chapter 4 – Social and Political Movements,

27 Dec 2020 4:29 pm

Balbharati solutions, for, Social Science, History, and, Civics, 10th, Standard, SSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, chapter 4, Social, and, Political Movements, Latest edition,

Exercise | Q 1.1 | Page 96

Choose the correct option from the given options and complete the sentence. 

____________ is the main demand of farmers movement. 

Right to cultivate on the forest land 

To get the right price for agricultural product 

Protection of consumers 

Building of dams


To get the right price for agricultural product

To increase agricultural production and become self-sufficient with regard to food grains ____________ was initiated. 

Water revolution 

Green revolution 

Industrial revolution 

White revolution


Green revolution

Exercise | Q 1 | Page 96

Write note on : 

Tribal movement


The origin of Tribal movement dates back to the pre-independence days. The British government had deprived tribal people of their rights to livelihood on forest resources and as a result of that, a tribal uprising took place in various parts of the country. It included tribes like Kolam (Chota Nagpur), Gond (Orissa), Koli Bhilla Ramoshi (Maharashtra), Santhal and Munda (Bihar).

The main demand of the tribal movement is for the government to accept their rights over forests, they should be allowed to collect forest produce and cultivate forest land.

Workers movement


Workers movement in India was organized under Trade unions that saw its birth in the background of industrialization in British India.

Industrial workers frequently went on strike for their demands of better wages and improved working hours.

One such incident was reported as the railway workers’ strike in 1899.

The first organization for resolving workers’ issues was established in 1920, known as the All India Trade Union Congress.

In the post-independence era, trade unions got more effective in 1960s and 1970s, organizing several agitations but saw its disintegration in 1980s and its steady decline in the face of globalization in 1990s. Some of the concerns of the workers’ movements are:

• Unstable employment conditions

• Contract labour and financial insecurities of workers

• Absence of legal protection for workers

• Long working hours

• Insecurities at workplace

• Health hazards at work place, etc.

Answer the following question in brief. 

Explain the activities/role/functions  of environmental movement.


The environmental movement is an important step towards environmental protection which is recognized as a global concern. Its working is organized on several levels (local, national, international) to prevent environmental degradation. It aims to create awareness and drive policy making on issues like sustainable energy, protection of forest and biodiversity, severe effects of pollution and degradation of air, water, soil etc.

Explain the nature of farmers movement in India.


The history of farmers’ movement in India dates to the time of our independence struggle. It was inspired by the thoughts of Mahatma Phule, Justice Ranade and Mahatma Gandhi against the anti-agriculturist policies of the British. It has continued to be active and became more effective after the Green Revolution which increased the economic gap between rich farmers and poor farmers. Some of the demands of the farmers’ movements are:

• Appropriate prices for agricultural goods

• Industry status for Agriculture

• Implementations of the recommendations of the Swaminathan Commission report

• Debt relief and debt cancellation

• National policy for Agriculture

For which reforms were the women’s movement in the pre-independence period fighting?


The women’s movements in the pre-independence period were fighting for eliminating injustice and exploitation against women, helping them lead a respectful and socially active life. Some of the reforms it demanded were:

• Widow re-marriage

• Women education

• Right to vote

After Independence, women were granted equal political rights by the constitution, however, the social struggle for equality continued.

Explain the following statement by giving reason. 

Movements are important in a democracy.


Movements are important in a democracy because:

1. Different social problems are discussed through these movements.

2. It is a way of attracting the attention of Government towards a cause.

3. The Government & common people get more necessary information about the issues through leaders and activists.

4. It helps the government take an informed decision on the subject.

5. Right to protest is an important democratic right, hence social movements strengthen democratic processes.

Movements do not need a strong leadership.


Movements need a strong leadership to keep it active and effective. A Movement is a collective struggle, people need a strong leader for right guidance to reach their objective.

For instance, India’s freedom struggle was marked with emergence of a strong political leadership in the twentieth century (1900s), prior to that the independence efforts were scattered in regions and divided in their political stances. It found a direction in non-violence and political non-cooperation under the leadership of Gandhi. While multiple groups continued to fight for India’s freedom in their respective ways, the common masses found their aspirations aligned with the Gandhian movement for his charismatic leadership.

