Geography, Chapter 6, Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu,

25 Nov 2020 4:01 pm

Samacheer Kalvi, 10th, Social Science, History, Book, Solutions, Samacheer Kalvi, 10th, Social Science, Guide, Geography, Chapter 6, Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu,

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
The latitudinal extent of Tamil Nadu is:
(a) 8°4’N to 13°35’N
(b) 8°5’S to 13°35’S
(c) 8°0’N to 13°5’N
(d) 8°0’S to 13°05’S
Answer:
(a) 8°4’N to 13°35’N

Question 2.
The longitudinal extent of Tamil Nadu is …………………
(a) 76°18′ E to 80°20’E
(b) 76° 18′ W to 80°20′ W
(c) 86°18’Eto 10°20’E
(d) 86°18′ W to 10°20′ W
Answer:
(a) 76°18′ E to 80°20’E

Question 3.
The highest peak in Tamil Nadu is:
(a) Anaimudi
(b) Doddabetta
(c) Mahendragiri
(d) Servarayan
Answer:
(b) Doddabetta

Question 4.
Which of the following passes is not located in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu?
(a) Palghat
(b) Shencottah
(c) Bhorghat
(d) Achankoil
Answer:
(c) Bhorghat

Question 5.
Which one of the following rivers is flow into the Arabian Sea?
(a) Periyar
(b) Cauvery
(c) Chittar
(d) Bhavani
Answer:
(a) Periyar

Question 6.
The district with largest mangrove forest cover in Tamil Nadu is ……………
(a) Ramanathapuram
(b) Nagapattinam
(c) Cuddalore
(d) Theni
Answer:
(c) Cuddalore

Question 7.
The forest cover of Tamil Nadu as per 2017 Indian Forest Report is:
(a) 20.21%
(b) 20.31%
(c) 21.20%
(d) 21.30%
Answer:
(a) 20.21%

Question 8.
Retreating monsoon wind picks up moisture from …………….
(a) Arabian sea
(b) Bay of Bengal
(c) Indian Ocean
(d) Timor sea
Answer:
(b) Bay of Bengal

Question 9.
hich of the following district is affected by sand dunes to a large extent?
(a) Theni
(b) Madurai
(c) Thanjavur
(d) Ramanathapuram
Answer:
(d) Ramanathapuram

Question 10.
The district which has the largest forest cover in Tamil Nadu is ………………
(a) Dharmapuri
(b) Vellore
(c) Dindigul
(d) Erode
Answer:
(a) Dharmapuri


II. Fill in the blanks

  1. The plateau which lies between the Nilgiris and Dharmapuri districts is ………………
  2. ……………… is the highest peak in the southern most part of the Eastern Ghats.
  3. The riverine Island of Srirangam is located between ……………… and ……………… branches of cauvery.
  4. ……………… soil is suitable for the cultivation of tea and coffee plants.
  5. ……………… is the Tamil Nadu state animal which is found in ………………

Answers:

  1. Coimbatore
  2. Solaikaradu
  3. Northern (Coleroon or Kollidam), and Southern (Cauvery)
  4. Laterite
  5. Nilgiri Tahir, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

III. Match the following


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Geography Chapter 6 Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu 1

Answer:
A. (iv)
B. (iii)
C. (ii)
D. (v)
E. (i)


IV. Assertion type Question

Question 1.
Assertion (A): Tamil Nadu does not receive much rainfall from southwest monsoon.
Reason (R): It is situated in the rain shadow area of the Western Ghats.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but, (R) does not explain (A).
(c) (A) is true but, (R) is false.
(d) (R) is true but, (A) is false.
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A).

Question 2.
Assertion (A): Red soil is rich in iron oxides.
Reason (R): It is formed by leaching.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but, (R) does not explain (A).
(c) (A) is true but, (R) is false.
(d) (R) is true but, (A) is false.
Answer:
(c) (A) is true but, (R) is false.


V. Answer the following in brief

Question 1.
State the boundaries of Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, Indian ocean in the South, Kerala and Karnataka in the west and Andhra Pradesh on the North.

Question 2.
List out the districts of Tamil Nadu which are partly/fully located on Eastern and Western Ghats separately.
Answer:

  • Districts of Tamil Nadu Partly / fully located on Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats.
  • Districts on Eastern Ghats: Vellore, Thiruvannamalai, Salem, Nammakal, Trichirapalli, Perambalur.
  • Districts on Western Ghats: Nilgiris, Kanyakumari, Dindigul, Virudhunagar.

Question 3.
What is ‘Teri??
Answer:
The sand dunes formed along the coast of Ramanathapuram and Thoothukudi districts are called Teri.

Question 4.
How is coastal plain formed?
Answer:
Coastal plains is formed by die rivers that flow towards east and drain in the Bay of Bengal in Tamil Nadu. It is more than 80 kilometers wide at some places.

Question 5.
Name the major islands of Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Pamban, Hare, Krusadai, Nallathanni Theevu, Pullivasal, Srirangam, Upputanni, Island Grounds, Kattupalli Island, Quibble Island and Vivekananda Rock Memorial are some major islands of Tamil Nadu.

Question 6.
Name the tributaries of river Thamirabarani.
Answer:
Karaiyar, Servalar, Manimuthar, Gadananathi, Pachaiyar, Chittar, and Ramanathi are the main Tributaries of Thamirabarani.

