings.

• It helps in making defined schedules for meeting with the delegates from other foreign countries.

• It helps to coordinate activities and reduces the loss of time incurred in adjusting the time zones.

• It helps to improve communication across the same country.


State whether right or wrong with reason.

1.The future of tourism is bright in India due to its natural diversity.

SOLUTION

Yes, the statement is right.

The future of tourism is bright in India not just because of its natural diversity but also due to the cultural heritage of the country.

The number of both foreign as well as Indian tourists visiting different parts of the country is steadily increasing.

People visit the country for its natural, scenic beauty, heritage, culture, civilisations and healthy nourishment.

Tourism is strongly being promoted by the government and is an important component of the country’s national income.


2.Tourism is an invisible trade.

SOLUTION

Yes, the statement is correct.

An invisible trade is a business transaction that occurs with no physical exchange of goods. The transfer of services occurs in invisible trade. In such a case, tourism is an invisible trade. It involves the exchange of services in hotels, restaurants, travel agencies and concerned financial institution. It involves the flow of money even if there is no direct transfer of commodities. Also, many people are connected by the tourism industry. It leads to the generation of income with no physical trade. Thus, tourism can be called an invisible trade.


3.The indicator of development in a coun try is the development of transport in that country.

SOLUTION

No, the statement is wrong.

The development of the transport network is not an indicator of development in a country. Transport facilities also play an important role in development, but it is not the ultimate indicator. Factors such as national income and per capita income are the main determinant of development in a country. Brazil, a county having less developed transport network has a higher per capita income than India, a country having much better transportation network. Thus, the development of transportation is not an important determinant of development.


4.Brazil’s time is ahead of India’s time.

SOLUTION

No, the statement is wrong. India is 8 hours 30 minutes ahead of BRT. Brazil itself has 5 time zones, while India considers 82.5 ̊ E longitude as the Indian Standard Time. IST is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of Greenwich Meridian Time, while Brazilin time is 3 hours behind GMT. That makes India’s time ahead of Brazil’s time.


5.The development of tourism in India has begun recently.

SOLUTION

No, the statement is wrong.

Tourism has been the subject of India’s five-year plans from the early days. The first effort to promote tourism was made in 1945 when the British Government constituted a committee under Sir John Sargent for the growth of tourism. After independence, tourism development was considered in an organised manner from the second five-year plan. National policy on tourism was formulated from 1982. After the 1980s, development of tourism is an integral part of the policies and programmes of the government.


Answer in short

 1.Which factors attract more tourists in Brazil?

SOLUTION

Tourism is one of the largest growing service industries in Brazil. Tourism rates are rising steeply in Brazil from the 2000s. There was a setback in the tourism industry between 2006 and 2008, but the economy is back on track from then. Today, Brazil is one of the most visited countries in South America.

1. Brazil’s cultural integrity and natural beauty are not the only factors that draw tourists. Brazil is also a very popular business destination. Many MNCs have their headquarters in Brazil.

2. The Amazon River basin and the impenetrable forests, widespread beaches and bays in the coast, attractive islands and the innumerable species of flora and fauna makes Brazil an attractive tourist destination.

3. Many places are tagged by the UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. Besides the capital city of Brasilia, cities like Rio-de-Janeiro and Sao Paulo also attract vast tourist traffic.

4. Because of the abundance of natural resources in the country, ecotourism is also being promoted with the participation of local people.

Most of the visitors are from Argentina, the United States, and Italy. To promote tourism, tourist VISA requirements have been renounced for many countries including Greece, Italy, Hong Kong, Poland, Turkey, and many others. Thus, tourism is a largely developing industry in Brazil.


2.What are the difficulties in the development of the railway system in Brazil’s internal areas?

SOLUTION

Rail transport started in Brazil from the 19th century. Still, the most common means of transportation in Brazil is the roadways or the waterways. The extent of railways in much smaller in Brazil. It is nearly five times smaller than the extent of roadways in Brazil.

The density of the rail network is concentrated in the eastern part of the country. The internal region is actually devoid of the rail network. There are many difficulties in the development of the rail network in the internal areas. The dense, impenetrable Amazon forests and the vast tributaries that form the Amazon basin are the main reason for the lack of a rail network in the internal regions compared to the eastern side of the country. Some areas may be defined by certain tribal groups. The acquisition of land for commencing rail network is also a big issue. The use of the rail network for transportation is highly restricted in the country.

The government has initiated many projects for the development of rail networks across the country and also for the upkeep of the existing ones.


3.Which means of communication has expedited the field of communications?

SOLUTION

Communication is the process of sending or receiving information from others through different means of communication. In the earlier days, letters and word-of-mouth were the only means of communication. Newspapers became a wide-spread mode with the development of the printing press. But the development of technology has accelerated the communication process in the world.

1. Internet and satellites are the harbingers of today’s fast-expanding digital communication network. Information and Communication Technology (IT) is an important driving force for the success of today’s communication.

2. Telecommunication facilities, especially the internet has significantly contributed to the development of communication between countries in different continents.

3. The development of services like e-banking has increased the pace in which transactions are carried out around the world. Today, the world is just a click away. Information is being transmitted in seconds, and the world has shrunk inside our hands.

4. Any information can be accessed via the internet and communication has become highly centralised though satellites. Information revolution through digital means like mobile phones and social media has also expanded the communication network between counties.

Thus the development of highly sophisticated technology has expedited the field of communication.


A plane leaves Brasilia at 11am on 31 December. The plane crosses 0° Meridian and reaches Vladivostok via New Delhi. Tell the local time, date and day at New Delhi and Vladivostok when plane leaves Brasilia.

SOLUTION

Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Thus sun moves from east to west as the earth rotates from west to east. Earth can be seen as a sphere of 360 ̊. Earth rotates this 360 ̊ in 24 hours.

Rotation of earth in 1 hour = 360/24 = 15 ̊

The plane takes off from Brasilia on 31 December, Sunday at morning at 11.00 AM. The longitudinal coordinates that determine the time of Brasilia are 47.52 ̊ W. The next stopover of the flight is New Delhi that has the longitudinal time zone in the coordinates 82.5 ̊ E.

The difference in longitude between Brasilia and New Delhi = 47.52 ̊ W + ó ̊ E

= 130.02 ̊ E

Difference in time = 130.02/15 = 8.6 hours

= 8 hours + (0.6*60) minutes

= 8 hours 36 minutes (approx.)

Since the earth rotates from west to east, time zone at 82.5 ̊ E will be ahead of 47.52 ̊ W. Thus time would be lead in India by 8 hours 36 minutes.

Time in India when the flight takes off = 7.36 PM

The destination of the flight is Vladivostok that has the longitudinal time zone in the coordinates 131.88 ̊ E.

The longitudinal difference of Brasilia and New Delhi = 47.52 ̊ W + 131.88 ̊ E

= 179.4 ̊ E

Difference in time = 179.4/15 = 11.96 hours

= 11 hours + (0.96*60) minutes

= 11 hours 57 minutes (approx.)

