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Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

05 Nov 2020 5:24 pm

Tiger is the national animal of India. The number of tigers is decreasing day by day. The situation is similar to elephants.

Find information about such plants and animals. Find about their habitats. What should be done to conserve these animals? In which regions can this be done?

Make a presentation of their possible places.

SOLUTION

The animals and plants which are on the verge of extinction are called Endangered species.

Endangered animals:

AnimalHabitat
1. One-Horned RhinocerousThe Himalayan foothhills of India it can be spotted in Kaziranga National Park, Dudhwan Tiger reserve, Probitora Wildlife Sanctuary.
2. Nilgiri TahrThe Tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats and it can be spotted in Nilgiri hills, Animallai hills, Periyar wildlife sanctuary.
3. Bengal TigersDeciduous forests, tropical everegreen forests, thorn forests and grass jungles and can be spotted in Tadoba National park, Jim corbett National Park, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Bandhavgarh National park.
4. Asiatic LionsSasan Gir jungle area and can be spotted only in Gir National park.
5. Blackbucks or the Indian AntilopesPlains, Grasslands and scrubs and can be spotted in Ranthambore National park, Corbett National park, Kanha National park. 
6. Lion Tailed MascaqueTropical forests of the Western ghatsn and can be soppoted in Silent Valley National park, Mundanthural Tiger Reserve.

Endangered Plants:

PlantScientific name Region
MalavuramPterospermum reticulartamTamil Nadu
Ebony TreeDiospyros CelibicaKarnataka
Malabar LilyChlorophytum malabaricumTamil Nadu
Spider WortBelosynapsis viviparaMadhya Pradesh
jeemikandaCeropegia OdarataGujarat and Rajasthan

Causes for the decline in the population of flora and fauna:

Illegal human activities such as poaching, hunting and destruction of the natural habitats of these plant and animal species are the major reasons.

Steps to conserve the endangered species:

The following are some of the steps that can be taken to conserve the rich flora and fauna of India from getting extinct:

1. Creating awareness among the public about the importance of animals and plants.

2. Making sure that the laws regarding wildlife are implemented properly.

3. Visiting national parks.

4. A boycott of products made of animal skin, leather and horns etc.,

5. Afforestation.

Many wildlife habitats can be created in hilly and mountainous regions where we can find dense forests gifted by nature.

On the basis of the information given in the chapter, figures and maps, complete the table below:

Sr.no.Type of ForestCharacteristicsRegions in IndiaRegions in Brazil
1Tropical Forests1.Broad-leaved evergreen trees  
2Semi arid thornyvegetation1.2.  
3Savannah1. Scanty bushes and shlike trees andrain-resistant grass  
4Tropicalsemi-deciduous1. Mixed type of vegetation  
5Grasslands1. Grass land region like the Pampas of Argentina  

SOLUTION

 

Sr.no.Type of ForestCharacteristicsRegions in IndiaRegions in Brazil
1Tropical Forests1.Broad-leaved evergreen treeswestern ghatsguyuna highland
2Semi arid thornyvegetation1.Less than 500 mm of rainfall2. small sized leavesdeccan plateaucaatinga
3Savannah1. Scanty bushes and shlike trees andrain-resistant grassterai grasslandscerrado
4Tropicalsemi-deciduous1. Mixed type of vegetationnorthern plains parana basin
5Grasslands1. Grassland region like the Pampas ofArgentinashola graslandspampas

Identify the odd man out

1.Forest type of Brazil-

  • thorny bush type vegetation
  • evergreen forests
  • the Himalayan Forests
  • Deciduous forests

2.With reference to India-

  • Mangrove forests
  • Mediterranean forests
  • Thorny bush-type vegetation
  • equatorial forests

3.With reference to fauna of Brazil-

  • Anaconda
  • Tamairin
  • Red Panda
  • Lion

4.With reference to flora of India-

  • Deodar
  • Anjan
  • Orchid
  • Banyan

Match the columns :

a) Evergreen Forests(i) Sundar trees
b) Deciduous Frests(ii) Pine
c) Coastal Forests(iii) Pau Brasil
d) Himalayan Forests(iv) Khejadi
e) Thorny and bush-type vegetation(v) Teak
 (vi) Orchid
 (vii) Sal

SOLUTION

 

a) Evergreen Forestsiii) Pau Brasil, vi) Orchid
b) Deciduous Frestsv) Teak
c) Coastal Forestsi) Sundar trees
d) Himalayan Forestsii) Pine, vii) Sal
e) Thorny and bush-type vegetationiv) Khejadi

Answer in short:

 1.Differentiate between the forest types of Brazil and India.

