08 Jan 2021 11:38 am
Chapter 8, Geography, Nature and Scope, geography, hsc, ebalbharathi, solution,
Chapter 8: Geography : Nature and Scope
|Climatology||Survey||Forest Conservation||Physical Geography|
|Biogeography||Data collection||Wildlife Conservation||Population Geography|
|Historical Geography||GIS/GPS||Culture Conservation||Economic Geography|
1.Human Geography is multidisciplinary in nature.
Human geography is the branch of geography dealing with human activities and their influence on culture, communities and economies. In human geography every social science studies separately has interface with branch of human geography: because of their spatial attributes. Social sciences like sociology, political science, economics, history and demography are very closely related with branches of human geography, such as social geography, political geography, economic geography and historical geography, respectively. Since, we study varied branches of geography in human geography, it is said to be multidisciplinary in nature.
2.Geography is dynamic in nature.
Most geographical phenomena whether physical or human are not static and can change overtime. In economic geography, we study economic activities as well as factors affecting their distribution and changes. In climatology we study changes in temperature and rainfall due to global warming. Depending upon the changes in climate, changes are made in cropping patterns. Geographers study relationship between production, distribution and geographical factors. For example, tea is grown on a large scale in the State of Assam due to high temperature, heavy rainfall, red soil, hilly relief, cheaper water transportation due to the Brahmaputra River and cheap and skilled labour supply from nearby States of Bihar and Orissa. We study weather over a period of about 30 years and decide climate of that place or population of a country or the world over a period of time. Since, changes occur time to time. Thus, geography is dynamic in nature.
3.Geography is dualistic in nature.
There are two contrasting approaches to study the subject of geography. They are possibilism and environmental determinism. This contrast in approaches is called as dualism in geography. Some geographers are of the view that nature is more dominant than man. It is called environmental determinism. According to them, when we study geography, we study the earth. We study how natural resources have influence on economic activities, as well as food habits of people. For example, in coastal areas fishing activity is more developed and fish is the main food the people. Some geographers are of opinion that man dominates the nature. It is called possibilism. According to them man can make changes in nature due to his intelligence. the people. For example, there are polyhouses even in polar areas, in which temperature is controlled artificially and vegetables are grown. There are many other thinkers who have different approaches in geography. Thus, the study of geography is dualistic in nature.
1.Physical Geography is related to various branches of Science.
Almost every discipline, under natural and social sciences is linked with geography. Geomorphology, Climatology, Oceanography and Biogeography are the branches of physical geography. Geomorphology studies landforms, rock types, processes of formation of rocks, landforms, etc. Therefore, it is related to geology. Climatology studies elements of atmosphere such as temperature, winds, rainfall, humidity, natural disasters like cyclones, anticyclones, storms, etc. Therefore, it is related to meteorology Oceanography studies oceans and seas on the surface of the earth, ocean currents, ocean routes, etc. Therefore, it is related to Hydrology. Biogeography studies the distribution of plants and animals, their species, ecosystems, etc. Therefore, it is related to biology. Knowledge of mathematics is important for cartographic techniques, such as drawing of maps and diagrams. Similarly, knowledge of statistics is useful to do data analysis since various statistical techniques and hypotheses testing are used in data analysis. Thus, physical geography is related to various branches of sciences.
2.Branches of Geography,
There are three major branches of Geography – Physical Geography, Human Geography and Geographic Techniques. Geography has various sub-branches; however, the four major sub-branches of Physical Geography are Geomorphology, Climatology, Biogeography and Oceanography. Human geography comprises of six sub-branches, Historical Geography, Political Geography, Economic Geography, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography. Geographic Techniques have four branches, namely, remote sensing, quantification methods in geography, cartography and Geographic Information System (GIS).
3.Latest trends in Geography.
Currently, the explanation of all geographic phenomena depends upon the cause and effect relationship. Geographers developed number of disciplines within its boundaries.
– Number of techniques for analysis and prediction through data collection and modelling are also developed by geographers. Due to the dynamic nature of geography, new things are added in the subject. Use of audio-visual media and information technology has enriched the database. The latest technology of software has brought about better opportunities in data collection, interpretation, analysis and presentation. Presently, the use of GIS and GPS has become essential. Therefore, maps are made by using GIS software and have proved to be more accurate. Nowadays the use of mathematical modelling and computer models in applied geography has increased. They are used for prediction of weather changes or natural calamities. The above mentioned are all the latest trends in Geography.
4.Skills required for studying geography.