Since the earth rotates from west to east, time zone at 131.88 ̊ E will be ahead of 47.52 ̊ W. Thus time would be ahead in Vladivostok by 11 hours 57 minutes.

Time in Vladivostok when the flight takes off = 10.57 PM


Match the columns.

‘A’ Group‘B’ Group
(a) Trans-Amazonian(i) Tourist Place Highway
(b) Road Transport(ii) Railway Station in India
(c) Rio de Janeiro(iii) Golden Quadrilateral
(d) Manmad(iv) Major Highways
 (v) 40° W. Meridian

SOLUTION

‘A’ Group‘B’ Group
(a) Trans-AmazonianMajor Highways
(b) Road TransportGolden Quadrilateral
(c) Rio de Janeiro40° W. Meridian
(d) ManmadRailway Station in India

Explanation

a. Trans-Amazonian is an important highway in Brazil.

It was inaugurated on 27 September 1972. It is 4000 km long.

It is the third largest highway in Brazil.

It was commissioned to integrate the interior northern parts of Brazil with the rest of the country.

b. Golden quadrilateral is an important national highway network of India.

It connects the major centers of India and the four metros- Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata.

It is maintained by the National Highway Authority of India.

It was completed in 2012. It is the largest highway project undertaken in India.

c. Rio de Janeiro is an important tourist place in Brazil situated in the 40 ̊ W Meridian. Its proper coordinates are 22 ̊ 54 S, 43 ̊ 12 W. It has the second largest economy of Brazil.

d. Manmad is a major railway station of the Central railway zone. It is located in Nasik district of Maharashtra, India. It was opened in 1886.


Give geographical reason.

1.Eco-tourism is being developed more in Brazil.

SOLUTION

Ecotourism is the tourist activities mainly engaged towards the inherent natural environment to support preservation and conservation of the exquisite flora and fauna. Ecotourism is being developed more in Brazil because of its richness in natural resources. The Amazon River basin and the impenetrable forests, widespread beaches and bays in the coast, attractive islands and the innumerable species of flora and fauna makes Brazil an attractive tourist destination. Because of the abundance of natural resources in the country, ecotourism is also being promoted with the participation of local people.

2.The waterways are not developed in Brazil.

SOLUTION

(i) Waterways have been developed on a commercial basis in the second largest river of the world the

Amazon River.

(ii) Boats ply from Equitos in Peru to the mouth of the River Amazon. River Amazon has the longest navigational stretch around 3700 km.

(iii) The south-flowing Parana River is also an important waterway.

(iv) There are about 15 seaports along the coast and the port of Manaus has been developed on the confluence of the Negro and the Amazon.

(v) Coastal shipping is also carried out in the coastal areas.

Hence,the waterways are not developed in Brazil.


3.A dense network of railways has developed in the north Indian plains.

SOLUTION

As compared to the north-eastern and hilly regions of the country, the railway network is highly dense in the northern plains. It is an important place opted for human settlement because of the fertility of the land. Farming and dairying are the important occupations of the people. The main crop grown is paddy and wheat along with maize, millets, and gram. Many highly populated cities like Allahabad, Lucknow, and Varanasi is located in the region. Because of this, the transportation network, communication facilities, and the infrastructure is highly developed resulting in a very dense railway network in the region.


4.Development of transport is important for country’s progress.

SOLUTION

The transport system is the service by which persons and goods move from one place to the other using humans, animals or vehicles. Transport system establishes the links between producing centers and consuming centers. Transport provides the link through which trade takes place. Transport system also acts as an artery for communication within the nation and among the nations. The principal modes of transportation are land ways, waterways, airways and through pipelines. To be established as a major trading center, the country must have a well-connected transit network. The integrated operation of all the means of transportation is essential for its effective functioning. Thus the development of transport is very important for a country’s progress.


5.We rely on the sea route for international trade.

SOLUTION

Foreign trade or international trade is the exchange of goods and services between countries. It is an important component of the economy. Waterways have been the most common means of transport from earlier days. Waterways are the cheapest and easiest way of carrying bulky goods over long distances. One of its greatest benefits is that it does not require any route construction or maintenance. Sea routes and oceanic routes are most beneficial for transporting bulky goods from one country to another. Waterways is a major means of domestic and foreign trade. But, to establish as a major trading center, the port must have a well-connected rail and road transit network.


Differentiate between.

 1.Water transport in the Amazon and the Ganga river.

SOLUTION

BASIS AMAZONGANGA
NatureIt is the largest rever basin in the world.It is the second largest rever basin in India. 
Types of transportation practicesMostly commercialised transportation is practiced with some degree of traditional methods.Mostly primitive and traditional methods are used. The commercialised version is used only in thge eastern parts.
Intensity of requirement It is highly necessary only in the eastern parts having a higher population. It is required in every part of the region as it is one of the most densely populated areas of the country.
Degree of developmentNot highly developed in the interirior parts due to the ocurrence of waterfalls,strong currents and impenetrable forests.Highly developed throughout the region due to the plain topography. 

2.Communication in Brazil and India

SOLUTION

BASISBRAZILINDIA
ControlsHighly concentrated by private media ownership.Goverment control major networks like all India Radio.
Nature of communication system Highly Developed with more inclusion of people.Highly developed though the inculsion of everyone is still not sucessfull. 
CoverageMainly covers the eastern parts of the country. The central and northern region is largely left out due to inaccesibility.Covers mostly every region of the country.

3.IST and BRT

SOLUTION

BASISBRTIRT
Time zonesBrazil has 4 time zonesIndia has single time zone.
The difference between Greenwich timeDifferent by 2,3,4 and 5 hours according to the different time zones.Different by 5 hours 35 minutes.
Difference between extreme points Different by 2 hours 45 minutes.Diffrent from 2 hours.
Time differenceBRT is behind IST.IST is ahead of BRT by 8 hours 30 minutes.

Write notes on.

 1.Modern means of communication

SOLUTION

Communication is the process of sending or receiving information from others through different means of communication. In the earlier days, letters and word-of-mouth were the only means of communication. Newspapers became a wide-spread mode with the development of the printing press. But the development of technology has accelerated the communication process in the world.

1. Internet and satellites are the harbingers of today’s fast-expanding digital communication network. Information and Communication Technology (IT) is an important driving force for the success of today’s communication.

2. Telecommunication facilities, especially the internet has significantly contributed to the development of communication between countries in different continents.

3. The development of services like e-banking has increased the pace in which transactions are carried out around the world. Today, the world is just a click away. Information is being transmitted in seconds, and the world has shrunk inside our hands.

4. Any information can be accessed via the internet and communication has become highly centralised though satellites. Information revolution through digital means like mobile phones and social media has also expanded the communication network between counties.


2.Air transport in India

SOLUTION

Airways is the fastest mode of transport of the century. It is also the most expensive means. Airplanes and helicopters are the major air transport modes. Presently, airways are the only mode of transport to reach remote locations that have no road and rail connectivity. Helicopters play a major role during natural calamities or wars for rescuing people and distributing food and other essentials, especially in the inaccessible areas. It is essential in a country like India that has different terrains and long distances between places.