SOLUTION

BRAZILINDIA
1. Evergreen forest: concentrated in one area around the amazon river basin.1.Evergreen forests: Unevenly spread across country with concentration in western ghats and the north east
2. Brazil does not have coastal forest2. Indiha has Himalayan and coastal forests
3. 23 per cent area covered by forest.3. 19 per cent area covered by forest.

2.Correlate wildlife and natural vegetation in India and Brazil.

SOLUTION

Relation between the wildlife and natural vegetation in India and Brazil:

1. Vegetation:

Both are highly diverse in terms of flora with common species like mahogany, orchids, thorny shrubs etc. depending on the type of forests.

2. Wildlife:

Both are Mega-diverse countries with common animals like monkeys, crocodiles, birds like parrots, insects, fishes etc.

3.What environmental issues are faced by Brazil and India?

SOLUTION

Environmental issues:

1. Commercial activities like poaching and habitat destruction has led to the extinction of many species.

2. Deforestation is the leading cause for the destruction of forests which in turn effects the environment badly.

3. Other issues include deforestation in the Amazon basin, illegal wildlife trade, air and water pollution, land degradation caused by mining activities, wetland degradation and severe oil spills, among others.

4.What are the major causes of degradation of forest in Brazil and India?

SOLUTION

Causes of degradation of forests:

1. Deforestation is the major cause for degradation of forests. It is done for mining, building dams, expanding agriculture etc.

2. Industrial development has caused degradation of forests through pollution, over-exploitation, encroachments etc.

Rainforests have decreased in size primarily due to deforestation.

Despite reductions in the deforestation rate over the last ten years, the Amazon rainforest will be reduced by 40% by 2030 at the current rate.

5.Why does the deciduous type of vegetation occupy most of India?

SOLUTION

Deciduous forests require foll. conditions ot grow which are found in most parts of India:

1. Rainfall between 70-200 cm.

2. hot and humid climate.

Common trees are teak, mulberry, bamboo, sandal wood, etc. It is found majorly in Northern, Central and Southern India.

Give geographical reason

1. The northern part of Brazil is covered by dense forests.

SOLUTION

The northern part of Brazil is closest to the equator and therefore receives maximum rainfall.

Evergreen forests are found in this region around the Amazon basin as it rains throughout the year.

These are highly dense in terms of both vegetation and wildlife.

Because of the deposition of sediments brought up by the river amazon and as the amazon canal is 150km in width, it forms ideal conditions in terms of soil and water for the growth of dense forests.

Also, there is plenty of sunlight in Brazil as the Tropic of Capricorn passes through it.

2.Vegetation is scarce in the high altitudes of Himalayas.

SOLUTION

Vegetation is scarce in the high altitudes of Himalayas because of two reasons:

1. extremely cold weather.

2. top is covered with snow.

Only seasonally flowering trees are found in the high altitudes.

3.A wide variety of species of insects is found in Brazil.

SOLUTION

A wide variety of insects is found in Brazil because it has a high diversity and density of wildlife in the Amazon rainforests.

Evergreen forests are found in this region around the Amazon basin as it rains throughout the year.

Because of the deposition of sediments brought up by the river amazon and as the amazon canal is 150km in width, it forms ideal conditions in terms of soil and water for the growth of dense forests.

Apart from the numerous species found in the tropical rainforests of north, they are also found in the swamps, grasslands, deciduous forests etc.

4.Wildlife in India is decreasing day by day.

SOLUTION

Wildlife in India is decreasing day by day due to many reasons which are as below:

1. habitat destruction through deforestation and pollution.

2. Illegal activities like poaching.

3. Human animal conflict

Government is taking various initiatives to protect the wildlife of India by bringing in laws against poaching and creating awareness on animal protection like the ‘Project Tiger’, etc.

5.Like India, there is a need of conservation of forests in Brazil too.

SOLUTION

A wide variety of wildlife is found in Brazil because it has high diversity, especially in the Amazon rainforests.

Evergreen forests are found in this region around the Amazon basin as it rains throughout the year.

Because of the deposition of sediments brought up by the river amazon and as the amazon canal is 150km in width, it forms ideal conditions in terms of soil and water for the growth of dense forests.

Apart from the numerous species found in the tropical rainforests of the north, they are also found in the swamps, grasslands, deciduous forests, etc.

Forests in Brazil also need conservation like India because they are under the threat of commercial activities like deforestation and pollution.

Traditional agricultural practice like slash and burn is also a cause of destruction.

In India, the government is taking various initiatives to protect the wildlife of India by bringing in laws against poaching and creating awareness on animal protection like the ‘Project Tiger’, etc.

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