2020 | Aster Classes

10th Tamil Medium BooksDownload Link
தமிழ்Download
ஆங்கிலம்Edition 2020 – Available Soon
(Edition 2019 – Download)
கணிதம்Download
அறிவியல்Download
சமூக அறிவியல்Download

TN SSLC English Medium New Books Edition 2020 Free Download pdf

10th English Medium BooksDownload Link
TamilDownload
EnglishEdition 2020 – Available Soon
(Edition 2019 – Download)
MathematicsDownload
ScienceDownload
Social ScienceDownload

The Minister for School Education, Sports & Youth Welfare Thiru K.A. Sengottaiyan had taken the initiative to change the syllabus of the TN Samacheer kalvi 10th textbooks that gives the important for practical oriented learning. These 10th std new books will help the students to learn well and participate in the entrance exams with high confidence.


8th New Samacheer Book Term 1 2020

Below we give download links of 8th std New Syllabus based books ie., New Tamil, New English, Maths, Science, and Social Science Books. We uploaded New books for Tamil Medium and as well as English Medium Students.

Keep in your mind the 8th Tamil book Samacheer Kalvi pdf is most important for upcoming TNPSC Exams.

எட்டாம் வகுப்பு முதல் பருவம் புதிய புத்தகம் 2020

S.NoSubject NameTamil MediumEnglish Medium
1Tamil (1st to 3rd Term)DownloadDownload
2Tamil Book SolutionDownloadDownload
3EnglishDownloadDownload
4MathsDownloadDownload
5ScienceDownloadDownload
6Social ScienceDownloadDownload

8th Std

Tamil Guide – Download


8th New Samacheer Book Term 2 2020

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1TamilDownloadDownload
2EnglishDownloadDownload
3MathsDownloadDownload
4ScienceDownloadDownload
5Social ScienceDownloadDownload

8th New Samacheer Book Term 3 2020

S.NoSubject NameTamil MediumEnglish Medium
1TamilDownloadDownload
Tamil Book Answers Download
2EnglishDownloadDownload
3MathsDownloadDownload
4ScienceDownloadDownload
5Social ScienceDownloadDownload

8th Std Tamil book Answers

1st Term2nd Term3rd Term

TN 7th Std New Samacheer Books

7th New Samacheer Book Term I 2020

Below we give download links of 7th std New Tamil, English, Maths, Science, and Social Science Books. We uploaded New books for both Tamil and English Medium Students.

7th Tamil book Samacheer Kalvi pdf is most important for TNPSC, TET, Police Exam Aspirants.

S.NoSubject NameTamilMediumEnglishMedium
1TamilDownloadDownload
2EnglishDownloadDownload
3MathsDownloadDownload
4ScienceDownloadDownload
5Social ScienceDownloadDownload
6தமிழ் – ஒருவரி வினாக்கள் – Download

7th New Samacheer Book Term II 2020

Below you can find the 7th 2nd Term New books.

S.NoSubject NameTamilMediumEnglishMedium
1TamilDownloadDownload
2EnglishDownloadDownload
3MathsDownloadDownload
4ScienceDownloadDownload
5Social ScienceDownloadDownload

7th New Samacheer Book Term III

S.NoSubject NameTamilMediumEnglishMedium
1TamilDownloadDownload
2EnglishDownloadDownload
3MathsDownloadDownload
4ScienceDownloadDownload
5Social ScienceDownloadDownload

4th Std 1st Term New Books 2020

Below you can see the split version of 4th std books. And also we separate the books by subject wise.

You can see the 4th standard Tamil book 1st term book and English, Science, Maths books on the bellow table.
You can download only the books you need.

S.NoSubjectsTamil MediumEnglish Medium
1Tamil BookDownloadDownload
2English BookDownloadDownload
3Maths BookDownloadDownload
4Science BookDownloadDownload
5Social Science BookDownloadDownload

4th Std 2nd Term New Books 2020

The 1st edition of all 4th books was released in 2019 by the State Council of Educational Research and Training.

S.NoSubjectsTamil MediumEnglish Medium
1Tamil BookDownloadDownload
2English BookDownloadDownload
3Maths BookDownloadDownload
4Science BookDownloadDownload
5Social Science BookDownloadDownload

4th Std 3rd Term Books 2020

S.NoSubjectsTamil MediumEnglish Medium
1Tamil BookDownloadDownload
2English BookDownloadDownload
3Maths BookDownloadDownload
4Science BookDownloadDownload
5Social Science BookDownloadDownload

These Books are Published under New Syllabus in Trimester Pattern. The original publisher of these books is Tamilnadu Government.


2nd Std Term I Books 2020

Most of the primary schools are started the classes throw online before getting the hard copy of books. For that kind of student, it’s very helpful.