Air transport in India was started in 1911. It is managed by the Indian Airlines and Air India. IndiGo, Jet Airways, Air India, Spicejet, and GoAir are the major transit corporations. India’s is the world’s third largest domestic and overall civil aviation sector. India has a total of 499 airports. To achieve connectivity and utilising the potential of under-rated airports, the government has launched the UDAN scheme from April 2017.


3.Correlation between physiographic and internal waterways

SOLUTION

India has an extensive network of waterways including lakes, canals, oceans, and other inland water systems. The total navigable area is 14500 km. Waterways have been the most common means of transport from earlier days. Waterways are the cheapest and easiest way of carrying bulky goods over long distances. One of its greatest benefits is that it does not require any route construction or maintenance. Waterways can be inland waterways or sea routes. Navigable rivers, canals, backwaters, and lakes are used as inland waterways. It was the major means of transportation before the advent of railways and roadways. Inland waterways are the only means of transportation through dense, impenetrable forests and areas defined by certain tribal groups. Sea routes and oceanic routes are mostly used for transporting bulky goods from one country to another. Waterways is a major means of domestic and foreign trade.


4.Importance of Standard Time

SOLUTION

Standard time of a country is the time of the country determined legally and is binding on all the regions. It is the harmonisation of different time zones in a geographical area rather than using the solar time. It was established in the 19th century to enable weather forecasting and set railway timings. Some of the importance of following a standard time is:

• It helps in avoiding confusions of time differences that can happen between the extreme points in the same country.

• It helps in properly scheduling the railway and the airway timings.

• It helps in making defined schedules for meeting with the delegates from other foreign countries.

• It helps to coordinate activities and reduces the loss of time incurred n adjusting the time zones.

• It helps to improve communication across the same country.


Chapter 9, Economic Policy of India since 1991, fyjc, 11th std, Economics, Maharashtra board, 2021,

Complete the following statement by choosing the correct alternative :

1.After Independence, India had adopted________

  • Socialism
  • Capitalism
  • Mixed Economy
  • Communism

2.The new economic policy approved foreign technology in___________

  • Cottage industries
  • Small scale industries
  • Micro enterprises
  • High priority industries

3.At present, the number of industries reserved for the public sector has been reduced to_________

  • 3
  • 5
  • 7
  • 2

Assertion and Reasoning type question:

1.Assertion (A) Delicensing of industries was an important step taken under liberalization.

Reasoning (R) Unwanted controls and restrictions led to economic stagnation prior to 1991.

  • (A) is TRUE but (R) is FALSE
  • (A) is FALSE but (R) is TRUE
  •  (A) and (R) both are TRUE and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  •  (A) and (R) both are TRUE but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

2.Assertion (A): In 1990-91, India faced an acute shortage of foreign exchange reserves.

Reasoning (R): Import quotas and tariffs led to an increase in imports.

  • (A) is TRUE but (R) is FALSE
  • (A) is FALSE but (R) is TRUE
  •  (A) and (R) both are TRUE and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  •  (A) and (R) both are TRUE but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Assertion (A): Post liberalization, the sale of domestic goods has increased.

Reasoning (R): The demand for imported goods had increased due to liberal policy.

  • (A) is TRUE but (R) is FALSE
  • (A) is FALSE but (R) is TRUE
  • (A) and (R) both are TRUE and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  •  (A) and (R) both are TRUE but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Assertion (A): Due to Globalisation, a country cannot achieve self- sufficiency in food production.

Reasoning (R): Globalisation has created a revolution in IT sector.

  • (A) is TRUE but (R) is FALSE
  • (A) is FALSE but (R) is TRUE
  • (A) and (R) both are TRUE and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  •  (A) and (R) both are TRUE but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Find the odd word out:

1.New Economic Policy –

  • Liberalization
  • Privatization
  • Demonetization
  • Globalisation

2.Industries requiring compulsory licensing –

  • defence equipment
  • agro-based industries
  • cigarettes
  • industrial explosives

3.Navratna status companies –

  • SPCL
  • IOC
  • ONGC
  • HPCL

4.Liberalization dealt with the following –

  • MRTP
  • FERA
  • SEBI
  • NTPC

Identify and explain the concept from the given illustration:

1.Vehicles manufactured by various automobile companies are now available in India.

SOLUTION

A. Identified concept: Trade liberalisation.

B. Explanation of concept: Trade liberalisation is a practice in which import licensing controls are abolished and import of various goods is made easy.

2.Government equity in some public sector enterprises is sold to the private sector.

SOLUTION

A. Identified concept: Privatisation.

B. Explanation of concept: Privatisation means the transfer of ownership from the public sector to the private sector. In the above illustration, by selling government equity in some public sector enterprises to the private sector, the transfer of ownership is followed.

3.Foreign investments are encouraged on a large scale in the industrial sector of India.

SOLUTION

A. Identified concept: Liberalisation.

B. Explanation of concept: Liberalisation refers to economic freedom or freedom for economic decisions.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Give reasons:

1.Liberalisation has permitted the use of foreign technology.

Options
  • Agree
  • Disagree

SOLUTION

Yes, I agree with this statement.

Reasons:

  1. Liberalisation has allowed the use of foreign technology in high priority industries.
  2. The use of foreign technology reduces the cost of production.
  3. The use of foreign technology also makes the industries competitive. Thus, liberalisation has permitted the use of foreign technology.

2.Government has given private enterprises free access to public sector.

Options
  • Agree
  • Disagree

SOLUTION

Yes, I agree with this statement.

Reasons:

  1. By disinvestment, the government sells shares of sick public sector units to the private sector. For example, disinvestment of Maruti, VSNL, etc.
  2. By dereservation policy, private enterprises have given free access to the public sector except for railway transport and atomic energy.
  3. During 1997-98, nine public sector units were selected and were given the status of Navratnasa and were given Financial and managerial autonomy, for example, Oil and Natural Gas Limited (ONGC), Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL). Thus, the government has given private enterprises free access to the public sector.

3.Government has monopoly in insurance sector.

Options
  • Agree
  • Disagree

SOLUTION

No, I disagree with this statement.

Reasons:

  1. The new economic policy passed Insurance, Regulatory, and Development Authority Act (IRDA) in 1999 With the aim of introducing reforms in the insurance sector.
  2. The IRDA has given licence to many private companies to start an insurance business.
  3. IRDA has ended the monopoly of government in the insurance sector. Thus, the government has no monopoly in insurance

4.The creation of the National Renewal Board was done to remove poverty.

Options
  • Agree
  • Disagree

SOLUTION

Yes, I agree with this statement.

Reasons:

  1. Due to the closing down of loss-making public sector units, the workers have to face a problem of unemployment and poverty.
  2. National Renewal Board (NRB) was established to solve the problem of these unemployed workers.
  3. NRB takes the responsibility for providing compensation to the retrenched workers or the workers taking voluntary retirement. Thus, the creation of the National Renewal Board was done to remove poverty.