Question 7.
Define Disaster Risk Reduction.
Answer:
The concept and practice of disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and manage the causal factors of disasters including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and environment and improved preparedness for adverse events.

Question 8.
During cyclone, how does the Meterological department warn the . fishermen?
Answer:
During Cyclone the Meterological Department warn the fishermen through State Government officials and broadcast of warnings through All India Radio and National Regional (Doordharshan) telecast programme. During Cyclone four stages of warning are given by the Meteorological Department to keep the fishermen alert and to return back who ventured into the sea through coast guards also.


VI. Distinguish between the following

Question 1.
Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
Answer:
Western Ghats (in Tamil Nadu):

  1. Western Ghats extends from the Nilgiris in the North to Marunthuvazh malai at Swamithope in Kanyakumari in the South.
  2. It is a continuous range.
  3. Doddabetta (in the Nilgiris) is the highest peak.
  4. It’s height ranges from 2000mts to 3000 mts above sea level.
  5. Important hills are Nilgiris, Anaimalai and palani hills etc.

Eastern Ghats (in Tamil Nadu):

  1. Major hills of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu are located in the Northern districts of the State.
  2. It is discontinuous dissected at many places by the east flowing rivers.
  3. Solaikaradu in the Servarayan hills is the highest peak.
  4. It’s height ranges from 1,100 mts to 1600 mts above sea level.
  5. Javadhu, Kalvarayan and Servarayan etc are some of the major hills.

Question 2.
Southwest monsoon and Northeast monsoon.
Answer:
Southwest Monsoon:

  1. Period of Southwest monsoon is from March to May.
  2. Tamil Nadu is located in the rainshadow region for the wind hence gets only less rainfall.
  3. Rainfall decreases from West to East,
  4. CoimbatorePlateau,Kanyakumari and Tirunelveli districts receives 50 – 100 cm rainfall during this period.

Northeast Monsoon:

  1. Period of Northeast Monsoon is from October and lasts till mid – December.
  2. 48% of annual rainfall to Tamil Nadu is from this wind.
  3. It is the rainy season for the districts of Tamil Nadu.
  4. Coastal districts get nearly 60% of annual rainfall and interior districts get 40 – 50 cm rainfall.

Question 3.
Tropical evergreen and Tropical deciduous forests.
Answer:
Tropical Evergreen Forests:

  1. This types of forest is found in the areas of heavy rainfall.
  2. It is dense, multilayered forest.
  3. The major type of trees found in the forests are Cinnamon, Malabar ironwood kindal, jamun etc.
  4. It is found in the upper slopes of Western Ghats of Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari, Nilgiris and Coimbatore districts.

Tropical Deciduous Forests:

  1. It is found in the regions of sub tropical climate with moderate rainfall.
  2. The trees in this forest shed their leaves during dry season.
  3. The major trees are kapok, kadamba, axle wood, bamboo, dog- teak, silk cotton etc some trees are economically important.
  4. It is found in the margin of semi evergreen and evergreen forests – Servarayan, Kollimalai, Pachaimalai Eastern Ghats.

VII. Give reasons for the following

Question 1.
Eastern Ghats are not a continuous range.
Answer:
Eastern Ghats is a discontinuous and irregular one. It is dissected at many places by the rivers, which drain into the Bay of Bengal. Its height ranges from 1,100 to 1,600 metres.

Question 2.
Tamil Nadu receives low rainfall during Southwest monsoon.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu is located in the rainshadow region for the wind which blows from the Arabian sea. As a result Tamil Nadu receives low rainfall during Southwest monsoon.

Question 3.
Alluvial soil is fertile.
Answer:
Alluvial soil are formed by the deposition of silt by the rivers. Alluvial soils are generally fertile as they are rich in minerals such as lime, potassium, magnesium, nitrogen and phosphoric acid. It is deficient in nitrogen and humus. It is porous and loamy.

Question 4.
Cuddalore is a multiprone disaster zone.
Answer:
Cuddalore is a multiprone disaster zone, because it is located under the very high cyclone prone zone and flood prone zone. More over it is an coastal area often affected by the vulnerable natural disasters.

VIII. Answer the following in a paragraph

Question 1.
Describe the nature of the plateau region of Tamil Nadu.
Answer:

  • Plateau of Tamil Nadu is located between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
  • It is roughly triangular in shape and covers an area of about 60,000 sq. km.
  • Its height increases from east to west. Its height ranges between 150 and 600 m.
  • This plateau is broader in the north and very narrow in the south and it has many subdivisions.
  • Bharamahal plateau is a part of the Mysore plateau situated in the northwestern part of Tamil Nadu. Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts are located in this region.
  • Coimbatore plateau lies between the Nilgiris and Dharmapuri districts. Its height varies from 150 to 450 metres. Moyar river separates this plateau from the Mysore plateau.
  • Rivers like Bhavani, Noyyal and Amaravathi, which originate from Western Ghats form Valleys in the region. Many intermontane plateaus are found in the region of the Nilgiris. Sigur plateau is one such plateau.
  • Madurai plateau found in Madurai district extends up to the foothills of the Western Ghats. Vaigai and Thamirabarani basins are located in the zone.