4Environment Science BookDownloadDownload

2nd Std Term II Books 2020

4Environment Science BookDownloadDownload

2nd Std Term III Books 2020

4Environment Science BookDownloadDownload

Download, Tamil Nadu, Class 2, Tamil books, Samacheer, Books, in Tamil, & English, PDF, 2020,

3Maths BookDownloadDownload

2nd Std Term II Books 2020

3Maths BookDownloadDownload

2nd Std Term III Books 2020

3Maths BookDownloadDownload

Download, Tamil Nadu, Class 2, Tamil books, Samacheer, Books, in Tamil, & English, PDF, 2020,

2nd Std Term I Books 2020

Most of the primary schools are started the classes throw online before getting the hard copy of books. For that kind of student, it’s very helpful.

2English BookDownloadDownload

2nd Std Term II Books 2020

2English BookDownloadDownload

2nd Std Term III Books 2020

2English BookDownloadDownload

Download, Tamil Nadu, Class 2, Tamil books, Samacheer, Books, in Tamil, & English, PDF, 2020,

TNSCERT 2nd Standard New Books

2nd Std Term I Books 2020

Most of the primary schools are started the classes throw online before getting the hard copy of books. For that kind of student, it’s very helpful.

S.NoSubjectsTamil MediumEnglish Medium
1Tamil BookDownloadDownload

2nd Std Term II Books 2020

S.NoSubjectsTamil MediumEnglish Medium
1Tamil BookDownloadDownload

2nd Std Term III Books 2020

S.NoSubjectsTamil MediumEnglish Medium
1Tamil BookDownloadDownload

Chapter 5, Towards Green Energy, Science Part II, Solutions, for, Class 10, Maharashtra board, 2020, 2021,

Question 1

Remake the table taking into account relation between entries in three columns.

Solution


Question 2:

Which fuel is used in thermal power plant? What are the problems associated with this type of power generation?

ANSWER:

Coal is used in thermal power plant.
Problems associated with this type of power generation are:
Air pollution caused due to burning of coal:
Burning of coal emits gases like carbon dioxide, sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide which are harmful to living beingsRelease of soot particles in the environment:
Along with the gases released due to burning of coal, soot particles are released in the environment which can cause fatal respiratory problems.
Coal is non-renewable source of energy. So, this method of power generation will put a limit on the availability of coal in future.

Question 3:

Other than thermal power plant, which power plants use thermal energy for power generation? In what different ways is the thermal energy obtained?

ANSWER:

Other than thermal power plant, nuclear power plants, solar power plants use thermal energy for power generation.
Different ways of generating thermal energy are:
Using fossil fuels:
By burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, the chemical energy stored in them is converted into thermal energy.
Using natural gas: Chemical energy in natural gas is converted into thermal energy.
Using nuclear fuels: Controlled chain reaction in nuclear power plants releases huge amount of thermal energy.
Using solar energy: Solar energy can be reflected and absorbed in aborbers where it gets converted to thermal energy. 
Using geothermal energy: Underground water, sometimes, comes in contact with hot spots (where hot molten rocks are found), and thus steam is generated which is then collected via hot springs.
Thus, geothermal energy is converted to heat energy.

Question 4:

Which type/types of power generation involve maximum number of steps of energy conversion? In which power generation is the number minimum?

ANSWER:

 The types of power generation involving maximum number of steps of energy conversion are:
(i) Thermal energy based power generation:
It involves 5 steps of energy conversion.
Chemical energy in coal→thermal energy→kinetic energy in steam→kinetic energy in turbine→electrical energy.

(ii) Nuclear energy based power generation:
It also involves 5 steps of energy conversion.
Nuclear energy→thermal energy→kinetic energy in steam→kinetic energy in turbine→electrical energy.

The power generation using solar photovoltaic cell involves least number of steps of energy conversion. It involves only two steps of energy conversion.
Energy in sunlight→electric energy.

Question 5:

Solve the following crossword puzzle.

a. Maximum energy generation in india is done using….. energy.

b. …… energy is a renewable source of energy

c. Solar energy can be called…. energy.

d …. energy of wind is used in wind mills.

e. ….. energy of water in dams is used for generation of electricity.


ANSWER:


Question 6:

Explain the difference.

a. Conventional and Non-conventional Sources of energy.

b Thermal electricity generation and solar thermal electricity generation.

ANSWER:

B.

Thermal electricity generationSolar thermal electricity generation
It uses non-renewable source of energy for electricity generation such as fossil fuels, natural gas or nuclear fuels.It uses a renewable source of energy i.e. solar energy for electricity generation
This method of electricity generation is not environment friendly. It causes air pollution.
This is environment friendly method of electricity generation. It does not cause air pollution.
This method requires maintenance.This method does not require maintenance.

Question 7:

What is meant by green energy? Which energy sources can be called as green energy sources and why? Give examples.

ANSWER:

Green energy is that energy which does not pollute the environment and is renewable in nature.
The energy sources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, etc. can be called as green energy.
This is because these are readily available on Earth, can be naturally replenished and do not even harm the environment much.

Question 8:

Explain the following sentences.

a. Energy obtained from fossil fuels is not green energy.

b. Saving energy is the need of the hour.

