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Chapter 7, Human Settlements, ssc, geography, Maharashtra board,

06 Nov 2020 5:59 am

Some amenities and facilities are given here. Tick (correct) in the relevant column and complete

the table on the basis of their presence in urban and rural areas or both. And write five sentences on each with examples from your vicinity.

SOLUTION

AmenityAvailable in VillagesAvailable in citiesExplanation
Petrol PumpPetrol pump is one of the most basic facilities in both rural area and urban area. In both rural and urban Bhandara, there are petrol pump eun by the goverment and private agencies. Nearly all the pumps are situated near the hoghways. Indian ol, Reliance and HP are the major services providers.
Weekly Market This facility is the majority found in the rural area. There are over 100 weekly markets in the district. These markets provide all kind of necessities to the people. Amangaon and Lakhan pur are the largest cattle market. Mostly agricultural commodities and other basic goods are sold in these markets. It is very rarlely foud in the urban areas of Bhandara.
Primary HealthcentreA health centre is one of the most basic facilities in both rural areas and urban areas. In the rural areasthere are PHC in Shahapur, Amangaon and many other sub-centres run by the Panchayats. In urban areas, There are many medical facilities, but the number of PHC is limited. 
Police OutpostPolice outpost and station is one of the most basic facilities in both rural area. Both the rural and urban areas have many police stations. There is the major Rural police station in Bhandara rural. In the urban areas, there are the offices of the SP, DySP and other officials. Besides this there are many police control roms in the district.
Art Gallery Both the rural and the urban Bhandara does not have any famous art gallery. The nearest art gallery in Mauda, about 1 hour from Bhandara. There are many production centres , art centres and galleries in Mauda. Some of them are Sachi gallery Gayatri art and the Numismatics galklery. Also, the area does not have any museum or other cultural centres.
Gram Panchayat This is mainly found  in the rural Bhnadara. The area has about 7 gram panchayats in the Bhandara, Lakhandur, Lakhani, Mohadi, Pauni,  Sakoi and Tumsar blocks. All the major decisions regarding the development of the villages, weekly markets and other facilities are taken inthe panchayat meetings.
AgriculturalProduce MarketCommittee (APMC) APMC is mainly found in the rural areas of Bhandara. There are 5 APMC in the district in Bhandara, Lakhandur, Lakhani, Pauni and Tumsar. It is constitutedby the state govermentr for regulating the trade in specific agaricultural, horticultural and livestock products. Wheat, Padduy, gram and peas are some of the crops covered by the APMC in Bhandara.
Primary SchoolSchools are one of the most basic facilities in both rural area and urban area. There are many Playschool and primary schools in the nearby Bhandara. Many of them are operated by private individuals. Many Playschools like Bachpan, Eurokids, Meghe and other primary schools like Maharshi Vidya Mandir and Royal Public School operate in the area.
Senior SchoolSchools are one of the most basic facilities in both rural area and urban area. There are many senior secondary schools in the nearby Bhandara. Many of them are operated by private individuals. Some of them are the Maharshi Vidya Mandir, Sunflag school, Shri Satyanarayana 9 and Royal Public School.
College Colleges are one of the most basic facilities in the both rural area and urban area. The number of colleges in the rural areas of Bhandara is very limited. The urban areas have a number of private and goverment colleges providing arts and technical degrees. Govt College of Education, Govt. ITI, Dr Milind Yerne college, J M patel college and Vidyaniketan colege, Vidharbha college are some of them.
ShopShop are one of the most basic facilities in both rural area and urban area. Both the rural and urban areas have many shops selling a variety of commodities. The rural areas also have many weekly markets. The number of supermarkets and other departmental stores in rural areas is very limited. The urbn areas of Bhnadara have some supermarkets and the small shopping malls.
Multi-specialityHospital Hospitals are one of the most basic facilities in both rural and urban area. The number of hospitals in the rural areas of Bhandara is very limited. The urban areas have a number of private and goverment multi-speciality hospitals. City Care, Lakh and smile multi- speciality hospitals are some of the private hospitals. Districts General Hospital is the goverment hospital in the area.
Metro station Railway are one of the most basic facilities in both rural area and urban area. There are no metro stations in the Bhandara area. But in may 2018, the Maharashtra metro rail corporation and the Indian railway decided to extemnd the Nagpur metro route to Katol, Wardha, Ramtek and Bhandara. Currently the Bhnadara road railway station serves the rail transportation needs of the area.
Bus stationRailway are one of the most basic facilities in both rural area and urban area. There are many bus services provided by the state goverment and privatre agencies. Goverment bus depots are present in both the rural and urban areas. Bhandara, Tirora, Gondiya, Pauni, Sakoli and Tumsar are the major bus stands in the region. All these areas also have respective bus depots.
University Universities are one of the most baisc facilities in both rural area and urban area. The number of Universities in the rural and urban aresa of Bhandara is very limited. The nearby cities have a number of private and goverment colleges providing arts and technical degrees. Mahatma Gandhi Central University, Ambedkar Technological University, Animal and Fisheries University and University of Health Sciences are some of the goverment universities.