Question 2.
Write an account on river Kaveri.
Answer:
Origin of River Kaveri: The river Kaverioriginates in the Brahmagiri hills of Kodagu (coorg) district of Karnataka in the Western Ghats. It serves as the boundary between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu for a distance of 64 k.m.

Length of its course in Tamil Nadu: 416 km

Upper course: It enters into Tamil Nadu in the form of Hogenakkal falls in Dharmapuri district. Mettur Dam (Stanely Reservoir) is built across the river in Salem District. A tributary called Bhavani joins Cauvery on the right bank about 45 km from the Mettur Reservoir.

Middle course: Then it takes easterly direction to enter into the plains of Tamil Nadu.

  1. At Thirumukkudal 10 km from Karur, two more tributaries Noyyal and Amaravathi confluence the river on the right bank. In this region the river is wider and called ‘Agandra Cauvery’.
  2. In Tiruchirappalli the river branches into two. The Northern branch is called Coleroon or Kollidam and the Southern branch remains Cauvery. After flowing for about 16 km, the two branches join again to form the ‘Srirangam Island’.
  3. The Grand Anaicut, called as Kallanai was built across the river Cauvery. The deltaic stage begins in the middle course.

Lower course: After Kallanai the river breaks into a large number of distributaries and forms a network all over the delta. River Cauvery merges into Bay of Bengal to the South of Cuddalore.

Question 3.
Explain the characteristic features of summer and winter seasons of Tamil Nadu. Summer Seasons:
Answer:
The apparent migration of the sun towards north during March, April and May result in the reception of vertical sun’s rays by South India. Thus there is a steady rise in temperature from the equator. Hence, Tamil Nadu located to the south of Tropic of Cancer experiences high temperature. Generally, the temperature varies from 30°C to more than 40°C. During this season particularly in the month of May, the southern part of the state receives some rainfall from pre-monsoon showers (Mango/Blossom showers) and some parts experience convectional rainfall.

Winter Seasons:
During January’ and February, the vertical rays of the sun fall between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Equator. Hence, Tamil Nadu and India on the whole receive slanting rays from the sun. So, the weather is slightly cooler during these months. The difference between summer and winter temperature is not very high. Winter temperature in Tamil Nadu varies from 15°C to 25°C. However, in the hill stations, the winter temperature drops below 5°C occasionally. Some valleys in the Nilgiris record even 0°C. This drop in temperature leads to the formation of thick mist and frost. This season is practically dry.

Question 4.
What is desertification and write about the areas affected by it in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:

  1. The process by which fertile land becomes desert due to inappropriate agriculture, deforestation, and drought is termed as desertification. It is a type of land degradation which lead to the extension of desert area.
  2. In Tamil Nadu Theni, the Nilgiris and Kanyakumari are the worst affected districts by desertification.
  3. About 12,000 hectares (120sq. km) were affected by sand deposition in Theni and Rajapalayam.

Question 5.
Bring out the types and distribution of soils in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
According to their characteristics, soils of Tamil Nadu are classified into five types.

Soil TypesDistribution
Alluvial soilRiver valley regions and coastal plains – Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari.
Black soilSemi arid regions – Coimbatore, Madurai, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi.
Red soilCover two-third areas ofTamil Nadu – particularly in the central district and mainly in Sivagangai and Ramanathapuram.
Laterite soilIntense leaching areas – parts of Kanchipuram, Thiruvallur and Thanjavur, patches over the mountainous region in the Nilgiris.
Saline soilConfined to the Coromandel coast – Vedaranyam.

Question 6.
Name the areas which are affected by landslides. What will you do before, during and after landslides?
Answer:
Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu is identified as one of the most vulnerable districts in the country and landslides pose a major threat in this area. The other regions which are prone to land slides are Coimbatore and palani hill of Dindigul district where Kodaikanal hill station is located.

Before: Create awareness; stay alert and awake; monitor the news updates; make evacuation plan; listen for any unusual sounds that might indicate moving debris such as trees cracking, boulders knocking and consider leaving the place of landslide if it is safe to do so.

After: Stay away from the slide area; listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information; watch for flooding, which may occur after a landslide or debris flow; check for injured and trapped persons near the slide, without entering the direct slide area.


IX. Map study

Question 1.
Mark important rivers, distribution of soil and forest types on different Tamil Nadu maps.

(a) Important rivers:

  1. Cauvery
  2. Palar
  3. Then Pennaiyar / Ponnaiyar
  4. Vaigai
  5. Thamirabarani.

Other rivers:

  1. Coleroon or Kollidam
  2. Amaravathi
  3. Bhavani
  4. Noyyal
  5. Cheyyar.

(b) Distribution of soil

SoilAreas
AlluvialThiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Villupuram, Cuddalore, Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari and Cauvery Delta.
Black soilCoimbatore, Madurai, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli.
Red soilSivagangai, Ramanathapuram.
Laterite soilKancheepuram, Tiruvallur, Nilgiris.
Saline soilCoromandel coast, Vedaranyam coast.

img 3

(c) Forest type (Natural vegetation)

  1. Tropical evergreen forest: Slopes of Western Ghats Nilgiris, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari.
  2. Temperature forest: Anaimalai, Palani hills.
  3. Tropical deciduous forest: Eastern Ghats, Servarayan, Kollimalai, Pachaimalai.
  4. Mangrove forest: Cuddalore, Chidambaram,
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Geography Chapter 6 Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu 34

TB. PNo: 85
Find Out

Question 1.
Name the first state of India created on linguistic basis.
Answer:

  1. Andhra Pradesh was the first State of India created on linguistic basis.
  2. Bifurcated from Madras Presidency the Telugu speaking area – Andhra Pradesh on October – 1st, 1953.