ANSWER:

a. Fossil fuels are non renewable sources of energy. These are getting depleted rapidly. Also, the usage of the fossil fuels for energy generation adversely impacts the environment and living beings. Burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas etc. leads to emission of gases and soot particles in the environment which pollute the air and cause many respiratory diseases. For example, incomplete combustion of some fossil fuels leads to formation carbon monoxide which affects the health of living beings. Also, burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide in the environment which is the main greenhouse gas. Thus, it can be said that energy obtained from fossil fuels is not green energy.

b. Yes, certainly energy conservation has become the need of the hour. We know our day to day life runs on electricity. Be it fans, lights, televisions, escalators, vehicles on roads or water supply to our homes, each and everything requires energy- “The Electrical Energy” for its working. Even the technology advancement has made it possible to supply electricity to most remote places. Thus, to produce such huge amount of electrical energy, we are getting more and more dependent on non-renewable sources of energy such as coal, petroleum, etc. It is observed that the rate at which these fuels are consumed is much greater than at which it is produced. So, if it continues like this, a day will come when we would get deprived of these sources of energy and thus will not even get the basic amenities of life. So, take a pledge to not waste energy wherever possible for the betterment of our and future generations.

Question 9

Answer the following questions.

a. How can we get the required amount of energy by connecting solar panels?

b. What are the advantages and limitations of solar energy?

ANSWER:

a. Many identical solar cells connected together forms a solar panel.
Now, many such solar panels are connected in series in a form of solar string to get required voltage.
Also, many such identical solar strings are connected in parallel to get the required current.
Hence, in this way we get the required amount of energy by connecting solar panels.

b. Advantages of solar energy:
Solar energy is green energy i.e. it is renewable and does not cause pollution.
Solar panels for the generation of electricity requires less maintenance.
With the help of solar energy, electricity is possible to be generated even in the most remote, inaccessible locations where electric power lines cannot be laid.
Limitations of solar energy: 
Electricity generation based on solar energy is weather dependent and hence it is less reliable.
In winter and on cloudy days, the production becomes less. 
The whole set-up of the panels requires lots of space to generate considerable amount of electricity. 
The initial cost of a solar panel is sufficiently high.

Question 10:

Explain with diagram step-by-step energy conversion ina. Thermal power plantb. Nuclear Power Plant.c. Solar thermal power plantd. Hydroelectric power plant

ANSWER:

a. Water is heated in a boiler. Using the thermal energy released due to burning of coal, steam of very high temperature and pressureis generated. The energy in the steam drives the turbine. Thus, the generator connected to the turbine rotates and electrical energy is produced.

Chemical energy in coal→Thermal energy→Kinetic energy in steam→Kinetic energy in turbine→Electrical energy

b. Nuclear power plants consist of nuclear reactors. These reactors use uranium rods as fuel and heat is generated by the process of nuclear fission. Neutrons smash into the nucleus of the uranium atoms, which roughly split into half and release energy in the form of heat. Carbon dioxide gas is pumped through the reactor to take the heat away. The hot gas then heats water to form steam. This steam drives the turbines of generators to produce electricity.
Thus, the steps of energy conversion are:
Nuclear energy→Thermal energy→Kinetic energy in steam→Kinetic energy in turbine→Electrical energy.

c. Following energy conversion takes place in the solar thermal power plant:

Thermal energy in radiation→Kinetic energy in steam→Kinetic energy in turbine→Electrical energy.

d. In a hydroelectric power plant, the potential energy in water stored in dam is converted into kinetic energy of water. Fast flowing water is brought from the dam to the turbine at the bottom of the dam. The kinetic energy of the flowing water drives the turbine. The turbine in turn drives a generator to generate electricity.
Potential energy in water→Kinetic energy in flowing water→Kinetic energy in turbine→Electrical energy.

Question 11:

Give scientific reasons

a. The construction of turbine is different for different types of power plants.

b. It is absolutely necessary to control the fission reaction in nuclear power plants.

c. Hydroelectric energy, solar energy and wind energy are called renewable energies.

d. It is possible to produce energy from mW to MW using solar photovoltaic cells.

ANSWER:

a. The construction of turbine is different for different types of power plants. This depends on the type of energy source used for driving the turbine. Like in thermal power plants, steam turbine is used whereas in hydro-power plant, water turbine is used.


b. If fission reaction in nuclear power plants is not controlled, then enormous amount of heat released during this process will lead to explosion of the plant and cause fatal destruction to the environment and mankind. Thus, it is absolutely necessary to control the fission reaction in nuclear power plants.


c. Hydroelectric energy, solar energy and wind energy are called renewable energies because they are abundant in nature and can be regenerated or replenished again and again. These will never extinct even with their excessive use.


d. Solar photovoltaic cells can be arranged according to the requirement of electric power. If power requirement is within mW, use of few number of photovoltaic cells will be able to achieve this much power. But, if the requirement of power is in MW, then large number of cells are grouped together to form a solar panel. Then, large number of solar panels are connected in series and parallel to get the required electric power. Thus, it is possible to produce energy from mW to MW using solar photovoltaic cells.