5.Indian Oil Corporation is one of the public sector units among ‘Navratnas’.

Options
  • Agree
  • Disagree

SOLUTION

Yes, I agree with this statement.

Reasons:

  1. During 1997-98, nine public sector units were selected and given the status of Navratnas on the basis of their performance.
  2. These nine Navratnas were given full financial and managerial autonomy.
  3. Indian oil corporation is one of these nine Navratnas. Thus, Indian Oil Corporation is one of the public sector units among Navratnas.

Answer in detail:

1.Explain the features of economic policy of 1991.

SOLUTION

The following are the features of economic policy in 1991.

  1. Delicensing: Delicensing means abolition 0f government licence required to carry on any business or industrial activity. In India, all industries except 18 specified industries of strategic importance required licence. As per the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Government of India, only the following four industries require compulsory licensing:
    a. Electronic aerospace and defence equipment,
    b. Industrial explosives,
    c. Hazardous chemicals, drugs, and pharmaceuticals,
    d. Cigarettes
  2. Abolition of Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices (MRTP) Act: According to MRTP Act, it was made compulsory for large industrial units. take the approval of the Central government for their establishment, expansion, merger, etc. This resulted in slow industrial growth. After 1991, the abolition of the MRTP Act has encouraged industrial growth in India.
  3. Encouragement to the small sector: The government also encouraged small sector units to attain a higher growth rate in output, employment, and export sector. The small sector unit investment limit was increased from 1 crore to 5 crores.
  4. Encouraging foreign investment: New economic policy of 1991 allowed Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) with the aim to encourage investment in high priority industries requiring high investment and technology. Initially, FDI was permitted up to 51% of total investment in selected industries. Later, this limit was raised to 74% and then 100% for specific industries.
  5. Reducing the role of the public sector: Under the new economic policy of 1991, many changes were made in the public sector policy to fulfill following objectives:
    a. Ending state monopoly
    b. Improving the efficiency of public sector
    c. Releasing capital blocked in sick public sector enterprises.
    To encourage the private sector, NEP reduced the number of industries in the public sector from 17 to 8. From 2014, there are only two industries reserved for public sector viz. railways and atomic energy.
  6. Trade liberalisation: Under the new economic policy of 1991, the import licensing controls have been abolished. Almost all capital goods, raw materials, intermediate goods, and other components were made freely importable. In India, established exporters are allowed to raise external credit to finance their business and trade. Special Economic Zones (SEZ) are set up to promote exports. The Government has also introduced Agro Export Zones (AEZ) to encourage agricultural exports.
  7. Reforms in the insurance sector: Before the new economic policy of 1991, the insurance sector was a monopoly of the government. The new policy passed the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act (IRDA) in 1999 to bring reforms in this sector. The IRDA has given licence to many private companies to run an insurance business. This has resulted at the end of the monopoly of Government in this sector.
  8. Reforms in the financial sector: Before the new economic policy of 1991, only cooperative banks and public sector banks were permitted to the banking business in the financial sector. The new economic policy has also permitted the entry of new private banks as well as foreign banks.

2.Explain the measures undertaken for Globalisation.

SOLUTION

  1. Removal of quantitative restrictions: To promote globalisation, all the quantitative restrictions have removed on imports and exports. Further traffic rates have been brought down considerably. Similarly, the imports duty on industrial goods has been reduced.
  2. Encouragement to foreign capital: Government has opened the economy to foreign investments. As a result, foreign capital is attracted to various sectors in India. As its effect, the Indian economy has become a part of the global economy.
  3. Convertibility of rupees: To promote globalisation, the exchange rate of rupees has been made flexible. The rupee is made fully convertible to all current account transactions.
  4. Foreign collaboration: Indian companies are allowed to enter into important foreign collaboration, For example, Maruti-Suzuki, Hero Honda, Tata-Corus deal of iron and steel in South Africa.
  5. Long term trade policy: To ensure a longer duration in foreign trade, changes were made in the foreign trade policy.
    The main features of this policy included:
    a. Liberalised policy.
    b. Removal of restrictions on foreign trade.
    c. Encouragement to Foreign Collaboration.
  6. Encouragement to Exports: Through EXIM policy, various incentives are given to exporters. Special Economic Zones, Agro-Export Zones (AEZ) are created to encourage exports

Read the following passage and answer the questions given below:

Indian ice-cream industry is one of the fastest-growing segments of the dairy and food processing sector. India has a low per capita consumption of ice-cream of 400 ml whereas in the USA it is 22,000 ml and in China, it is 3000 ml.

    The per capita consumption of ice-cream is low in India because it is a country filled with traditional sweets of more than 100 varieties. In developed countries, people have either pastries or ice-creams for dessert. In the era of Globalisation, the mindset of the people is fast changing. This is because multi-national companies have set up a number of ice-cream parlours, with a lot more varieties and flavours that attract the younger lot. Besides this, there are better delivery systems.

     The ice-cream sector has great potential for growth in the country due to improvement in the cold chain infrastructure, increasing disposable income, and changing lifestyle of the people. However, it is taxed higher with 18 percent GST while other dairy products in the same basket such as butter and cheese are taxed at 12 percent.

The ice-cream industry has generated revenue of more than $1.5 billion in 2016-17. With an employment of 15 lakh people directly or indirectly, it is also considered one of the largest employers of the dairy and food processing industry.

1) Identify the reason for the low per capita consumption of ice-cream in India.

2) Explain the impact of Globalisation on the Indian ice-cream industry.

SOLUTION

  1. The reason for low per capital consumption of ice-cream in India is availability of traditional sweets of more than 100 varieties.
  2. 18 per cent GST on ice-cream discourages entrepreneur to invest in ice-cream industry. To boost the ice-cream industry, like other diary products viz. butter, cheese, etc. ice-cream too Should be taxed at 12 per cent GST.

Chapter 8, Poverty in India, fyjc, 11th std, Economics, Maharashtra board, 2021,

Assertion and reasoning question :

1.Assertion (A): Poverty level declines with a rise in agricultural output.

Reasoning (R): Agricultural incomes have declined due to wide fluctuations in climatic conditions.

  • (A) is True, but (R) is False.
  • (A) is False, but (R) is True
  • Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  • Both (A) and (R) are True, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

2.Assertion (A): Urban poverty is attributed mainly to spillover effects of migration among the rural poor.

Reasoning (R): Poor rural infrastructure, lack of alternative jobs results in forced migration.

  • (A) is true, but (R) is False.
  • (A) is false, but (R) is True.
  • Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  • Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

3.Assertion (A): Relative poverty is found in all the countries of the world.

Reasoning (R): Differences in the levels of income are the only criteria for judging relative poverty.

  • (A) is true, but (R) is False
  • (A) is false, but (R) is True
  • Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  • Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

4.Assertion (A): Poverty is not just a lack of money but also a lack of capabilities.

Reasoning (R): Lack of freedom to satisfy hunger, lack of health care facilities, denial of political freedom leads to poverty.