Question 2.
Why was the capital of Tamil Nadu renamed?
Answer:
After India got independence in 1947, the city became the capital of Madras state, which was renamed as Tamil Nadu on 1969. On 17 July 1996 the city known as Madras was officially renamed as Chennai.

Question 3.
What is the meaning of the word Chennai
Answer:
Face of the city.


TB. PNo: 86
Activity

Question 1.
Find out the coastal districts of Tamil Nadu with the help of a map.
Answer:
13 Districts – Thiruvallur, Chennai, Kaneheepuram, Villupuram, Cuddalore, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, Pudukottai, Ramanathapuram, Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari are the coastal districts.

Question 2.
Group the districts of Tamil Nadu which share their boundary with the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala separately.
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh – Krishnagiri, Vellore and Tiruvallur.
Karnataka – Krishanagiri. Dharmapuri, Erode, Nilgiris.
Kerala – Nilgiris, Coimbatore, Theni, Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari, Virudhunagar.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Geography Chapter 6 Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu 5

TB. PNo: 90
Find Out

Question 1.
Why are mountain heights measured from mean sea level and not from ground level?
Answer:
(i) Ocean is one continuous water body on the earth’s surface. Its surface tend to seek the same level whatever be the landform around.
(ii) It is difficult to establish the base of the mountain from the rest of the ground around as their elevation is not the same on all sides.

Question 2.
Name the hill resorts of Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Hill resorts of Western Ghats: Nilgiri hills, Anaimalai, Yelamalai, Varusanadu and Pothigai hills, Megamalai.
Hill resorts of Eastern Ghats: Servarayan hills, Kalvarayan hills, Pachaimalai and Kolli hills.

Question 3.
Is Ooty located on western Ghats?
Answer:
Yes.

Question 4.
Name the hill stations located in Western and Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Western Ghats:
Answer:
Ooty and coonoor – Nilgiri hills Valparai – Anaimalai hills Kodaikanal -Palani hills Kurangani -Kurangani hills (Theni)
Eastern Ghats:
Yercaud – Servarayan hills

Question 5.
Why is the Nilgiri hills called as Blue Mountains?
Answer:
Nilgiri hills are called as Blue Mountains, inspired by the Kurunji flower which blooms every twelve years giving the slopes a bluish tinge.


TB. PNo: 94
Find Out

Question 1.
What is Agni Nakshatram?
Answer:
Agni Nakshatram period marks the onset of summer season in the month of May – June a period of 21 days. Peak summer with very high temperature, scorching heat all over parts of India.

Question 2.
Group the districts of Tamil Nadu into low, moderate and heavy rainfall regions.
Answer:


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
Initially after bifurcation in Madras State there were only ………………. districts.
(a) 13
(b) 14
(c) 15
(d) 16
Answer:
(a) 13

Question 2.
Tamil Nadu lies in the ……………. part of India.
(a) Northeast
(b) Southwest
(c) Southeast
Answer:
(c) Southeast

Question 3.
Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar separates Tamil Nadu from :
(a) Andaman and Nicobar Island
(b) Lakshadweep Island
(c) Nepal
(d) Srilanka
Answer:
(d) Srilanka

Question 4.
…………… hill is located in Eastern Ghats.
(a) Nilgiri
(b) Kalrayan
(c) Palani
Answer:
(b) Kalrayan

Question 5.
Tamil Nadu has Loksabha constituencies.
(a) 19
(b) 92
(c) 39
(4)21
Answer:
(c) 39

Question 6.
Mukuruthi is a peak located in the …………….
(a) Eastern Ghats
(b) Nilgiri Hills
(c) Palani Hills
Answer:
(b) Nilgiri Hills

Question 7.
The highest peak in Palani hills is :
(a) Vembadi Shola
(b) Vandaravu
(c) Doddabetta
(d) Ooty
Answer:
(b) Vandaravu

Question 8.
Mangrove forests are found in …………….
(a) Vedaranyam
(b) Coimbatore
(c) Nilgiris
Answer:
(a) Vedaranyam

Question 9.
………………. hills separate Vellore and Tiruvanamalai districts.
(a) Kolli
(b) Andipatti
(c) Pothigai
(d) Javadhu
Answer:
(d) Javadhu

Question 10.
…………. hills seperates Vellore and Thiruvanamali districts.
(a) Pothigai
(b) Andipatti
(c) Javadhu
Answer:
(c) Javadhu

Question 11.
Bharamahal Plateau is a part of ………………. Plateau.
(a) Mysore
(b) Chota Nagpur
(c) Maharashtra
(d) Madurai
Answer:
(a) Mysore

Question 12.
……………. helps in the prevention of coastal erosion from waves and stroms.
(a) Mangroves
(b) trees
(c) Land slide
Answer:
(a) Mangroves