Question 12:

Draw a schematic diagram of solar thermal electric energy generation.

ANSWER:

The schematic diagram of solar thermal electric energy generation is as follows:


Question 13:

Give your opinion about whether hydroelectric plants are environment friendly or not?

ANSWER:

No waste products and harmful gases are released in water bodies and atmosphere when power is generated using hydroelectric power plants. Also, water is available in plenty on Earth and is renewable. Hence, there is no fear of this energy source dying out. Thus, it has no harmful effects on the environment and hence is environment friendly.

Question 14:

Draw neat and labelled diagrams.

ANSWER:

a. Energy transformation in solar thermal electric energy generation.

b. One solar panel produces a potential difference of 18 V and current of 3 A. Describe how you can obtain a potential difference of 72 Volts and current of 9 A with a solar array using solar panels.

You can use sign of a battery for a solar panel.


Thermal energy in radiation→Kinetic energy in steam→Kinetic energy in turbine→Electrical energy.


b. We can obtain a potential difference of 72 V by forming a string of 5 solar panels in series. Now, to obtain current of 9 A, connect 3 such identical strings in parallel.

The same has been shown below.


Question 15:

Write short note on Electrical energy generation and environment.

ANSWER:

Today electrical energy generation has become the need of the hour.

We cannot imagine our life without electricity.

We have been able to generate electrical energy by various methods.

In these methods, a generator is present which works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.

A turbine is used to rotate this generator and this turbine itself is rotated with the help of an energy source.

This energy source can be a renewable source such as wind, sunlight, nuclear fuels etc.

as well as non-renewable sources such as coal, petrol, water etc. The energy sources such as wind, sunlight have proved to be green sources as they do not pollute the environment and are economical too.

But the use of fossil fuels such as natural gas, coal, nuclear energy etc.

as energy source has harmful effects on the environment.
The harmful radiation emitted from the nuclear waste has fatal effect on the environment and humans.

Even the release of soot particles and various greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide on burning or incomplete burning of fossil fuels affects the health of living beings as well as the environment adversely.

Also, the release of these greenhouse gases is day by day increasing the danger of global warming.

We need to as soon as possible find suitable environment friendly substitutes to fossil fuels to save our


Chapter 9, Tourism, Transport and Communication, ssc, Maharashtra board, 2020,2021, geography,

1.Answer the questions after reading figure.

a) What type of graph is shown here?

b) What does the graph show?

c) Which country’s tourism has a larger shar in the contribution towards GDP?

d) Which country has a larger population engaged in tourism sector but contributes lesser in GDP?

SOLUTION

a. The graph depicted is a double bar diagram depicting the tourism industry in India and Brazil. It depicts the percentage of the population engaged in tourism and its contribution to GDP in both countries.

b. The graph depicted is a double bar diagram depicting the tourism industry in India and Brazil. It depicts the percentage of the population engaged in tourism and its contribution to GDP in both countries.

c. The contribution towards GPD of Brazil is more than that of India. In Brazil, nearly 8% of the population is engaged in the tourism industry. But their contribution to GDP is nearly 10%.

d. In India, the population engaged in the tourism industry is much greater than the contribution to GDP. Nearly 10% of the population is engaged in the tourism industry, but their contribution is only 8%


2.What are the factors responsible for development of these tourism sites in Brazil?

SOLUTION

Tourism is one of the largest growing service industries in Brazil. Tourism rates are rising steeply in Brazil from the 2000s. There was a setback in the tourism industry between 2006 and 2008, but the economy is back on track from then. Today, Brazil is one of the most visited countries in South America.

Brazil’s cultural integrity and natural beauty are not the only factors that draw tourists. Brazil is also a very popular business destination. Many MNCs have their headquarters in Brazil. The Amazon River basin and the impenetrable forests, wide beaches and bays in the coast, attractive islands and the innumerable species of flora and fauna makes Brazil an attractive tourist destination. Many places are tagged by the UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. Besides the capital city of Brasilia, cities like Rio-de-Janeiro and Sao Paulo also attract vast tourist traffic. Because of the abundance of natural resources in the country, ecotourism is also being promoted with the participation of local people.

Most of the visitors are from Argentina, the United States and Italy. To promote tourism, tourist VISA requirements have been renounced for many countries including Greece, Italy, Hong Kong, Poland, Turkey and many others. Thus, tourism is a largely developing industry in Brazil.


3.considering the development of transport in a place, which factors do you think are responsible for the development of transport in Brazil? Also, think which means of transport could be used in Brazil given its topography and drainage?

SOLUTION

The transport system is the service by which persons and goods move from one place to the other using humans, animals or vehicles. Transport system establishes the links between producing centres and consuming centres. Transport provides the link through which trade takes place. Transport system also acts as an artery for communication within the nation and among the nations. The principal modes of transportation are land ways, waterways, airways and through pipelines. To be established as a major trading centre, the country must have a well-connected transit network. The integrated operation of all the means of transportation is essential for its effective functioning. Thus the development of transport is very important for a country’s progress.

