Chapter 4 – Primary Economic Activities.

07 Jan 2021 4:31 pm

Chapter 4, Primary Economic Activities, hsc, geography, Maharashtra board, ebalbharathi solution,

Chapter 4: Primary Economic Activities

Choose the correct option and complete the sentence:

1.Gathering of various products from the forests for livelihood is mainly carried in


  • Temperate coniferous forests
  • Temperate Deciduous forests
  • Tropical deciduous forests
  • Equatorial evergreen forests

2.Ideal location for fishing


  • rugged coasts, shallow seas, hot climate, growth of planktons
  • shallow seas, confluence of warm and cold ocean currents, growth of planktons, cold climate
  • continental shelf, growth of planktons, good fishing skills, cold climate
  • continental shelf, rugged coasts, growth of planktons, cold climate

3.Primary Economic activity not related directly to latitudinal locations


  • lumbering
  • fishing
  • mining
  • agriculture

4.Characteristics of extensive commercial agriculture


  • monoculture, use of water, tropical, cereal production
  • monoculture, use of machinery, tropical, cereal production
  • monoculture, use of manual labour, equator, Thailand, horticulture
  • monoculture, use of scientific know how, sub-tropical, production of pulses

1.Complete the chain

(1) Intensive subsistence agriculture(1) Dogger bank(1) Small size of farm
(2) Pampas grassland region(2) Offshore oil and gas production(2) Unfavourable
(3) Fishing(3) Rice(3) Bombay high
(4) Gathering(4) Dense forest(4) NE Atlantic Ocean
(5) Mining(5) Commercial animal husbandry(5) South America


(1) Intensive subsistence agriculture(3) Rice(1) Small size of farm
(2) Pampas grassland region(5) Commercial animal husbandry(5) South America
(3) Fishing(1) Dogger bank(4) NE Atlantic Ocean
(4) Gathering(4) Dense forest(2) Unfavourable Climate
(5) Mining(2) Offshore oil and gas production(3) Bombay high

Write short notes on

1.Plantation agriculture


  1. Plantation agriculture is an extensive type of agriculture having large farm size on which one crop is cultivated. This is known as monoculture.
  2. Care has been taken to maintain the quality of the crop using scientific methods. This type of agriculture is modern as well as capital intensive agriculture.
  3. Since most of the work is done by human labour this type of agriculture is also referred to as labour intensive agriculture.
  4. The plantation crops once grown provides production for 10 to 15 years.
  5. Tea, coffee, rubber, cocoa, cashew nut, spices, etc., are the most important crops. For example, Rubber plantations in Kerala or tea plantations in Assam.
  6. Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Caribbean islands are the important countries where plantation agriculture is practiced.

2.Physical factors and fishing


Development of fishing requires specific physical factors. Therefore, it is developed on a commercial scale where physical factors are favourable for fishing. The following are the important physical factors, which can be responsible for the development of fishing.

  1. Broad continental shelf, with shallow water is favourable. For example, continental shelf along the eastern coastline of Japan is broad and water is shallow.
  2. Warm and cold ocean currents should meet near the coastline, so that plankton (favourite fish food) is available in plenty.
  3. Broken coast line which provides natural ports and harbours.
  4. Cold climate is favourable for natural preservation of fish.
  5. Since above all physical factors are present on the north-east coast of USA, north western coastline of Europe as well as in Japan, commercial fishing is well developed.

3.Lumbering on a commercial scale


Commercial lumbering is well developed in coniferous forest region of Canada, North Western Europe and Soviet Union. The important factors responsible for the development of commercial lumbering in the above areas are as follows.

  1. In coniferous forest one species of trees are found over an extensive area.
  2. Coniferous trees are tall and away from each other so lumbering is easy.
  3. Wood is soft and durable. Coniferous forests provide good raw material for paper and pulp industry and furniture making industry.
  4. Due to good quality of wood (softwood) it has great demand in the world market.
  5. Cool and pleasant climate is favourable for labour to work throughout the year.

4.Hunting and loss of ecosystem


Before the development of agriculture hunting was the important activity of man to obtain food. Many animal species were becoming extinct because of large scale hunting. Therefore, to protect the ecosystem, in many countries commercial hunting is banned. Presently, many laws are being passed to conserve and protect the animals and ecosystem. Yet, many tribal people such as Eskimos in Tundra region, Pygmies of Equatorial Selvas, Bushmen of Kalahari, Sentinels in Andaman etc., are still hunting.

Give geographical reasons:

1.Agriculture is done on a large scale in India.


More than 46 percent of the total population of India is engaged in Agricultural Activities.