Question 13.
………………. is one of the main tributary of Thamirabarani.
(a) Noyyal
(b) Amaravathi
(c) Moyar
(d) Manimuthar
Answer:
(d) Manimuthar

Question 14.
Tamil Nadu depends mostly on ……………… monsoon.
(a) South west
(b) Northeast
(c) Cyclone
Answer:
(b) Northeast

Question 15.
About ………………… % of the total area of the Tamil Nadu is drought prone.
(a) 26
(b) 62
(c) 64
(d) 46
Answer:
(c) 64


II. Fill in the blanks

  1. ………………. is the branch of geography that deals with different physical aspects like landform soil etc.
  2. For a short time Tamil country was ruled by the ………………. not much known.
  3. Tamil Nadu coast is the second longest in India after ……………….
  4. Kallakurichi, Thenkasi and ………………. are the newly formed districts of Tamil Nadu.
  5. Our state has ………………. Assembly Constituencies.
  6. All districts of Tamil Nadu except the ………………. the Nilgiris and Kanyakumari were bifurcated at different points of time.
  7. The Nilgiri hills consists ………………. peaks with more than 2000 metres.
  8. ………………. hills are located to the South of Palghat gap.
  9. ISRO propulsion complex is situated on the lower slopes of ……………….
  10. Vainu Bappu Observatory is in ……………….
  11. The Kalvarayan hills separates the river basins of ……………….
  12. The name Kalvarayan came from the name of ancient tribes.
  13. ………………. temple an important pilgrim centre is located on Kolli hills range.
  14. ………………. river separates Coimbatore plateau and Mysore plateau.
  15. ………………. is one of the intermontane plateau found in the region of Nilgiri hills.
  16. ………………. are found at the head of Gulf of Mannar in the East Coastal regions.
  17. The Reservoir of ………………. is called Stanely Reservoir.
  18. The network of distributaries of River Cauvery is called ……………….
  19. Palar river enters into Bay of Bengal near ……………….
  20. The origin of Thamirabarani river is associated with sage ……………….
  21. Pre monsoon showers are also known as ………………. showers.
  22. Black soil is also known as ……………….
  23. ………………. reduces the fertility of the soil.
  24. Trees of ………………. forests are economically important.
  25. ………………. is the second largest Mangrove forest in the world found in Tamil Nadu.
  26. Koonthankulam bird sanctuary is in ………………. district.
  27. Pulicat lake bird sanctuary is in ………………. district.
  28. A sudden natural catastrophe that causes great damage or less to lives and properties is called ……………….
  29. The number of Municipal Corporations in Tamil Nadu is ……………….
  30. Ancient Gondwana land broke away 135 years ago during ………………. period.
  31. ………………. hills are the eastward extension of Western Ghats.
  32. Coastal plains of Tamil Nadu extend from ………………. to ……………….
  33. The ………………. coast along the Bay of Bengal consists of many beautiful exotic beaches.
  34. ………………. of Tamil Nadu are its life line.
  35. Except ………………. river all the other rivers of Tamil Nadu state are non – perennial.
  36. Palar river originates beyond ………………. village in Kolar district of Karnataka.
  37. The ………………. river is extensively dammed for irrigation especially in Tamil Nadu.
  38. The surplus water in Vaigia river is discharged into ………………. tank.
  39. The colour of the Red soil is due to the presence of high content of ……………….
  40. ………………. soil is suitable for tea and coffee plants.
  41. The systematic efforts taken to reduce the risks during disasters is ……………….
  42. Water is the most common trigger of a ……………….
  43. Tamil nadu was the worst affected state by the flood occured in ……………….

Answers:

  1. Physical geography
  2. Kalabras
  3. Gujarat
  4. Chengalpet
  5. 234
  6. Chennai
  7. 24
  8. Anaimalai
  9. Mahendragiri hills
  10. Kavalur
  11. Cauvery and Palar
  12. Karalar
  13. Arapaleeswarar
  14. Moyar
  15. Slgur
  16. Coral rocks
  17. Mettur Dam
  18. Garden of Southern India
  19. Kuvattur
  20. Agasthiyar
  21. Mango I Blossm
  22. Regur soil
  23. Soll erosion
  24. Tropical Deciduous forest
  25. Pichavaram mangrove forest
  26. Tirunelveli
  27. Trruvallur
  28. Disaster
  29. 15
  30. cretaceous
  31. Palam
  32. Chennai, Kanyakumari
  33. Coromandel Coast
  34. Rivers
  35. Tharnirabarani
  36. Talagavara
  37. Then pennaiyar/ Then ponnaiyar
  38. Ramnad big tank
  39. Iron Oxides
  40. Laterite
  41. Disaster Risk Reduction
  42. landslide
  43. 2015

III. Match the following

Question 1.
Match the Column I with Column II.


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Geography Chapter 6 Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu 7
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Geography Chapter 6 Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu 77

Answer:
A. (v)
B. (i)
C. (iv)
D. (ii)
E. (iii)

Question 2.
Match the Column I with Column II.


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Geography Chapter 6 Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu 9

Answer:
A. (iv)
B. (v)
C. (ii)
D. (iii)
E. (i)

Question 3.
Match the Column I with Column II


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Geography Chapter 6 Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu 10

Answer:
A. (iii)
B. (v)
C. (iv)
D. (i)
E. (ii)

Question 4.
Match the Column I with Column II.