Tell whether settlements shown in images  (a) and (b) are urban or rural.

(a)

(b)

SOLUTION

The settlements depicted in both the images are rural settlements.

Both the areas are depicted as having no proper facilities, building or the skyscrapers of the cities.

Both of them are even devoid of proper road facilities.

The area shown in figure  (a) is a very interior deserted area.

There are no signs of human habitation in the area.

The area shown in figure  (b) has a small patch of greenery in the vicinity.

There are few settlements in the area- most of them are very scattered.

Thus the areas depicted are rural areas that are away from the main cities.

Read the graph in figure below and answer the following questions:

(a)  What was the percentage of urbanisation in 1961?

(b)  In which decade was urbanisation the highest?

(c) In which decade was the growth of urbanisation lowest?

(d) What inference can you draw regarding India’s urbanisation after reading the graph?

SOLUTION

a). Urbanisation refers to the movement of people and human settlements from the rural areas to the urban areas.

Employment opportunities, higher standard of living, better facilities and infrastructure force people to migrate from rural areas to urban areas.

India experienced 18% urbanisation in 1961.

b). Urbanisation refers to the movement of people and human settlements from the rural areas to the urban areas.

Employment opportunities, higher standard of living, better facilities and infrastructure force people to migrate from rural areas to urban areas.

Urbanisation was highest in 2011. It was nearly 31.2%.

c). Urbanisation refers to the movement of people and human settlements from the rural areas to the urban areas.

Employment opportunities, higher standard of living, better facilities and infrastructure force people to migrate from rural areas to urban areas.

The growth of urbanisation was lowest between 1961 and 1971. It was only 0.2%.

d). Urbanisation refers to the movement of people and human settlements from the rural areas to the urban areas.

Rapid urbanisation is taking place in India because of the rapid increase in its population.

Because of the increase in its population, people require more land and other resources.

Thus villages have given way to the formation of cities and have contributed to the migration of people from rural res to urban areas.

Other factors like employment opportunities, a higher standard of living, better facilities and infrastructure also force people to migrate from rural areas to urban areas.

Between these years, India is experiencing increasing urbanisation. In 2011, it was nearly 31.2%.

Prepare a choropleth map showing urban population using the data given in the table below.

S.NOUrban population percentage categoryStates /UTs falling in the category
1.0-20Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, Odisha
2.21-40Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, Jammu & Kashmir, Nagaland, Manipur, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, A & N Islands, Punjab, Karnataka
3.41-60Gujarat, Maharashtra, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Mizoram
4.61-80Goa, Puducherry, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep
5.81-100Chandigarh , NCT of Delhi

SOLUTION

Draw a line graph from this table. Examine the graph carefully and answer the following questions.

Brazil percentage of urban population (1960 – 2010)

196019701980199020002010
47.156.86674.681.584.6
  1. What is the interval of the data?
  2. In which period did urbanisation occur rapidly?
  3. Write five sentences analysing the graph.

SOLUTION

a. The data depicts the urban population of Brazil between 1960 and 2010.

The interval represents the time span between the data is collected. Thus the interval of data is 10 years.

b. Urbanisation refers to the movement of people and human settlements from the rural areas to the urban areas.

Employment opportunities, higher standard of living, better facilities and infrastructure force people to migrate from rural areas to urban areas.

Rapid urbanisation occurred between 1960 and 1970. It was around 9.7% increase.

c. Urbanisation refers to the movement of people and human settlements from the rural areas to the urban areas.

Rapid urbanisation is taking place in India because of the rapid increase in its population.

Because of the increase in its population, people require more land and other resources.

Thus villages have given way to the formation of cities and have contributed to the migration of people from rural res to urban areas.

Other factors like employment opportunities, a higher standard of living, better facilities and infrastructure also force people to migrate from rural areas to urban areas.

Between these years, Brazil is experiencing increasing urbanisation. In 2010, Brazil had 84.6% of people living in urban areas.

Observe the two satellite images given below. Describe the settlements with respect to physiography. Considering the physiography, where could these settllements be located? Find out their settlement pattern and limitations with respect to their future growth.