  • (A) is True, but (R) is False
  • (A) is false, but (R) is True
  • Both (A) and (R) are True and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  • Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

5.Assertion (A): Food security, credit facilities guarantee social protection to the poor.

Reasoning (R): Leakages in the administrative system perpetuates poverty.

  • (A) is true, but (R) is False
  • (A) is false, but (R) is True
  • Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  • Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Find the odd word out :

1.Colours of Ration card – 

  • White
  • Green
  • Saffron
  • Yellow

2.High Poverty ratio –

  • Chhatisgarh
  • Jharkhand
  • Bihar
  • Kerala

3.Calories –

  • 2400
  • 1800
  • 2100
  • 2250.

Give economic term:

1.Denial of opportunities to certain section 1 of the people in society.

SOLUTION

Denial of opportunities to certain section 1 of the people in society.- Poverty

2.The concept of poverty covers material and non-material dimensions.

SOLUTION

The concept of poverty covers material and non-material dimensions.- Multi-dimensional.

3.Poverty judged on the basis of relative standards of living of the people.

SOLUTION

Poverty judged on the basis of relative standards of living of the people. – Relative poverty.

4.Poverty that can be completely eradicated.

SOLUTION

Poverty that can be completely eradicated.- Absolute poverty.

5.Threshold expenditure needed to satisfy basic human needs at socially acceptable levels.

SOLUTION

Threshold expenditure needed to satisfy basic human needs at socially acceptable levels.– poverty line.

Identify and explain the concept from the given illustration:

1.Baban’s daughter had to be hospitalized due to weakness caused by undernourishment or lack of minimum calorie requirement in the intake of food.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Absolute poverty.
  2. Explanation of concept: Absolute poverty can be defined as the absence of minimum income to satisfy the desired level of the calorie intake of food.

2.Dhanajirao is a wealthy landlord, but his annual income is relatively less in comparison to entrepreneur Raobahadur.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Relative poverty.
  2. Explantation of concept: Relative poverty arises due to the difference in the standard of living due to inequality in income.

3.Urmi’s family lives in a situation whereby they are not able to fulfill even the basic needs of life such as food, clothing and shelter.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Poverty
  2. Explanation of concept: Poverty refers to a situation in Which a person is unable to fulfil even the basic needs of life such as food, clothing and shelter due to lack of sufficient income.

4.Sanjay’s family receives food grains on the basis of the yellow ration card through the public distribution system.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Food security through tricolour Family Ration Card
  2. Explanation of concept: To ensure food security, the government of Maharashtra has introduced Tri colour Family Ration Card. Yellow Colour ration cards are issued only to families who fall under below poverty line (BPL) category.

5.In certain parts of the State, starvation-related deaths have been observed whereas in certain areas gross wastage of food has been reported.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Economic inequality.
  2. Explanation of concept: Economic inequality is inequality in consumption expenditure. assets, agricultural land holdings, etc. arising due to inequality in income.

State with reasons whether you agree or disagree with the following statement:

1.Population control is the only measure to eradicate poverty.

Options
  • Agree
  • Disagree

SOLUTION

No. I do not agree with this statement.

  1. Population control is one of the measures to eradicate poverty.
  2. Rural industrialization, minimum wages, progressive tax system, nationalization of banks, etc. are some of the other measures to eradicate poverty.
  3. Poverty is also being eradicated as one of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Thus, population control is one of the measures to eradicate poverty.

2.Relative poverty is universal by nature.

Options
  • Agree
  • Disagree

SOLUTION

Yes, I agree with this statement.

  1. Relative poverty is measured with respect to differences in the levels of income, wealth, consumption, etc.
  2. Low-income group people become poor When compared to high-income group people.
  3. The difference in income groups, wealth, etc. is found in all countries of the world. Therefore, relative poverty is seen in underdeveloped countries, developing countries as well as developed counties. Thus, relative poverty is universal by nature.

3.Regional imbalance is the only cause of poverty.

Options
  • Agree
  • Disagree

SOLUTION

No, I do not agree with this statement.

  1. The regional imbalance is one of the causes of poverty.
  2. Poverty is also caused due to population explosion, economic inequalities, inflation, unemployment, etc.
  3. Poverty is also caused due to poverty itself. This is known as a vicious circle of poverty. Thus, the regional imbalance is one of the causes of poverty.

Answer in detail:

1.Assess various measures undertaken to eradicate poverty.

SOLUTION

Various measures undertaken to eradicate poverty are as follows:

  1. Control of population: Government of India has introduced the Family Welfare Programme and population policies to keep a check over the population growth. This, in turn, helps in controlling poverty.
  2. Agriculture: Government provides financial assistance to farmers to purchase agricultural inputs. The Government also announces Minimum Support Prices for selected crops to ensure stable agricultural income to farmers.
  3. Rural works: Through various schemes. the employment opportunities are providing to the poor through the construction of rural roads, irrigation projects. rural electrification, etc.
  4. Rural industrialization: To promote employment in rural areas. the government encourages setting up of small scale and cottage industries.
  5. Minimum Wages: Minimum Wages Act was passed in 1948 to provide fair wages to agricultural and industrial workers. It has been revised from time to time. This has helped in the reduction of poverty.
  6. Public Distribution System: The government has also taken efforts to ensure food security to the poor. Food gain is made available to the poor people at highly subsidized rates through ration shops under the Public Distribution System.
  7. Nationalization of banks: To ensure financial aid. credit facilities are made available to the poor people at low rates of interest. For this purpose, nationalization of banks was undertaken by the government of India in 1969 and 1980.
  8. Progressive tax measures: To reduce Inequalities in the distribution of income. the progressive income tax system has been introduced in India.
  9. Education: Government has taken many efforts to spread education in c0untry. To increase the enrolment ratio. primary education has been made free and compulsory for all. I have an education for girls mid-day meal programmes. sanitation and safe drinking water. etc. have also been provided.
  10. Affordable housing: Government has also started slum rehabilitation programmes. Affordable housing facilities are provided to the rural and urban poor.
  11. Health facilities: Government has established primary health centres. government hospitals to provide medical treatment at subsidized rates to the poor people, especially in rural areas.
  12. Skill development and self-employment: For the removal of poverty in India, skill development is considered one of the important aspects of job creation. For this purpose. government has started providing opportunities for skill-based training This will inspire people towards entrepreneurship or self-employment. This, in turn, will help to eradicate poverty.

Chapter 7, Unemployment in India, fyjc, 11th std, Economics, Maharashtra board, 2021,

Find the odd word out:

  1.Urban unemployment 

  • Educated unemployment
  • Industrial unemployment
  • Disguised unemployment
  • Technological unemployment

Find the odd word out:

States with high rates of unemployment –

  • Goa
  • Punjab
  • Maharashtra
  • Tripura

Find the odd word out:

  • Employment Guarantee Scheme 1972
  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojana 1989
  • Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana 1999 
  • Development of Tourism.

Identify and explain the concept from the given illustration:

1.Hussain Shaikh employed seven workers less than the usual number of workers on his farm, in spite of this, output remained the same.

SOLUTION

1.Identified concept: Disguised unemployment.