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Guide Geography Chapter 6 Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu 11

Answer:
A. (iii)
B. (v)
C. (iv)
D. (i)
E. (ii)


IV. Assertion type question

Question 1.
Assertion (A): Tamil Nadu state was reorganised several times even recently.
Reason (R): For the purpose of administrative convenience.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true but R does not explain (A).
(b) (A) is true but (R) is false.
(c) (A) is false but(R) is true.
(d) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A).
Answer:
(d) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A).

Question 2.
Assertion (A): Pothigai hills are called by different names.
Reason (R): It has rich evergreen forest, waterfalls and Ancient temples.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct (R) explains (A).
(b) (A) is true but (R) is false.
(c) (A) is false but (R) is true.
(d) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) does not explains (A).
Answer:
(d) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) does not explains (A).

Question 3.
Assertion (A): Yercaud is known as poor man’s Ooty.
Reason (R): It is on the Kolli hills.
(a) (A) is true (R) is false
(b) (A) is false (A) is true
(c) Both (A) and (R) are true (R) explains (A).
(d) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) does not explains (A).
Answer:
(a) (A) is true (R) is false

Question 4.
Assertion (A): Tamil Nadu experiences mild tremor.
Reason(R): The state is located in the moderately low risk seismic zone.
(a) (A) is true (R) is false.
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true (R) explains (A).
(c) (A) is false (R) is true.
(d) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) does not explains (A).
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true (R) explains (A).


V. Answer the following in brief

Question 1.
What do you know about the land features of Tamil Nadu?
Answer:
Tamil Nadu has many unique land features that include high eroded mountains. Shallow deep valleys and plains. The topography of the State slopes towards east.

Question 2.
Mention the Latitudinal and Longitudial extent of Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu extends 8° 4′ N to 13° 35′ N latitudes and from 76° 18′ E to 80° 20′ E longitudes.

Question 3.
Name the hills of Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
The Nilgiris, Anaimalai, Palani hills, Cardomom hills, Varusanadu, Andipatti and Agasthiyar hills.

Question 4.
Name the major physical divisions of Tamil Nadu.
Answer:

  • Western Ghats
  • Eastern Ghats
  • Plateaues
  • Coastal plains and
  • Inland plains

Question 5.
What are the other names of Pothigai hills?
Answer:
Pothigai hills are called by different names such as Shiva Jothi Parvath, Agasthiyar hills and Southern Kailash.

Question 6.
Name the rivers that flow in the South Of Tamil Nadu?
Answer:

  • Vaigai (Madurai)
  • Vaippar (Virudhunagar)
  • Thamirabarani (Thirunelveli)
  • Kodaiyar (Kanyakumari) flows in the south of Tamil Nadu.

Question 7.
What do you mean by Coriolis Force?
Answer:
‘Coriolis Force” refers to the apparent force acts as a result of the earth’s rotation deflects the moving objects (such as projectiles or air currents) to the right in the Northern hemisphere and to the left in the Southern hemisphere. It is one of the main reason for the movement of the monsoon winds originates from the Indian Ocean.

Question 8.
Define Soil.
Answer:

  • Soil is a loose material
  • It forms the uppermost layer of the earth.
  • It is essential for the development of agriculture.

Question 9.
Define soil and its significance.
Answer:
Soil is the loose material mainly formed by the weathering and erosion rocks. It forms an important elements of agriculture. It provides essential minerals and nutrients for the growth vegetation.

Question 10.
Bring out the significance of Kallanai in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:

  1. Kallanai built around first century, by Karikalan is still in use.
  2. It is considered to be the oldest water regulatory structure in the world.

Question 11.
What are all major factors that control the distribution of natural vegetation?
Answer:
Landforms, nature of the soil, temperature, rainfall and skspe of the relief features are the major factors that control the distribution of natural vegetation.

Question 12.
What is the role played by the mangroves in coastal zone management?
Answer:

  1. Mangroves help in the prevention of coastal erosion from waves and storms.
  2. It also protects coral reefs and sea grass meadows from being smothered in sediments.

Question 13.
Where the mangrove forests are found in general?
Answer:
In general the mangrove forests are found in the coastal areas, river deltas, tails of islands and over sea faces where accretion is in progress.

Question 14.
Name the places in Tamil Nadu where mangrove forest is found to a considerable extent.
Answer:
Pichavaram, Vedaranyam, Muthupet, Chatram and Thoothukudi are the places in Tamil Nadu where the mangrove forest is found to a considerable extent.

Question 15.
Name the three major Biosphere reservation in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
The three major Bio – sphere Reservation in Tamil Nadu are:

  1. Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve
  2. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve (marine)
  3. Agasthiyarmalai Biosphere Reserve

Question 16.
What does Disaster Risk Reduction include?
Answer:
The Disaster Risk Reduction includes:

  1. Reducing exposure to hazards.
  2. Lessening the vulnerability of people and property.
  3. Wise management of land and environment.
  4. Improving preparedness and early warning for adverse events.

Question 17.
How does the Government classify the ground water blocks?
Answer:

  1. 145 out of 385 are classified as safe ground water blocks.
  2. The others are in various stages of depletion such as over exploited, critical and semi-critical.
  3. 2% of the blocks are saline and 64% of total area of the state is drought probe.