The skills required to study the methods and techniques used in geography have made the study of geography empirical and practical in nature. The study of geography is based on theory and observation. It is supported by the scientific study like data collection and data analysis through number of tools and techniques. The geographers developed skills for conducting surveys with the help of advanced technology. They have also acquired the skills to make use of satellite images for data collection. The geographers have attained the skills for experiments, data collection, data organisation, observation patterns, data analysis, research findings, etc. The geographers have learnt analytical techniques of data with the help of statistical techniques and representation of statistical data using graphs and maps.
1.Explain how the knowledge of Geography is important in our day-to-day life. Give examples.
The knowledge of geography is important in our day-to-day life because with geographical knowledge we can understand the basic physical systems that affect our everyday life. For example, the earth-sun relationship, water cycle, wind, ocean currents, etc. For the effective functioning of different places, we learn the physical and cultural characteristics of places. With the help of geography, we can understand the geography of the past, how geography had played an important role in the evolution of people, their ideas, places and environment. We can prepare a map of a province or territory, country and the world, so that one can understand the location of various countries. For example, the political map of the Asian continent gives idea about location of Asian countries. With the help of various distribution maps, we can understand distribution of minerals, crops, population, etc., in the world. For example, with the help of dot map we can understand spatial distribution of population in the world. With the help of economic geography, we can understand the development of economic activities in different countries of the world and their correlation with physical and economic factors. For example, we can study the world’s leading areas in fishing activities and their reasons. With the help of climatology, we understand atmospheric phenomenon, such as cyclones, global warming, etc.
2.Discuss the relationship between Geography and other subjects.
Geography is related to almost every discipline under natural and social sciences. There are three major branches of Geography, namely, Physical Geography, Human Geography and Geographic Techniques. Geography has various sub-branches; however, the four major sub-branches of Physical Geography are Geomorphology. Climatology, Biogeography and Oceanography. In Geomorphology we study the formation and types of landforms, gradient, rock structure, ete. This is related to the subject of geology. In Climatology we study the atmospheric elements such as temperature winds, rainfall, humidity, natural disasters like cyclones, anticyclones, storms, ete. This it is related to the subject of meteorology. In Oceanography we study the ocean currents, ocean routes, coastal features, etc., of oceans and seas. This it is related to the subject of hydrology. submarine relief,. In geography of soil, we study the components, layers, texture, and fertility of the soil, etc. This is related to the subject of pedology. Human geography comprises of six sub-branches, Historical Geography, Political Geography, Economic Geography, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography. In historical geography, we study the correlation of historical events with geographical factors. This is related to the subject of history. In Political Geography, we study the effect of geographical factors on political events. This is related to the subject of political science. In Economic Geography, we study the correlation of geographical factors and economic activities. This is related to the subject of economics. Similarly, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography are related to the subjects of psychology, sociology and demography respectively. Thus, it can be concluded by saying that geography has a strong relationship with other subjects in natural as well as human or social sciences.
3.Explain the nature of Geography in detail.
Geography is the study of the earth as a home of man, and various phenomena related to it. Therefore, geography is the study of the physical environment in relation to man. The physical environment has direct effect on cultural and social environments. The earth is dynamic in nature. Hence, we find variations in its physical and cultural/social environments. In geography we study the relation between the physical environment and production, distributions and their patterns and variations. Geographers study the location, geographical phenomena, whether physical or human, which are highly dynamic and its causes. Since geography is the study of space and time it makes geography dynamic in nature. In geographical study, the geographer tries to answer questions like what, why, where and when.
1.Physical Geography and Human Geography.
|Physical Geography||Human Geography|
|(i) Physical Geography is the branch of geography dealing with natural features.||(i) Human Geography is the branch of geography dealing with how human activities influence the culture, communities, economies, etc.|
|(ii) Geomorphology, Climatology, Oceanography, Biogeography, Geography of soils, are the branches of Physical Geography.||(ii) Historical Geography, Political Geography, Economic Geography, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography are the branches of Human Geography.|
|(iii) Physical geography is natural science.||(iii) Human geography is a social science.|
2.Possibilism and Determinism.
|(i) When man dominates nature, it is called possibilism.||(i) When nature dominates man, it is called determinism.|
|(ii) Due to intelligence, man makes changes in the natural environment.||(ii) Determinism asserts that development of human history, culture, society, lifestyle, etc., are shaped by their physical environment.|
|(iii) There are limitations to changes made by man in nature.||(iii) There are no limitations on impact of physical environment on human activities.|
1.Relationship between Geography and other subjects.
2.Draw a neat and well-labeled diagram:
Skills required to study Geography.
MH 12th std GEOGRAPHY FULL CHAPTER COMPLETED