2.Explanation of concept: Disguised unemployment is a type of rural unemployment in Which surplus manpower has zero marginal productivity.

2.Use of new technology in the printing industry has led to unemployment among several workers.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Technological unemployment.
  2. Explanation of concept: Technological unemployment is a type of industrial (urban) unemployment that arises due to the use of modern capital intensive technology.

3.Satish has completed his post-graduation and is desperately expecting a job.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Educated unemployment.
  2. Explanation of concept: Educated unemployment is a type of urban unemployment in Which educated people are willing to work but do not get jobs.

4.In certain agricultural areas of Maharashtra, only Kharif crops are grown, therefore employment is available till the month of October.

SOLUTION

  1. Identified concept: Seasonal unemployment.
  2. Explanation of concept: Seasonal unemployment is a type of rural unemployment in which a large number of people are employed in the season but remain unemployed in the offseason.

Complete the correlation:

1.Seasonal unemployment.: Tourist guides;______________ : Graduates

SOLUTION

Seasonal unemployment: Tourist guides; Educated unemployment: Graduates.

2.___________ : Disguised unemployment; Urban unemployment : Industrial unemployment.

SOLUTION

Rural unemployment: Disguised unemployment; Urban unemployment: Industrial unemployment.

3.Frictional unemployment: Shortage of raw materials ;____________ : Fluctuations in business activity.

SOLUTION

Frictional unemployment: Shortage of raw materials; cyclical unemployment: Fluctuations in business activity.

4.MGNREGS: guaranteed wage employment; TRYSEM :_____________

SOLUTION

MGNREGS: guaranteed wage employment; TRYSEM: Enabling to become self-employed.

5.____________: Waste of resources. Social effect: loss of human dignity.

SOLUTION

Economic effect: Waste of resources. Social effect: loss of human dignity.

Observe the following chart and answer the following question.

1) Production does not increase if an additional worker is employed and production does not decrease if a worker is reduced from the work. Mention the type of unemployment.

2) A worker is thrown out of a job because of computerization. Name this type of unemployment?

3) Sharad was forced to return back to India from the USA due to depression in the IT sector.

4) In spite of being a graduate, Vasant is sitting idle at home.

5) Give examples of structural unemployment.

SOLUTION

1. Disguised unemployment.

2. Technology unemployment.

3. cyclical unemployment.

4. Educate unemployment.

5. The introduction of computers has caused unemployment among manual typists.

Find out Q1 and Q3 using unemployment rates as numerical data:

YearUnemployment Rate %
20093.75
20103.54
20113.53
20123.62
20133.46
20143.41
20153.49
20163.51
20173.52

SOLUTION

YearUnemployment Rate %
20143.41
20133.46
20153.49
20163.51
20173.52
20113.53
20103.54
20123.62
20093.75
N = 09

BALANCE NI COPY PANNU

Answer the following in detail:

1.Explain the types of Industrial unemployment in India.

SOLUTION

The types of unemployment in India are as follows:

A. Technological Unemployment:

  1. Technological unemployment arises because of changes in technology.
  2. Modern technology is capital-intensive and requires less laborers.
  3. When new techniques are introduced in the industrial sector, existing workers become unemployed due to lack of proper training, for example, computerization, the introduction of robotic technology, etc. led to technological unemployment

B. Frictional Unemployment:

  1. Frictional unemployment is caused due to the breakdown of machinery, power failure, shortage of raw materials, strikes by workers, etc.
  2. Frictional unemployment is temporary by nature.

C. Cyclical Unemployment:

  1. Cyclical unemployment is the result of cyclical fluctuations in business activity.
  2. Every economy passes through phases of prosperity and depression.
  3. During the period of depression, effective demand falls. This further leads to a fall in the prices and profits earned by the producers. As a result, investment and production of commodities fall.
  4. A fall in production leads to a fall in employment. As a result, workers lose jobs during the period of depression.

D. Structural Unemployment:

  1. Drastic changes in the economic structure of a country lead to structural unemployment. These changes may affect either the supply of or demand for a factor of production.
  2. Structural changes in the economy are caused by changes in government policies, shortage of capital, shifting of the industry from one region to another, etc.
  3. Structural unemployment is a long-term phenomenon. It takes place because of a mismatch between the skills of workers and the jobs that are actually available. ‘
  4. For example, the introduction of computerized typing has caused unemployment among manual typists.

2.Explain the causes of unemployment in India.

SOLUTION

The following are the causes of unemployment in India:

  1. Jobless growth: In India, since independence, the rate of growth of employment has been considerably less than the rate of economic growth. Moreover, the rate of economic growth has not been adequate enough to absorb the increasing labour force in India. As a result, there is widespread unemployment.
  2. Increase in the labour force: In India, the death rate has rapidly declined without a corresponding fall in the birth rate. As its effect, the population of India is increasing day-by-day. This has resulted in an equally large expansion in the labour force leading to unemployment.
  3. Excessive use of machinery: In India, manpower is available in large quantities. Under these circumstances, the country would have a labour intensive technique of production. However, in India, not only in’ industries but also in agriculture, the capital-intensive technique of production is being used. This policy results in large scale unemployment.
  4. Lack of skill development programmes: In India, vocational skill development courses Which are compatible with the Indian industry are comparatively less in number. So, there is a dearth of skilled manpower needed by the industry.
  5. Expectations towards employment: Educated youth in India aspire for a white-collar job. There is a lack of innovative and entrepreneurial spirit to organize economic activities Where they can be self-employed. In India, most of the graduates prefer to remain unemployed till they get a job which is up to their expectations in terms of salary and nature of work.
  6. Seasonal nature of agriculture: Agriculture in India is seasonal by nature. It depends on monsoon. Lack of irrigation facilities, poor soil fertility, outdated production techniques, non-availability of certified seeds and fertilizers are the factors that reduce the capacity of agriculture for other gainful employment throughout the year. The labourers are employed only for a few months in a year. For the rest of the year, the labour force remains jobless.
  7. The slow rate of economic development: The overall economic development of India is very slow. Inadequate irrigation facilities, fertilizers. unsatisfactory growth of infrastructure is all due to inadequate industrial expansion. As a result. employment Opportunities have not increased enough in the rural sector to absorb the growing labour force.
  8. Migration of rural population: There has been a continuous migration of people from rural to urban areas in search of jobs. This has increased the problem of unemployment in urban areas.

.

3.Explain the measures taken by the government to reduce unemployment.