VI. Distinguish between the following

Question 1.
Distinguish between the plains and plateaus of Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Plains:

  1. Plains of Tamil Nadu is divided into Inland plains and Coastal Plains.
  2. Inland plains are formed by the rivers of Tamil Nadu coastal plains are formed along the Bay of Bengal coast by the lower course of the river.
  3. Height increases from West to East.
  4. It covers the districts of Salem, Erode, Karur, Trichy, Thanjavur, Thiruvarur and Nagapattinam.

Plateaus:

  1. Plateaus are subdivided into three – Dharmapuri plateau, Coimbatore plateau and Madurai plateau.
  2. Plateaus are oldest region formed by the disintegration of lava rocks and they are located between Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
  3. Height increases from East to West.
  4. Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, Coimbatore, Nilgiris, Salem and Madurai are the districts lie in the plateau region.

Question 2.
Summer season and winter season in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Summer season:

  1. Period of summer season begins from March – May.
  2. Much variation in summer temperature increases from South to North (30°C – 40°C).
  3. Pre monsoon showers and convection rainfall occurs in this season.

Winter season:

  1. Period of winter season is from January – February.
  2. Not much difference in winter temperature (15°C – 25°C).
  3. Generally this season is dry.

Question 3.
Black soil and Alluvial soil.
Answer:
Black soil:

  1. Its formation is by weathering of igneous rocks.
  2. Clayey in nature when wet develop cracks when dry.
  3. Cotton grows well in this soil.
  4. It is developed over the Deccan lava granite region under semi arid condition.
  5. Found in the districts of Coimbatore, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar.

Alluvial soil:

  1. Formed by the deposition of silt by the rivers.
  2. Fertile in nature as they are rich in minerals.
  3. Paddy and sugar cane grows well in this soil.
  4. It is found in the river valley regions and the coastal planis.
  5. Found in the districts of Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Cuddalore.

Question 4.
Montane Temperature forest and Tropical Thorn forest.
Answer:
Montane Temperature Forest:

  1. Found over an altitude of 1000 mts in sheltered valleys of Anaimalai, Nilgiris and Palani hills.
  2. Trees in these forest are evergreen and usually short.
  3. Nilgiri champa, wights litsea and rose apple are the common trees.

Tropical Thom Forest:

  1. Found where there is little rainfall from plains up to 400 mts altitude.
  2. Trees are sturdy and withstand dry condition. Shmbs are common.
  3. Palm, neem, rusty acacia, wheel are some of the varieties.

VII. Give reasons for the following

Question 1.
Black soil is also known as Black cotton soil.
Answer:

  1. Black soil retails moisture which is very essential for yarning of thread.
  2. As cotton grows well in this soil, it is also known as black cotton soil.

Question 2.
It is necessary to conserve the soil resources with intensive care.
Answer:

  1. Soil forms the basis mainly for agriculture and other purposes. It is a non-renewable resource and difficult to replace it once it gets degraded.
  2. Soil erosion reduces the fertility of the soil which in turn reduces agricultural productivity. So it is necessary to take intensive care to conserve the soil resources.

Question 3.
It is necessary to aware the measures to be adopted during different types of natural disasters.
Answer:
The alteration of natural environment by the technology and developmental activities increase the frequency of disaster all over the world. So it is necessary to aware the measures to be adopted during different types of natural disasters.

Question 4.
Tamil Nadu Government has banned trekking in the state for two months every year (Feb -15 to April 15).
Answer:

  1. The high temperature during summer leads to occasional forest fire in deciduous and thorn forests in Tamil Nadu.
  2. 23 people were killed as they were stuck in the forest fire at Kurangani hills while trekking. On March 11th, 2018.
  3. Thus in the aftermath of this incident made the Tamil Nadu Government to ban trekking for two months during peak summer.

Question 5.
Always avoid roads and bridge during earthquake.
Answer:
Roads may develop crack and bridges may collapse and damaged by the earthquake so we should be causious.

Question 6.
Cardamom hills are also known as Yelamala.
Answer:
The hill acquires its name from the cardamom spice, which is commonly grown here.


VIII. Answer the following in a paragraph

Question 1.
Write about the location and size of Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Location: Tamil Nadu is located in the Southern most part of the country. It is one among the 29 states of India.

Extent: Latitudinally this land mass extends from 8°4’N to 13°35’N and longitudinally from 76°18’E to 80°20’E longitudes.

Extremities: Its Eastern and Western extremities are defined by the point calimere and the hills of Anaimalai respectively.

The Northern extremity of the state is Pulicate lake and the Southern most point is Cape Comorin.

Area: It covers an area of 1,30,058 sq.km covering 4% of the area of our country.

Size: It is the 11th largest state.

Question 2.
Tabulate the administrative Divisions of Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
The administrative divisions of the Tamil Nadu state are given under.

DivisionNumber
Districts35 (32 + 3)
Revenue Divisions76
Taluks226
Firkas (Local Revenue Sub-divisions)1,127
Revenue villages16,564
Municipal Corporation15
Municipalities125
Panchayat Unions (Blocks)385
Town Panchayats561
Village Panchayats12,618
Lok Sabha Constituencies39
Assembly Constituencies234

Question 3.
What are the users of forests?
Answer:
Tamil Nadu’s wealth of flora and fauna lies in the hilly and forest regions.