SOLUTION

Both the satellite images depict the different images of the same area in a different period of time. In both instances, the area has desert-like physiography.

Thus the settlements found in the region would be scattered.

Scattered/dispersed settlements are those in which the habitation regions are isolated or located far away from each other.

They are mostly found in the plateaus, deserts, hilly or forested areas.

The major limitations of the scattered settlement are:

• A threat to security: Since the people residing nearby are scattered, there will be serious security issues in the area.

• Isolation: The people residing in the area may experience isolation due to the lack of proper neighbours in the pattern of dispersed settlement.

• Poor transportation: The transportation network in the displaced settlement will be very poor owing to the topography of the region. This will be a very serious challenge to future development.

Difficult to tackle emergency situations: In the scattered settlement, it becomes very difficult to get emergency relief, rescue and aid in case of any accidents or calamities.

Choose the correct option :

1.The concentration of settlements is related to following major factors-

  • Proximity the to Sea
  • Plain region
  • Availability of water
  • climate

2.In North-eastern part of Brazil, which types of settlements are found?

  • Nucleated
  • Linear
  • Dispersed
  • star-shaped

3.Where do you find dispersed settlements in India?

  • Near the rivers
  • Near the transport routes
  • Hilly areas
  • industrial regions

4.Concentrated settlements are found in Narmada Valley-

  • Forested Land
  • Cultivable Land
  • Undulating topography
  • industries

5.Which State has the least urbanization in Brazil ?

  • Para
  • Amapa
  • Espirito Santo
  • Parana

Give geographical reason.

1.Availability of water is a major factor affecting settlements.

SOLUTION

Human settlements are the organised and structured human habitation in different regions.

The concentration of settlement depends upon many important factors like the availability of water, natural resources, climatic conditions and the type of region.

Even though the nature of the region and the climatic conditions also influence the concentration of settlement, the availability of clean water is the most important determinant.

Because of this reason, we can find most of the ancient human habitations in the banks of the rivers. Indraprastha, Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, and Varanasi are some examples of such settlements.

Thus the availability of water is the most important determinant of the concentration of human settlement.

2.In Brazil, majority of population is found in the eastern coastal areas.

SOLUTION

In Brazil, the majority of the population is found in the eastern coastal areas.

Even though the coastal climate is hot and humid, the region has adequate availability of water and natural resources.

The transportation facilities are also much better in eastern Brazil.

The settlements in the north-eastern parts of Brazil are scattered/dispersed in which the habitation regions are isolated or located far away from each other.

This is because of the occurrence of severe droughts and famines in the highlands because of the scarcity of water.

Thus, agriculture practices will be lesser resulting in sparse settlements.

3.Urbanization is increasing rapidly in India.

SOLUTION

Urbanisation refers to the movement of people and human settlements from the rural areas to the urban areas.

Rapid urbanisation is taking place in India because of the rapid increase in its population.

Because of the increase in its population, people require more land and other resources.

Thus villages have given way to the formation of cities and have contributed to the migration of people from rural res to urban areas.

Other factors like employment opportunities, a higher standard of living, better facilities and infrastructure also force people to migrate from rural areas to urban areas.

4.Settlements are sparse in north-eastern Brazil.

SOLUTION

Human settlements are the organised and structured human habitation in different regions.

The concentration of settlement depends upon many important factors like the availability of water, natural resources, climatic conditions and the type of region.

The settlements in the north-eastern parts of Brazil are scattered/dispersed in which the habitation regions are isolated or located far away from each other.

This is because of the occurrence of severe droughts and famines in the highlands because of the scarcity of water.

Thus, agriculture practices will be lesser resulting in sparse settlements

5.Except Delhi and Chandigarh, urbanization is low in other parts of India.

SOLUTION

Urbanisation refers to the movement of people and human settlements from the rural areas to the urban areas.

Urbanisation is increasing rapidly in India especially in Delhi and Chandigarh.

This is mainly because of the settlement pattern of the states.

Availability of plain, agriculturally productive land along with drinking water, improved human resources, employment opportunities, and other infrastructure is the main reasons for the higher urbanisation in these states.

Answer in short:

1.Write a comparative note on urbanisition in Brazil and India.

SOLUTION

Urbanisation refers to the movement of people and human settlements from the rural areas to the urban areas. It is an important phenomenon of the 21st century. People migrate to other areas because of factors like employment opportunities, a higher standard of living, better facilities and infrastructure.

BRAZIL

1. Brazil is one of the few developing countries that is experiencing a huge increase in urbanisation. Urbanisation is an important factor that is contributing to its economic growth.