Consumer movement came into existence.


The consumer movement came into existence in 1986 with the Consumer Protection Act to address cases of frauds in the economic exchanges. It takes each citizen to be a consumer and has a broader objective is to protect the consumer against adulteration and frauds, understanding the changing nature of consumer grievances.

The Consumer Protection Act proved its importance with the economic liberalization of India in 1990s. The consumer forums proved to be a good system of check and balance into quality control and after sales services in the market place.

Write a report on movements in your area which are working to resolve general problems.


In my city, Jodhpur, currently the initiative has been taken by the people to clean in area (Madhuban) by making arrangements to dump the waste rather than throwing it in the corners of the road.


Recently when I visited my town, I found out that to resolve the general problem of dumping waste, the people are taking initiative in various ways. As the situation in this area was worsening, some people took the initiative to solve this problem.

In Madhuban, People were dumping waste in their nearby corners as the dustbins were already filled. Municipal people didn’t bother to clean up the area at least once on an alternate day depending upon the availability of dustbins provided in the location. Hardly, there was proper facility provided to dump the waste. People had to go to the other areas to dump waste as there were not enough dustbins provided.

There were some people who took initiative firstly by complaining to the Municipal Corporation to provide a required number of dustbins in Madhuban (at least in every colony). Some people started to travel with their own carrier tempo with a song playing with lyrics “Sunlo bhaiya sunlo bhabhi sunlo bhaiyaji, kachre waale dabbe me tum Kachra daalo ji”. They go to every colony with this temp and charge 50 Rs a month for this. They also take waste bags kept outside the houses and charge extra 10 Rs for this otherwise the individual has to dump waste on his own when the tempo comes outside the home.

Prepare a format of a complaint you will submit under consumer protection act if you are cheated in purchase of vegetables or grains.


CASE: Miss Devika Pillai purchased Grains from Mr. Pankaj & Co. operating in the same town, in January 2019. The grains purchased contained chemicals and colours to make it look more shiny and fresh. As a result, Miss Devika Pillai approaches the District forum.


For being cheated in the purchase of grains


Consumer dispute case no. 1234/2019

A petition under Section-11 Consumer Protection Act

And in the matter of :

Miss Devika Pillai

3 GHA 22 Madhuban, Basni, 1st phase, Jodhpur (Raj.)


Owner of the Shop

Mr. Pankaj & Co.

3B12, Chopasini Housing Board, Jodhpur.


Hon’ble President and

Members of the District Forum


May it please your honours:

This complaint petition is being filed on behalf of Miss Devika Pillai 3 GHA 22 Madhuban, Basni, 1st phase, Jodhpur (Raj.) referred hereafter as Complainant, and is as follows :

1.0 That this complaint Petition is being filed under Sec.

2 (1)(b)(i) of the Consumer Protection Act.

2.0 That the opposite party is engaged in the business of selling vegetables and grains in the known markets, apart from other activities.

(Narration of the Incident)

3.1 That on 5th January. 2019 (date of purchasing grains), the complainant deposited a sum of Rs 1 lakh to purchase 40 kg of Grains and the receipt (receipt no. -228) has been provided for this. A Photocopy of the said receipt is furnished at Annexure-I.

3.2 After knowing about being cheated, when the complainant approached the shopkeeper, he initially refused to talk on this matter and later denied of such act done by him. Hence, the complainant wrote to the shopkeeper, requesting to take an immediate intervention. Copy of the letter has been furnished at Annexure – II.

3.3 As a result, till date O.P No. 1 did not bother to honour the directives of a complainant, and the complainant is still didn’t receive his money back.

3.4 That the O.P had tried to sell grains which are unhealthy to consume by the complainant.


In the view of the submissions contained in the preceding paragraphs, the complainant most respectfully prays to the Hon’ble Forum to direct the Opposite Parties to:

(a) refund the cost of the purchased grain, Rs. <1 lakh> along with 10% interest;

(b) to pay a sum of Rs. 10,000/- towards the physical strain and mental agony suffered by the complainant and his family members (compensation); and

(c) to pay a sum of Rs. 1,000/- towards cost of this petition (Cost);

For which act of kindness, the complainant shall, as is duty bound, ever pray

Devika Pillai


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