  1. Forests are the sanctuaries for wild animals.
  2. It provides valuable forest products like Cinchona, Eucalyptus, which are used as medicine for cold, malaria and as a pain reliever.
  3. Palmyrah trees are useful for construction works.
  4. Forest products are used as raw materials for several cottage industries.
  5. Sandalwood is useful for making furniture.
  6. These forests not only provide for the large economy of the state but also to the local livelihood.

Question 4.
Give an account of the River Thamirabarani.
Answer:

  1. The name is interpreted as Thamiram (copper) Varuni (streams of river).
  2. The water of this river gives a copper like appearance due to the presence of dissolved red soil.
  3. The river originates from a peak in Pothigai hills on the Western Ghats above Papanasam in the Ambasamudram taluk, (only river originates in Tamil Nadu).
  4. The origin of the river is associated with Sage Agasthiyar.
  5. It courses through the districts of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi.
  6. It flows into Bay of Bengal near Punnaikayal in Thoothukudi district.
    Tributaries: Karaiyar, Servalar, Manimuthar, Gadananathi, Pachaiyar, Chittar and Ramanathi.
  7. It is the only Perennial river of Tamil Nadu as it is fed by both the Southwest and Northeast monsoons.

Question 5.
Write about Pichavaram mangrove forest.
Answer:

  1. Pichavaram mangrove forest is located near Chidambaram, Cuddalore district.
  2. This is the second largest mangrove forest in the world covering about 1,100 hectares (11 sq.km) of area.
  3. It is separated from the Bay of Bengal by a sandbar.
  4. It consists of species like Avicennia and Rhizophora.
  5. It also supports the existence of rare varieties of shell and fin fishes.

Question 6.
Name any five wild life (Animal) sanctuaries and Bird Sancturies in Tamil Nadu and their location.
Answer:

S.NoName of the Wildlife SanctuaryLocation
1.MudumalaiNilgiris
2.Indira GandhiCoimbatore
3.SathyamangalamErode
4.Grizzled Giant SquirrelVirudhunagar
5.KalakadTirunelveli
S.NoName of the Bird SanctuaryLocation
1.Pulicat LakeTiruvallur
2.KanjirankulamRamanathapuram
3.VedanthangalKancheepuram
4.Koonthankulam-kadankulamTirunelveli
5.KaraivettiAriyalur

Question 7.
Write a paragraph on Tropical cyclonic rainfall in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:

  1. Tropical cyclones are common during the North – East monsoon season. (October – December)
  2. Cyclone originating from Bay of Bengal bring heavy rainfall to the east coastal regions of Tamil Nadu.
  3. More than 50% of the state’s rainfall is received from tropical cyclones during this period amount of rainfall.
  4. East coastal regions receive 100 to 200 cms of rainfall.
  5. Central and North western parts receives 50 – 100 cm of rainfall.
  6. The cyclones some times disturb the cultivation of crops and cause severe damage to life and property.

Question 8.
How Tamil Nadu can be classified in to based on cyclone prone zone? Mention the areas of very high and high zone.
Answer:
Based on the cyclone hit areas that ares often hit by the tropical cyclone formed in Bay of Bengal during Northeast monsoon season. Tamil Nadu is classified into five zones. Namelys

Very high, high, medium, low and veiy low cyclone prone zone.

Areas:
Very high zone: Southern part of Chennai, Eastern part of Kanchipuram and Villupuram, North Eastern part of Cuddalore and Union territory of Puduchery.

High zone: Nagapattinam, Thiruvallur, Tiruvarur (except North Western part) Southern part of Tanjavur, Eastern part of Pudukottai, Cuddalore, Tiruvannamalai, North Eastern part of Vellore, Northern part of Chennai, North Western part to Kanchipuram and Middle portion of Villupuram.

Question 9.
How can we manage water scarcity? Suggest some methods of water conservation.
Answer:

  1. Tamil Nadu is water deficit state.
  2. To manage water deficit, rain water harvesting and water conservation methods have to be implemented strictly.

Methods of water conservation:

  1. Protect water conservation.
  2. Rational use of ground water.
  3. Renovation of traditional water source.
  4. Increasing forest cover.
  5. Recycling of water for other uses.
  6. Changing crop pattern.
  7. Flood management.
  8. Use of geo-thermal water.

IX. Map study

Question 1.
On the given map of Tamil Nadu mark the following.
Answer:
(a) (i) Boundaries of Tamil Nadu
(ii) Capital of Tamil Nadu and its District.

Districts: (i) Any two coastal districts on the east
(ii) Kanyakumari, Cape Comorin, Nilgiris, Vellore
(iii) Pulicate lake.

(b)

  1. Gulf of Mannar
  2. Palk Strait
  3. Palk Bay
  4. Pamban
  5. Rameswaram
  6. Coromandel coast
  7. Kaveri plains
  8. Dharmapuri
  9. Kollidam
  10. Mettur Dam

(c)

  1. Ooty
  2. Kodaikanal
  3. Doddabetta
  4. Mukurti lake
  5. Sathuragiri
  6. Perumalmalai
  7. Palani hills
  8. Javadhi hills
  9. Elagiri
  10. Point calimere
  11. Agathiyamalai

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