SOLUTION

The measures taken by the government to reduce unemployment are as follows:

  1. Employment Guarantee Scheme (EGS): Employment Guarantee Scheme was first introduced by the Government of Maharashtra on 28th March 1972. This scheme was intended to provide productive employment to the rural population and thereby solve the problem of rural unemployment and poverty. Under this scheme, the government assures to provide minimum employment opportunities. Due to its success in Maharashtra, EGS was implemented in other states as well.
  2. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY): This scheme was launched in April 1999 after restructuring the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) and allied schemes. It is the only self-employment scheme for the rural poor in India.
  3. Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY): This scheme was launched in December 1997. It provides employment to the urban unemployed and underemployed. It included self-employment, women self-employment program, skill training for employment promotion, and urban wage employment Programme. For this scheme, the Central Government shares 75% of the cost and the State Government shares 25% of the cost.
  4. Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Yojana (PMRY): this scheme is being implemented since 1993.it aims at creating and providing sustainable self-employment opportunities to more than one million educated unemployed youth.
  5. Training Rural Youth for Self-employment (TRYSEM): It was initiated in 1979 with the objective of tackling the unemployment problem among the rural youth. It aimed at training about 2 lakh rural youth every year to enable them to become self-employed. TRYSEM was merged into Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana in April 1999.
  6. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY): On 1st April 1989, the Government announced a new wage employment scheme, the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana for intensive employment creation in 120 backward districts. It was restricted to rural areas. With effect from April 1999, it was renamed as Jawahar Gram Samrudhi Yojana (JGSY).
  7. Mahatma Gandhi a National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS): Since 2nd October 2009, National Rural 31 Employment Guarantee Scheme has been renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This scheme provides at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to at least one member of every rural household whose adult member volunteers to do unskilled manual work.
  8. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kausalya Yojana 2014: it is the most important placement linked skill training program under the ministry of rural development announced on September 23, 2014. The aim of this scheme is to reduce poverty as well as provide gainful and sustainable employment through regular wages. The focus of this program is on the rural youth from families, in the age group of 15-35 years.
  9. National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015: The first National policy on skill development was notified in 2009 to promote private sector participation Via innovative funding models.
    The objective of this scheme is to co-ordinate and strengthen factors essential for the growth of entrepreneurship across the country. This would include:
    1. Promote entrepreneurship culture.
    2. Encourage entrepreneurship as a viable career
    option through advocacy.
    3. Promote entrepreneurship among women.
  10. Start-up India Initiative: It was introduced in January 2016 with an aspiration to impart more strength and inspiration to the talented young generation of India to do something new for India and humanity.
  11. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (2016-20): The objective of this scheme is to encourage skill development among youth by providing monetary rewards for successful completion of approved training programs. The government has allocated a budget of 12,000 crores till 2020 for the implementation of the scheme.

Chapter 4, The Economy of Maharashtra, fyjc, 11th std, Economics, Maharashtra board, 2021,

Give economic term:

1.Investments have done by foreign companies in our country.

SOLUTION

Investments have done by foreign companies in our country – Foreign Direct Investment (FBI)

2.Programme for development of the small, medium and micro industries.

SOLUTION

Programme for development of the small, medium and micro industries – Maharashtra State Industrial Cluster Development Programme (MSICDP).

3.A basic requirement for facilitating the production and distribution of goods and services for economic development.

SOLUTION

A basic requirement for facilitating the production and distribution of goods and services for economic development –  economic infrastructure.

4.A movement that promotes values of self-help democracy and equality.

SOLUTION

A movement that promotes values of self-help democracy and equality – Co-operative movement.

1.Find the odd word out:

  • Agricultural indebtedness
  • Dry farming
  • Lack of capital
  • Engineering

2.Find the odd word out:

  • Tourism
  • Banking
  • Automobile production
  • Insurance

3.Find the odd word out:

  • Pune
  • Hyderabad
  • Nashik
  • Nagpur

4.Find the odd word out:

  • MTDC
  • MAITRI
  • SEZ
  • MIDC

5.Find the odd word out:

  • Primary education
  • Hospitality
  • Higher education
  • Skill-based education.

Identify and explain the concept from the given illustration:

1.To facilitate research in robotic technology, Japan has invested Rs. 1000 crores in India.

SOLUTION

A. Identified concept: Foreign Direct Investment.

B. Explanation of concept: Foreign Direct Investment (FBI) is an investment from/ by individual or firm in one country (home country) into a business in another country (host country).

Identify and explain the concept from the given illustration:

2.Prajakta and her family visited the beaches during her eight-day Diwali vacation.

SOLUTION

A. Identified concept: Tourism.

B. Explanation of concept: Tourism comprises the activities of people travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for pleasure or business.

3.Pravin from Latur works as a technician in the flims division at Mumbai City.

SOLUTION

A. Identified concept: Entertainment industry.

B. Explanation of concept: Entertainment industry is a part of the tertiary sector of economy Which includes a large number of sub-industries such as television, print media, films, etc. Many employment opportunities are available in the entertainment industry.

4.Rani Gond from Chandrapur works as a hostess with the Mumbai-Goa cruise ship.

SOLUTION

A. Identified concept: Hospitality.

B. Explanation of concept: The hospitality industry is a broad category of fields within the service sector of the economy that includes sub1ndustries/fields such as airlines. cruise ship. hotels, restaurants, event management, etc. The hospitality industry mainly focuses on customers’ satisfaction.

Distinguish between :

1.Economic Infrastructure and Social infrastructure.

SOLUTION

Economic InfrastructureSocial Infrastructure
1) Nature: Economic infrastructure is a subset of infrastructurethat facilitates production and distribution of goods and servicesSocial infrastructure is a subset of infrastructure that facilitates the quality of life of a community.
2) Example: Energy, transport, communication, etc. are examples of economic infrastructure.Education, health services, recreational services, etc. are examples of social infrastructure.

2.Agriculture sector and Service sector.

SOLUTION

Agriculture SectorService Sector
1) Nature: Agriculture sector consists of all those activities that facilitate the production of crops.The service sector consists of all those activities that facilitate the well-being of people through services.
2) Example: Farming, fishing, etc. activities are included in the primary sector.Transport, communication, tourism, etc. services i are included in the service sector.

3.Tourism and Hospitality.

SOLUTION

TourismHospitality
1) Meaning: Tourism comprises the activities of people traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for pleasure or business.Hospitality comprises the services offered by the host to the guest With the aim of friendly reception and quality entertainment of guests.
2) Concept: Tourism is a narrower concept.Hospitality is a broader concept.

                             

4.Education and Health Services.

SOLUTION

Education ServicesHealth Services
1) Meanings: Education Services Me Education services comprise establishments such as schools, colleges, universities, etc. that provide instructions and training to the students.Health services comprise establishments such as primary health centers, hospitals, medical colleges, etc. that provide medical facilities, hygiene, nutrition, safe drinking water, etc. to the community.
2) Scope: The scope of education services is comparatively narrower.The scope of health services is comparatively bordered.

Answer the following:

1.Explain the role of the co-operative movement in Maharashtra?

SOLUTION

  1. The co-operative movement is the greatest contribution given by the state of Maharashtra to the country.
  2. The co-operative movement is an effective instrument in the economic development of rural areas and improving the socio-economic conditions of people living in rural areas of Maharashtra.
  3. Co-operative societies encourage the values of self-help, democracy, equality and solidarity among the members.
  4. Initially, the co-operative movement in Maharashtra was confined mainly to the field of agricultural credit but subsequently, it extended to other sectors such as agro-processing, agro marketing, sugar co-operatives, fisheries cooperative societies, co-operative dairy societies, textiles, housing societies, consumer stores, etc.