The most common method of transportation in Brazil is the roadways. Most of the country’s transportation requirements are fulfilled by the roadways. But the density of the road network is more in the eastern part. Brazil has the potential to be the country using waterways as an important means of transportation. Sea transportation is mostly used in Brazil and the inland river transportation is not highly utilised. Inland river transportation network is only 13% of the total transportation network of Brazil. The waterways are not highly developed especially in the interior regions because of the occurrence of many waterfalls and the difficulty in navigation in these areas having strong currents. Also, these areas are far from the other major centres making its development highly uneconomical.

Rail transport started in Brazil from the 19th century. Still, the most common means of transportation in Brazil is the roadways or the waterways. The extent of railways in much smaller in Brazil. It is nearly five times smaller than the extent of roadways in Brazil. The density of the rail network is concentrated in the eastern part of the country. The internal region is actually devoid of the rail network. There are many difficulties in the development of the rail network in the internal areas. The dense, impenetrable Amazon forests and the vast tributaries that form the Amazon basin are the main reason for the lack of a rail network in the internal regions compared to the eastern side of the country. Some areas may be defined by certain tribal groups. The acquisition of land for commencing rail network is also a big issue. The use of the rail network for transportation is highly restricted in the country.

Thus, the development of roadways and waterways is the main modes of transportation that could be used in Brazil given its topography and drainage.


4.Arun called his mother from Digboi at 7 am. At what local time will his mother pick up his call at Jaisalmer?

SOLUTION

Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Thus sun moves from east to west as the earth rotates from west to east. Earth can be seen as a sphere of 360 ̊. Earth rotates this 360 ̊ in 24 hours.

Rotation of earth in 1 hour = 360/24 = 15 ̊

Arun calls from Digboi, Assam at 7.00 AM. The longitudinal coordinates that determine the time of Brasilia are 95.63 ̊ E. Jaisalmer is at the longitudinal time zone coordinate of 70.9 ̊ E.

The difference in longitude between Brasilia and New Delhi = 95.63 ̊ E – 70.9 ̊ E

= 24.73 ̊ E

Difference in time = 24.73/15 = 1.64 hours

= 1 hour + (0.64*60) minutes

= 1 hour + 38 minutes (approx.)

Since the earth rotates from west to east, time zone at 70.9 ̊ E will be ahead of 95.63 ̊ E. Thus when the time would be ahead in Jaisalmer by 1 hour 38 minutes. But since India is following a standard time at the longitudinal coordinate 82.5 ̊ E, the whole country will have the same time zone that is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of the Greenwich Time. Thus the local time at Jaisalmer would be 7 AM.


5.It is 12 noon at Delhi. What would be the local time in Brasilia?

SOLUTION

Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Thus sun moves from east to west as the earth rotates from west to east. Earth can be seen as a sphere of 360 ̊. Earth rotates this 360 ̊ in 24 hours.

Rotation of earth in 1 hour = 360/24 = 15 ̊

The time at India is 12.00 in the noon. It has the longitudinal time zone in the coordinates 82.5 ̊ E. The longitudinal coordinates that determine the time of Brasilia is 47.52 ̊ W.

The difference in longitude between Brasilia and India = 47.52 ̊ W + 82.5 ̊ E

= 130.02 ̊ E

Difference in time = 130.02/15 = 8.6 hours

= 8 hours + (0.6*60) minutes

= 8 hours 36 minutes (approx.)

Since the earth rotates from west to east, time zone at 82.5 ̊ E will be ahead of 47.52 ̊ W. Thus Brasilian time would be behind the Indian time by 8 hours 36 minutes.

Time in Brasilia = 3.24 AM


6.On what basis will you decide how many standard times should be there in a country?

SOLUTION

Standard time of a country is the time of the country determined legally and is binding on all the regions. It is the harmonisation of different time zones in a geographical area rather than using the solar time. It was established in the 19th century to enable weather forecasting and set railway timings.

Some of the importance of following a standard time is should be considered while deciding the number of standard times to be followed in any country:

• It helps in avoiding confusions of time differences that can happen between the extreme points in the same country.

• It helps in properly scheduling the railway and the airway timings.

• It helps in making defined schedules for meeting with the delegates from other foreign countries.

• It helps to coordinate activities and reduces the loss of time incurred in adjusting the time zones.

• It helps to improve communication across the same country.


State whether right or wrong with reason.

1.The future of tourism is bright in India due to its natural diversity.

SOLUTION

Yes, the statement is right.

The future of tourism is bright in India not just because of its natural diversity but also due to the cultural heritage of the country.

The number of both foreign as well as Indian tourists visiting different parts of the country is steadily increasing.

People visit the country for its natural, scenic beauty, heritage, culture, civilisations and healthy nourishment.

Tourism is strongly being promoted by the government and is an important component of the country’s national income.


2.Tourism is an invisible trade.

SOLUTION

Yes, the statement is correct.