– In northern India, we have extensive fertile alluvial soil in Gangetic plains most suitable for the development of agriculture. In south peninsular India, there is very fertile black cotton soil suitable for a variety of crops. Along the coastal lines fertile soil is found in the deltas of river Krishna, Godavari, Mahanadi, Tapi, Narmada, etc. Many rivers like Ganga. Yamuna, Godavari, Tapi, Narmada and their thousands of tributaries and canals provide water for irrigation. The economic and social factors, including labour, market, capital, transportation facilities, storage facilities and government policies, etc., are all favourable for the development of agriculture.

2.Mining is developed in Chhota Nagpur plateau of India.


The distribution of minerals is highly uneven in India. The geology of Chhota Nagpur region is very rich in minerals. There is concentration of minerals like iron-ore, manganese, mica, copper, limestone, and lead in Chhota Nagpur region. The government policy, capital investment in mining activities, technological development, availability of skilled labour, transport facilities, etc., are favourable for the development of mining activity in Chhota Nagpur region. Development of many industries related to minerals are located in this area, which gave boost to the development of mining activities.

3.Lumbering is developed on a large scale in Canada.


Lumbering is one of the most important economic activity in the areas covered by coniferous forest in Canada. In Canada coniferous forest grow in large belt, since the climate is suitable for the growth of coniferous trees. In these forests only one species of trees grows in one area which is favourable for the lumbering. The development of lumbering depends upon the type of wood, climate, market and transport facilities. Commercial lumbering is developed in Canada because there is coniferous forest region, which provides soft wood, which is easy to cut, carry and durable. Cool climate of Canada, well developed transport facilities for the movement of logs, use of machinery for logging, large demand in local and international market for paper and pulp industries, limited development of other economic activities due to extreme cold climate are the other factors responsible for lumbering in Canada.

4.Extensive agriculture is a commercial type of agriculture.


Extensive commercial agriculture was developed in temperate grassland region in Steppes, Prairies, Downs, Pampas and Veld grasslands. In these grassland areas population density is low and size of farms is very large from few hundred to thousand acres. There is extensive use of machinery from sowing to harvesting. Modern and scientific methods of agriculture are used, so production is large. The per hectare production is low whereas per capita production is high. Since population in those grasslands is very low and there is surplus production, therefore, large quantities of food grains are available for export, so this agriculture is known as commercial type of agriculture.

5.Lumbering is practiced more in coniferous region than in tropical region.


Lumbering activity depends upon nature of wood – hard or soft, density of forest, number of species in the forest, transportation facilities, use of machinery and market. In coniferous forest region trees provide softwood, which is easy to cut and durable. In coniferous forest region one type of species are found in extensive area, so lumbering is easy. In coniferous forest region there is use of machinery for lumbering and transport facilities are also well developed. There is lot of demand for softwood in local and international market, hence commercial lumbering is more developed. On the other hand, in tropical region, density of trees is very high, different types trees grow in close proximity, so lumbering is difficult. In tropical region surface movement is difficult and transport facilities are not developed because of marshy land. In tropical region there is no local market since trees provide hardwood and therefore commercial lumbering is not developed.

6.Hunting has been banned.


In the olden days hunting was the most important primitive activity of man to obtain food. Since agriculture was not developed, it was the only source of food for man. As a result, large number of animals were killed to such an extent, that some of the species of animal have become extinct or at the verge of extinction. In order to conserve and protect animals, hunting is banned all over the world.

Differentiate between:

1.Lumbering in equatorial forests and Temperate forests.


Equatorial ForestsTemperate Forests
(i) It is a tropical evergreen forest.(i) It is a temperate coniferous forest.
(ii) It is mixed forest.(ii) One species of trees are found over an extensive area.
(iii) Wood is hard.(iii) Wood is soft.
(iv) Hot and humid climate, suitable for labour.(iv) Cool and pleasant climate is suitable for labour.
(v) Surface movement difficult.(v) Surface movement not difficult.
(vi) Mechanisation not possible for cutting trees.(vi) Mechanisation is used for cutting trees.
(vii) No demand in local market.(vii) Local market well developed.

2.Plantation agriculture and Extensive commercial agriculture.


Plantation AgricultureExtensive Commercial Agriculture
(i) Developed in tropical region.(i) Developed in temperate region.
(ii) Labour intensive farming.(ii) Machinery is more used.
(iii) Only crops are grown.(iii) Commercial animal rearing is also done along with farming.
(iv) Tea coffee, cocoa spices are important crops.(iv) Wheat and maize are important crops.
(v) This type of agriculture is practiced in Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, etc.(v) This type of agriculture is practiced in temperate grasslands of North America, South America, Europe and Asia.
(vi) Crops for export purpose.(vi) Crops for export purposes.

3.Mining and Fishing.


(i) Since ancient times man is using minerals as raw material.(i) Since ancient time man is using fish as a food.
(ii) Found naturally in crust of the earth.(ii) Found naturally but in rivers, lakes, seas and oceans.
(iii) Used as industrial raw materials.(iii) Used as a food.
(iv) Highly uneven distribution.(iv) Found everywhere in waterbodies.
(v) Availability of minerals depends upon geological structure.(v) Availability of fish depends on nature of coast line, cool climate, cold and warm ocean water currents etc.