2. Nearly 86% of the country’s population is living in cities. Cities like Sau Paulo is emerging as one of the major hubs of the country. But it is concentrated in the southern and the south-eastern parts of the country. This is because of the better facilities found in these parts.

3. Even though the southern coastal climate is hot and humid, the region has adequate availability of water and natural resources.

4. The transportation facilities are also much better.

5. The settlements in the north-eastern parts of Brazil are scattered/dispersed in which the habitation regions are isolated or located far away from each other. This is because of the occurrence of severe droughts and famines in the highlands because of the scarcity of water.

6. Thus, agriculture practices will be lesser resulting in sparse settlements. Also, the population in Amazon River basin is less.

7. Hence urbanisation is also less in the region. Now the government is encouraging ‘Go West’ policy to reduce regional imbalance and ensure balanced development.

INDIA

1. Urbanisation in India is also similar to that experienced in Brazil. About 34% of the population is living in urban areas.

2. Even though the rate is lesser in India, urbanisation is contributing to the rapid development in both the countries.

3. As of the present data, Delhi and Chandigarh experience the highest rate of urbanisation. But in India also the trend is lopsided.

4. Southern India is highly urbanised compared to Northern India. Goa is the most urbanised state with 62.17% of its population living in urban areas. It is followed by Tamil Nadu and Kerala. This is because of the higher level of development and a higher standard of living associated with the southern states as compared to the northern ones.

5. Northern states – except Delhi and Chandigarh -experience low levels of urbanisation. It is the lowest in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, and Rajasthan where people migrate to other states for better opportunities.

Thus, it can be said that in both Brazil and India the effects of urbanisation is lopsided.

2.Diffrentiate between the human settlements in Ganga river basin and the Amazon river basin.

SOLUTION

Both Ganga and Amazon Rivers are considered to be the lifeline of the respective countries – India and Brazil. Even though both are gigantic rivers of the countries, the nature of human settlements in their banks differ. The concentration of settlement depends upon many important factors like the availability of water, natural resources, climatic conditions and the type of region.

GANGA:

1. Ganga river basin in India is the second largest river basin in the country. Since it is the most fertile land of the country, this region is one of the most densely populated regions.

2. But the density is less in the mountainous regions as compared to its plains. The whole fertile land is called the northern plains. It is an important place opted for human settlement because of the fertility of the land.

3. Farming and dairying are the important occupations of the people. The main crop grown is paddy and wheat along with maize, millets, and gram.

4. Many highly populated cities like Allahabad, Lucknow, and Varanasi is located in its banks. Because of this, the transportation network, communication facilities, and the infrastructure is highly developed in the region.

5. But because of the growing population and human interferences, the region is depleting resulting in many problems.

AMAZON

  1. Amazon River basin is the largest river basin in the world. It has been exploited since the earlier days of human civilisation, but has still some of the unexplored parts of the world.

2. Since the river system is located near the equatorial region, it is both hot and humid and experiences high rainfall. This has resulted in the growth of dense forests which is home to innumerable flora and fauna.

3. People live sparsely in the river basin as most of the area is covered by the dense forests. They cut few trees and practice shifting cultivation.

4. The land is very fertile. The main crop grown is cassava along with tapioca, maize, coffee, and cocoa. They also practice fishing and hunting.

5. Because of the human interference, the forest cover is depleting and leading to many ecological problems.

3.Why do human settlements grow in specific locations only?

SOLUTION

Human settlements are the organised and structured human habitation in different regions. It determines how the population is distributed in different regions. Human settlements grow only in specific regions. Some important determinants of the location-specific growth of settlements are:

* Availability of water resources: An important factor in determining the growth of human settlements is the availability of fresh water. The existence of lakes and rivers is an important feature influencing the growth of settlements. Only these regions will permit cultivation and allied activities like dairying. Because of this reason, we can find most of the ancient human habitations in the banks of the rivers. Indraprastha, Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Varanasi are some examples of such settlements.

  • The topography of land: The landscape is an important aspect influencing the growth of human settlements. Flat, plain and fertile lands will be more densely populated as compared to hilly and rugged areas. The transportation and other facilities will be more developed in the plains leading to a higher concentration of population.

* Climate: Climate of the area also determines the density of human settlement. Population and settlements will be much lesser in deserts and arid lands with less rainfall. Population will be higher in the coastal areas and the plains even if the climate is hot and humid because of adequate rainfall.

* Natural resources: Regions rich in fertile soil and other natural resources will be densely populated than others. The rich natural resources will provide more opportunities for the people thus improving their quality of life.

* Infrastructure development: The population will be concentrated in areas with high infrastructure development and facilities. This will improve the transportation and communication network resulting in the migration of more people.

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