An invisible trade is a business transaction that occurs with no physical exchange of goods. The transfer of services occurs in invisible trade. In such a case, tourism is an invisible trade. It involves the exchange of services in hotels, restaurants, travel agencies and concerned financial institution. It involves the flow of money even if there is no direct transfer of commodities. Also, many people are connected by the tourism industry. It leads to the generation of income with no physical trade. Thus, tourism can be called an invisible trade.


3.The indicator of development in a coun try is the development of transport in that country.

SOLUTION

No, the statement is wrong.

The development of the transport network is not an indicator of development in a country. Transport facilities also play an important role in development, but it is not the ultimate indicator. Factors such as national income and per capita income are the main determinant of development in a country. Brazil, a county having less developed transport network has a higher per capita income than India, a country having much better transportation network. Thus, the development of transportation is not an important determinant of development.


4.Brazil’s time is ahead of India’s time.

SOLUTION

No, the statement is wrong. India is 8 hours 30 minutes ahead of BRT. Brazil itself has 5 time zones, while India considers 82.5 ̊ E longitude as the Indian Standard Time. IST is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of Greenwich Meridian Time, while Brazilin time is 3 hours behind GMT. That makes India’s time ahead of Brazil’s time.


5.The development of tourism in India has begun recently.

SOLUTION

No, the statement is wrong.

Tourism has been the subject of India’s five-year plans from the early days. The first effort to promote tourism was made in 1945 when the British Government constituted a committee under Sir John Sargent for the growth of tourism. After independence, tourism development was considered in an organised manner from the second five-year plan. National policy on tourism was formulated from 1982. After the 1980s, development of tourism is an integral part of the policies and programmes of the government.


Answer in short

 1.Which factors attract more tourists in Brazil?

SOLUTION

Tourism is one of the largest growing service industries in Brazil. Tourism rates are rising steeply in Brazil from the 2000s. There was a setback in the tourism industry between 2006 and 2008, but the economy is back on track from then. Today, Brazil is one of the most visited countries in South America.

1. Brazil’s cultural integrity and natural beauty are not the only factors that draw tourists. Brazil is also a very popular business destination. Many MNCs have their headquarters in Brazil.

2. The Amazon River basin and the impenetrable forests, widespread beaches and bays in the coast, attractive islands and the innumerable species of flora and fauna makes Brazil an attractive tourist destination.

3. Many places are tagged by the UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. Besides the capital city of Brasilia, cities like Rio-de-Janeiro and Sao Paulo also attract vast tourist traffic.

4. Because of the abundance of natural resources in the country, ecotourism is also being promoted with the participation of local people.

Most of the visitors are from Argentina, the United States, and Italy. To promote tourism, tourist VISA requirements have been renounced for many countries including Greece, Italy, Hong Kong, Poland, Turkey, and many others. Thus, tourism is a largely developing industry in Brazil.


2.What are the difficulties in the development of the railway system in Brazil’s internal areas?

SOLUTION

Rail transport started in Brazil from the 19th century. Still, the most common means of transportation in Brazil is the roadways or the waterways. The extent of railways in much smaller in Brazil. It is nearly five times smaller than the extent of roadways in Brazil.

The density of the rail network is concentrated in the eastern part of the country. The internal region is actually devoid of the rail network. There are many difficulties in the development of the rail network in the internal areas. The dense, impenetrable Amazon forests and the vast tributaries that form the Amazon basin are the main reason for the lack of a rail network in the internal regions compared to the eastern side of the country. Some areas may be defined by certain tribal groups. The acquisition of land for commencing rail network is also a big issue. The use of the rail network for transportation is highly restricted in the country.

The government has initiated many projects for the development of rail networks across the country and also for the upkeep of the existing ones.


3.Which means of communication has expedited the field of communications?

SOLUTION

Communication is the process of sending or receiving information from others through different means of communication. In the earlier days, letters and word-of-mouth were the only means of communication. Newspapers became a wide-spread mode with the development of the printing press. But the development of technology has accelerated the communication process in the world.

1. Internet and satellites are the harbingers of today’s fast-expanding digital communication network. Information and Communication Technology (IT) is an important driving force for the success of today’s communication.

2. Telecommunication facilities, especially the internet has significantly contributed to the development of communication between countries in different continents.

3. The development of services like e-banking has increased the pace in which transactions are carried out around the world. Today, the world is just a click away. Information is being transmitted in seconds, and the world has shrunk inside our hands.

4. Any information can be accessed via the internet and communication has become highly centralised though satellites. Information revolution through digital means like mobile phones and social media has also expanded the communication network between counties.

Thus the development of highly sophisticated technology has expedited the field of communication.


A plane leaves Brasilia at 11am on 31 December. The plane crosses 0° Meridian and reaches Vladivostok via New Delhi. Tell the local time, date and day at New Delhi and Vladivostok when plane leaves Brasilia.

SOLUTION

Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Thus sun moves from east to west as the earth rotates from west to east. Earth can be seen as a sphere of 360 ̊. Earth rotates this 360 ̊ in 24 hours.