1.What are the factors affecting commercial fishing?


Following factors affect commercial fishing.

  1. Extensive continental shelf with shallow water. For example, Dogger bank fishing area.
  2. Confluence of warm and cold ocean water currents, which is favourable for the growth of plankton. For example, Gulf warm ocean current and Labrador cold current meet together near Dogger bank on North Eastern coast of North America.
  3. Broken coastline for the development of ports.
  4. Traditional skills of some local people who are expert in fishing.
  5. Large size of population to provide demand for fish.
  6. Limited land to grow protein rich food, so that fish becomes staple food of people.
  7. Use of advanced fishing boats and fishing nets.
  8. Cool climate for natural preservation of fish.
  9. Forest resources to provide wood for ship building industry.

2.Write a note on Intensive Subsistence agriculture.


  1. Intensive subsistence farming is practiced in densely populated countries like China, India. Japan, Sri Lanka and east Asian countries.
  2. Since there is large population and limited fertile agricultural land, there is small land holding.
  3. Farmers work intensively to get maximum yield from available small land.
  4. Rice is the dominant food crop produced in this region.
  5. Mostly manual labour and animals are used for all agricultural activities.
  6. Most of the production is consumed locally and hence no surplus is available for export.
  7. Yield per hectare is high but yield per capita is low.

3.Give characteristics of Market Gardening.


The following are the characteristics of market gardening.

  1. It is a modern type of agriculture developed mainly on the fringe of highly industrialised and densely populated urban areas.
  2. Vegetables, fruits, milk, eggs, meat etc., are the important products produced.
  3. Size of the farm is very small like garden.
  4. Scientific and technological knowledge as well as manual labour to some extent is used in production.
  5. Use of capital is very high.
  6. Natural organic manures and chemical fertilizers are used.
  7. Developed in areas lying at the distance of overnight journey by trucks, so that perishable products can be carried to nearby city market as early as possible. For example, vegetables and fruits grown at Vasai and Virar are carried to Mumbai.

4.Write a note on the areas in the world practicing commercial animal husbandry.


  1. Commercial animal husbandry is practiced in 30°N to 60°N latitude, and 30°S to 55°S latitudes.
  2. Commercial animal husbandry is practiced in temperate grassland regions of steppes in Russia, prairies in North America, downs in Australia and velds in South Africa and Pampas plains of Argentina.
  3. In these areas there is cultivation of crops as well as grass for animals.
  4. In these areas agriculture and animal husbandry is done together.
  5. This type of farming needs huge capital investment and more use of modern machinery, advanced technology, market and large land.
  6. In North and South America, it is carried with the help of advanced technology on a commercial scale.

5.Mining is dependent on the extraction of naturally occurring minerals. Explain.


  1. Mining is one of the oldest economic activity of man.
  2. Man cannot produce minerals that are naturally found in the crust of the earth.
  3. This activity solely depends on the presence of minerals.
  4. It also depends on geology of the region, value of minerals, quality of  minerals, capital investments, technology and availability of skilled labour, etc.

6.Write in detail about the characteristics of primary economic activities.


  1. Hunting, gathering, fishing, rearing animals, mining and agriculture, etc., are the important primary economic activities of man.
  2. These activities are solely dependent on nature.
  3. Primary activities mean extraction of natural resources.
  4. These activities mainly produce raw materials required in different types of industries.
  5. Natural calamities affect most of the primary activities.
  6. In developing countries very large proportion of working population is engaged in primary activities, since there is less use of machinery.
  7. In developed countries there is less proportion of working population engaged in primary activities, since there is more use of machinery,

1.On an outline map of the world, show thefollowing with appropriate symbols and prepare an index:

  1. Dogger Bank fishing area.
  2. Area of lumbering in Asia.
  3. Area of animal husbandry in Australia.
  4. An area of agriculture in Europe.
  5. Mining area in Arabian Sea.
  6. Fishing area in South-West Atlantic Ocean.


1.Given below is the data about the continent wise employment engaged in primary economic activities in the year 2018. Draw a suitable diagram to represent the data and answer the questions that follow:

Continent% of population engaged in primary economic activities
North America14.93
South America14.94
  1. In which continents is less than 10% of the population engaged in agriculture?
  2. In which continent is more than 40% population engaged in agriculture?
  3. Looking at the given data, can you arrange these continents in an ascending order on the basis of level of economic development?


  1. In Europe less than 10% population is engaged in agriculture.
  2. In Africa more than 40% population is engaged in agriculture.
  3. Ascending order is as follows:
    Africa, Asia, Australia, South America, North America, Europe.



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