2.Explain in detail, measures taken by the government for agricultural development of Maharashtra?

SOLUTION

The following are the measures taken by the government for agricultural development of Maharashtra

  1. The government has opened centers to distribute good quality seeds at reasonable rates to the farmers.
  2. The government has increased the number of outlets for fertilizer and pesticide distribution.
  3. The government has paid attention to the development of irrigation facilities.
  4. Through various schemes, the government has encouraged the Electrification of agricultural pumps and the provision of ‘electricity on demand’.
  5. The government has started providing Financial assistance as per the requirements of farmers.
  6. The government has set up Agriculture Produce Marketing Committees (APMC), established agro-export zones, horticultural training centers. grading and packing facilities for the effective distribution of agricultural produce.
  7. The government has taken tremendous efforts in creating awareness about agricultural information. The government has used mass media for making agriculture a profit-making business.

3.Explain the major problems in the industrial sector of Maharashtra?

SOLUTION

The following are the major problems in the industrial sector of Maharashtra:

  1. Delays in government procedures create problems at the starting of industrial units.
  2. Opportunities for skill development are limited.
  3. Many industries in Maharashtra use traditional technologies for manufacturing goods.
  4. Lack of infrastructural facilities adversely affects the movement of raw material and finished goods.
  5. Due to adverse conditions, new entrepreneurs are less motivated to run industrial units.
  6. The regional imbalance is found In industrial growth. Industries are located mainly in few cities of Maharashtra.

4.Explain the measures taken to develop social infrastructure in Maharashtra.

SOLUTION

Measures were undertaken to develop SOCIGI Infrastructure :

Education: Education is considered as one of the basic human needs. It forms the backbone of the socio-economic development of any country. Education is a significant aspect of human resource development (HRD). In the present scenario, India is getting the advantage of the highest demographic dividend due to the maximum percentage of the young population in the country. Education, therefore, becomes ‘a priority’ at the national as well as state level. The state of Maharashtra has implemented various educational schemes to achieve the goal of education. There are four levels of education in our country.

1) Primary

2) Secondary

3) Higher Secondary

4) Higher education

  1. Primary education: The state of Maharashtra has implemented the Right to Education (RTE) of children in the age group 6-14 years to provide free and compulsory education under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). The expenditure of the State government on primary education was 119,486 crores during 2016-17.
    Primary (Std. I to VIII) Educational Institutions and Enrolment
YearNumber of SchoolsTotal Enrolment (in lakhs)No. of Teachers (in lakhs)Pupil-Teacher Ratio
2016-171,04,971159.865.3030.1

Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2017-18

  1. Secondary and Higher Secondary Education: Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) was launched in 2009 with the objective to improve the access as well as the quality of secondary education. During 2016-17, the State government’s expenditure on secondary and higher secondary education was Rs.16,089 crores.
  2. Higher education: Apart from the universalization of primary education, the Government of Maharashtra is taking efforts to Expand opportunities in higher education also. Higher education helps in creating technical and skilled human resources which is an important input necessary for overall economic development. There are 22 state universities, out of which 4 universities are for agriculture, one university for health science courses, one university for veterinary science, one for technology and 15 other universities for general courses. In addition to these, there are 21 autonomous universities, one central university, 4 private universities and 5 institutes of national importance in the state. To meet the challenges of liberalization, privatization and globalization, the state enacted the new Maharashtra Public Universities Act, 2016. The key focus of this Act is to promote academic autonomy and excellence, skill-based education through the democratic process in higher education.
    Maharashtra is also the first state in the country to receive a RUSA grant of Rs. 20 crores under Research and Innovation and Quality Improvement for setting up innovation and technology transfer hubs. Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) is a centrally sponsored scheme launched by the Government of India in 2013.
  3. Health Services:
    There were 1814 primary health centres and 360 community health centres in the state as on 31 st March 2017. Government of Maharashtra also emphasizes on programmes to strengthen the health system in rural and urban areas through the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and the National Urban Health Mission (NUHM). These programmes include health determinants like sanitation and hygiene, nutrition and safe drinking water. The Government of Maharashtra.

1.Read the following passage and answer the questions given below :

Government of India has launched an ambitious programme of ‘Bharatnet’ for rural India by keeping in mind today’s modern era. More than one lakh rural (Grampanchayat) areas have been connected under Bharatnet high-speed broadbrand scheme. Maharashtra has become the best-performing state. East Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Rajasthan and Jharkhand have also been placed among the best performing states in the first phase of Bharatnet broadband connection scheme.

1) Why did the Government of India launch the Bharatnet project?

2) How many Gram panchayats have received the Internet service?

3) Which states have been placed as the best performing states in the first phase of Bharatnet?

4) ‘Internet has brought the world closer’ – Express your views on it.

SOLUTION

1) The government of India launched the Bharatnet project to provide internet facilities to rural regions of India.

2) More than one lakh Gram panchayats have received the internet service.

3) Maharashtra as well as Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Rajasthan and Jharkhand have been placed as the best performing states in the first phase of Bharatnet.

4) The Internet has played an important role in the exchange of information between people all over the world. It has helped in the development of business, the exchange of thoughts, sharing culture, etc. Thus, internet has brought the world closer.

Chapter 3, Partition Values, fyjc, 11th std, Maharashtra, board, 2021,

Give the correct option:

1.Statements that do not apply to Quartiles.

  1. First, arrange the values in ascending or descending order.
  2. Observation can be divided into 4 parts.
  3. They are represented as Q1, Q2 and Q3.
  4. Q2 is also known as a median.
  1. b and c
  2. a, b and c 
  3. None of these

2.D7 From the given data.

Data – 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12

  1. 7
  2. 9
  3. 10
  4. 12

3.Statements related to partition values that are correct.

  1. Exact divisions of percentiles into 100 parts gives 99 points
  2. Deciles have total 9 parts
  3. Quartiles are shown by Q1, Q2  and Q3
  4. symbolically, percentiles and Deciles are shown by P and D
  1. a and c
  2. a and b
  3.  a, b and c
  4. a ,c and d

Choose the correct pair:


  EX – 2   


Give economic term:

1.Procedure for dividing the data into equal parts

SOLUTION

Partitioning.


2.value that divides the Series into ten equal parts.

SOLUTION

Deciles.


3.Value that divides the whole set of observations into four equal parts.

SOLUTION

Quartiles.


Solve the following 

EX – 4 


State with reasons whether you agree or disagree with the following statement:

1.Partition values have application only in theory but not in practice.

  1. Agree
  2. Disagree

2.Average can misinterpret the representative value.

  1. Agree
  2. Disagree

3.Median is also known as the second quartile.

  1. Agree
  2. Disagree

Answer the following questions on the basis of the given data :

Marks1020304050
No. of Students471386

1) Write the formula of Q1 and Q3.

2) Find out the median of the above data?

3) Find out the cumulative frequency of the last value in the above data.

4) Find out the value of ‘n’ in the above data

SOLUTION

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