Rotation of earth in 1 hour = 360/24 = 15 ̊

The plane takes off from Brasilia on 31 December, Sunday at morning at 11.00 AM. The longitudinal coordinates that determine the time of Brasilia are 47.52 ̊ W. The next stopover of the flight is New Delhi that has the longitudinal time zone in the coordinates 82.5 ̊ E.

The difference in longitude between Brasilia and New Delhi = 47.52 ̊ W + ó ̊ E

= 130.02 ̊ E

Difference in time = 130.02/15 = 8.6 hours

= 8 hours + (0.6*60) minutes

= 8 hours 36 minutes (approx.)

Since the earth rotates from west to east, time zone at 82.5 ̊ E will be ahead of 47.52 ̊ W. Thus time would be lead in India by 8 hours 36 minutes.

Time in India when the flight takes off = 7.36 PM

The destination of the flight is Vladivostok that has the longitudinal time zone in the coordinates 131.88 ̊ E.

The longitudinal difference of Brasilia and New Delhi = 47.52 ̊ W + 131.88 ̊ E

= 179.4 ̊ E

Difference in time = 179.4/15 = 11.96 hours

= 11 hours + (0.96*60) minutes

= 11 hours 57 minutes (approx.)

Since the earth rotates from west to east, time zone at 131.88 ̊ E will be ahead of 47.52 ̊ W. Thus time would be ahead in Vladivostok by 11 hours 57 minutes.

Time in Vladivostok when the flight takes off = 10.57 PM


Match the columns.

‘A’ Group‘B’ Group
(a) Trans-Amazonian(i) Tourist Place Highway
(b) Road Transport(ii) Railway Station in India
(c) Rio de Janeiro(iii) Golden Quadrilateral
(d) Manmad(iv) Major Highways
 (v) 40° W. Meridian

SOLUTION

‘A’ Group‘B’ Group
(a) Trans-AmazonianMajor Highways
(b) Road TransportGolden Quadrilateral
(c) Rio de Janeiro40° W. Meridian
(d) ManmadRailway Station in India

Explanation

a. Trans-Amazonian is an important highway in Brazil.

It was inaugurated on 27 September 1972. It is 4000 km long.

It is the third largest highway in Brazil.

It was commissioned to integrate the interior northern parts of Brazil with the rest of the country.

b. Golden quadrilateral is an important national highway network of India.

It connects the major centers of India and the four metros- Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata.

It is maintained by the National Highway Authority of India.

It was completed in 2012. It is the largest highway project undertaken in India.

c. Rio de Janeiro is an important tourist place in Brazil situated in the 40 ̊ W Meridian. Its proper coordinates are 22 ̊ 54 S, 43 ̊ 12 W. It has the second largest economy of Brazil.

d. Manmad is a major railway station of the Central railway zone. It is located in Nasik district of Maharashtra, India. It was opened in 1886.


Give geographical reason.

1.Eco-tourism is being developed more in Brazil.

SOLUTION

Ecotourism is the tourist activities mainly engaged towards the inherent natural environment to support preservation and conservation of the exquisite flora and fauna. Ecotourism is being developed more in Brazil because of its richness in natural resources. The Amazon River basin and the impenetrable forests, widespread beaches and bays in the coast, attractive islands and the innumerable species of flora and fauna makes Brazil an attractive tourist destination. Because of the abundance of natural resources in the country, ecotourism is also being promoted with the participation of local people.

2.The waterways are not developed in Brazil.

SOLUTION

(i) Waterways have been developed on a commercial basis in the second largest river of the world the

Amazon River.

(ii) Boats ply from Equitos in Peru to the mouth of the River Amazon. River Amazon has the longest navigational stretch around 3700 km.

(iii) The south-flowing Parana River is also an important waterway.

(iv) There are about 15 seaports along the coast and the port of Manaus has been developed on the confluence of the Negro and the Amazon.

(v) Coastal shipping is also carried out in the coastal areas.

Hence,the waterways are not developed in Brazil.


3.A dense network of railways has developed in the north Indian plains.

SOLUTION

As compared to the north-eastern and hilly regions of the country, the railway network is highly dense in the northern plains. It is an important place opted for human settlement because of the fertility of the land. Farming and dairying are the important occupations of the people. The main crop grown is paddy and wheat along with maize, millets, and gram. Many highly populated cities like Allahabad, Lucknow, and Varanasi is located in the region. Because of this, the transportation network, communication facilities, and the infrastructure is highly developed resulting in a very dense railway network in the region.


4.Development of transport is important for country’s progress.

SOLUTION

The transport system is the service by which persons and goods move from one place to the other using humans, animals or vehicles. Transport system establishes the links between producing centers and consuming centers. Transport provides the link through which trade takes place. Transport system also acts as an artery for communication within the nation and among the nations. The principal modes of transportation are land ways, waterways, airways and through pipelines. To be established as a major trading center, the country must have a well-connected transit network. The integrated operation of all the means of transportation is essential for its effective functioning. Thus the development of transport is very important for a country’s progress.


5.We rely on the sea route for international trade.

SOLUTION

Foreign trade or international trade is the exchange of goods and services between countries. It is an important component of the economy. Waterways have been the most common means of transport from earlier days. Waterways are the cheapest and easiest way of carrying bulky goods over long distances. One of its greatest benefits is that it does not require any route construction or maintenance. Sea routes and oceanic routes are most beneficial for transporting bulky goods from one country to another. Waterways is a major means of domestic and foreign trade. But, to establish as a major trading center, the port must have a well-connected rail and road transit network.


Differentiate between.

 1.Water transport in the Amazon and the Ganga river.

SOLUTION

BASIS AMAZONGANGA
NatureIt is the largest rever basin in the world.It is the second largest rever basin in India. 
Types of transportation practicesMostly commercialised transportation is practiced with some degree of traditional methods.Mostly primitive and traditional methods are used. The commercialised version is used only in thge eastern parts.
Intensity of requirement It is highly necessary only in the eastern parts having a higher population. It is required in every part of the region as it is one of the most densely populated areas of the country.
Degree of developmentNot highly developed in the interirior parts due to the ocurrence of waterfalls,strong currents and impenetrable forests.Highly developed throughout the region due to the plain topography. 

2.Communication in Brazil and India

SOLUTION

BASISBRAZILINDIA
ControlsHighly concentrated by private media ownership.Goverment control major networks like all India Radio.
Nature of communication system Highly Developed with more inclusion of people.Highly developed though the inculsion of everyone is still not sucessfull. 
CoverageMainly covers the eastern parts of the country. The central and northern region is largely left out due to inaccesibility.Covers mostly every region of the country.

3.IST and BRT

SOLUTION

BASISBRTIRT
Time zonesBrazil has 4 time zonesIndia has single time zone.
The difference between Greenwich timeDifferent by 2,3,4 and 5 hours according to the different time zones.Different by 5 hours 35 minutes.
Difference between extreme points Different by 2 hours 45 minutes.Diffrent from 2 hours.
Time differenceBRT is behind IST.IST is ahead of BRT by 8 hours 30 minutes.

Write notes on.

 1.Modern means of communication

SOLUTION

Communication is the process of sending or receiving information from others through different means of communication. In the earlier days, letters and word-of-mouth were the only means of communication. Newspapers became a wide-spread mode with the development of the printing press. But the development of technology has accelerated the communication process in the world.

1. Internet and satellites are the harbingers of today’s fast-expanding digital communication network. Information and Communication Technology (IT) is an important driving force for the success of today’s communication.

2. Telecommunication facilities, especially the internet has significantly contributed to the development of communication between countries in different continents.

3. The development of services like e-banking has increased the pace in which transactions are carried out around the world. Today, the world is just a click away. Information is being transmitted in seconds, and the world has shrunk inside our hands.

4. Any information can be accessed via the internet and communication has become highly centralised though satellites. Information revolution through digital means like mobile phones and social media has also expanded the communication network between counties.


2.Air transport in India

SOLUTION

Airways is the fastest mode of transport of the century. It is also the most expensive means. Airplanes and helicopters are the major air transport modes. Presently, airways are the only mode of transport to reach remote locations that have no road and rail connectivity. Helicopters play a major role during natural calamities or wars for rescuing people and distributing food and other essentials, especially in the inaccessible areas. It is essential in a country like India that has different terrains and long distances between places.

Air transport in India was started in 1911. It is managed by the Indian Airlines and Air India. IndiGo, Jet Airways, Air India, Spicejet, and GoAir are the major transit corporations. India’s is the world’s third largest domestic and overall civil aviation sector. India has a total of 499 airports. To achieve connectivity and utilising the potential of under-rated airports, the government has launched the UDAN scheme from April 2017.


3.Correlation between physiographic and internal waterways

SOLUTION

India has an extensive network of waterways including lakes, canals, oceans, and other inland water systems. The total navigable area is 14500 km. Waterways have been the most common means of transport from earlier days. Waterways are the cheapest and easiest way of carrying bulky goods over long distances. One of its greatest benefits is that it does not require any route construction or maintenance. Waterways can be inland waterways or sea routes. Navigable rivers, canals, backwaters, and lakes are used as inland waterways. It was the major means of transportation before the advent of railways and roadways. Inland waterways are the only means of transportation through dense, impenetrable forests and areas defined by certain tribal groups. Sea routes and oceanic routes are mostly used for transporting bulky goods from one country to another. Waterways is a major means of domestic and foreign trade.


4.Importance of Standard Time

SOLUTION

Standard time of a country is the time of the country determined legally and is binding on all the regions. It is the harmonisation of different time zones in a geographical area rather than using the solar time. It was established in the 19th century to enable weather forecasting and set railway timings. Some of the importance of following a standard time is:

• It helps in avoiding confusions of time differences that can happen between the extreme points in the same country.

• It helps in properly scheduling the railway and the airway timings.

• It helps in making defined schedules for meeting with the delegates from other foreign countries.

• It helps to coordinate activities and reduces the loss of time incurred n adjusting the time zones.

• It helps to improve communication across the same country.


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