Chapter 4 – Pillars of Democracy.

17 Nov 2020 8:34 am

Chapter 4 – Pillars of Democracy. Alt

Chapter 4, Pillars of Democracy, English, fyjc, 11th std, Maharashtra board, English medium,

Discuss with your partner and choose the correct alternative.

1.‘Government of the people, by the people and for the people, shall not perish from the earth’. This famous statement is made by – ______________________.
  • Mahatma Gandhi
  • Nelson Mandela
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Dalai Lama

2.A system where the government is elected and ruled by people is called – ________________.
  • Bureaucracy
  • Aristocracy
  • Democracy
  • Autocracy

3.A democratic country is governed by, its – __________________.
  • Military
  • Police
  • Politicians
  • Constitution

The trinity of democracy comprises three principles.

Complete the web to show the trinity of democracy.

SOLUTION


Match the following.

1.Constitutiona.It is the freedom to go where you want, do what you want, etc.
2.Libertyb.It is the state of being equal, especially in status, rights, or opportunities.
3.Equalityc.It is a sense of common brotherhood.
4.Fraternityd.It is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organization, or other types of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

SOLUTION

1.Constitutiond.It is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organization, or other types of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.
2.Libertya.It is the freedom to go where you want, do what you want, etc.
3.Equalityb.It is the state of being equal, especially in status, rights, or opportunities.
4.Fraternityc.It is a sense of common brotherhood.

Pillars form support for concrete buildings. Metaphorically speaking a strong nation too depends on strong pillars. Discuss with your partner and explain the pillars of a democratic nation. Make a list of obstacles that are a threat to the progress of a nation.

SOLUTION

The Legislature, the executive, the judiciary, and the press are the 4 important pillars of a democratic nation.
Legislature
The legislature is an indispensable part of a democratic government that formulates the laws for a country through representatives elected by voting. Legislature includes the parliament and the state assemblies. When people‟s representatives strongly deliberate the laws in a legislature, democracy emerges victorious.
Executive
The president, the prime minister, his cabinet, and bureaucrats form the executive, the second pillar of democracy. These offices in a democracy carry out the implementation of policies and laws for the welfare of the people. A strong executive force is necessary for the smooth functioning of a democracy.
Judiciary
The judiciary looks after the application of law and constitution and gives impartial judgments in matters of state and individuals. The pillar of the judiciary plays a vital role in maintaining law and order and imparting justice in a democracy.
Press
The press communicates issues of public importance to the masses. Press is yet another important pillar of democracy that keeps a check on the government and ultimately serves the public interest.
Listed below are some of the obstacles that are a threat to the progress of a nation:

i. unemployment
ii. illiteracy
iii. population growth
iv. inflation
v. rising inequality
vi. corruption
vii. poverty
viii. red-tapism
ix. terrorism
x. black money
xi. interstate disharmony.

Form groups and use the following topic for discussion. Take the help of your college library and your teacher.

1.Need for democracy

SOLUTION

Need for democracy

  1. Democracy is a fair way to put people into power.
  2. Freedom granted to individuals to live a life of their choice.
  3. Criticism from opposition to the government in power
  4. Citizen’s right to question every action of a democratic government.
  5. Disadvantages of other forms of government.
  6. Citizens of other countries suffering at the hands of supreme authority.

2.Features of the Constitution of India

SOLUTION

Features of the constitution of India

  1. Drafting of the constitution of India
  2. Its structure – Parts, schedules, and appendices
  3. Sections pertaining to the legislature, government, and judiciary
  4. flexibility and scope for amendments.

3.Freedom of speech

SOLUTION

Freedom of speech

  1. The meaning and what it stands for
  2. The necessity of freedom of speech
  3. How people can suffer if freedom of speech is denied
  4. Adverse consequences of misuse of freedom of speech.

4.Dictatorship Vs Democracy

SOLUTION

Dictatorship Vs Democracy

  1. explanation of the two terms
  2. the way two governments function
  3. examples of countries following each of the two systems
  4. advantages of democracy over dictatorship
  5. Situations that justify the need for dictatorship.

5.Qualities of an ideal politician

SOLUTION

Qualities of an ideal politician

  1. clean track record
  2. a technically skilled and good orator
  3. should be delivering on his promises
  4. must be honest and have integrity
  5. strive towards the public interest.

6.Equality before law

SOLUTION

Equality before law

  1. all citizens are equal before the law
  2. no discrimination based on race, religion, gender, caste, and place of birth.
  3. why is it necessary in a democracy
  4. examples from the past that portray equality before the law.

State whether the following statement is true or false. Correct the false statement.

1.There is nothing wrong with being grateful to great men.

  1. True
  2. False

2.Hero-worship leads to dictatorship.

  1. True
  2. False

3.Liberty cannot be divorced from equality.

  1. True
  2. False

4.One man one vote and one vote one value.

  1. True
  2. False

5.Fraternity means common sense.

  1. True
  2. False

In his speech, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar has expressed his deep concern over the absence of two things in the then Indian society. Discuss with your partner and complete the web.

SOLUTION

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar has cited the quotes by John Stuart Mill and Daniel O’Connel. Go through the lesson and write down 4 to 5 lines for each of them.

SOLUTION

John Stuart Mill

  1. In the extract, John Stuart Mill has been quoted as “(not) to lay their liberties at the feet of even a great man, or to trust him with powers which enable him to subvert their institutions.”
  2. This is a word of caution for the people who trust in democracy.
  3. It is but natural to get overwhelmed by the achievements of a great man.
  4. At the same time, it is not wise enough to entrust him with all the powers that he can possibly misuse which can eventually cause damage to the institution.

Daniel O’Connell

  1. In the same extract, Daniel O’Connel has been quoted as ‘No man can be grateful at the cost of his honour, no woman can be grateful at the cost of her chastity and no nation can be grateful at the cost of its liberty.’
  2. Daniels talks about the limitations of being grateful to great men.
  3. Similar to how a man and a woman need to safeguard their honour and chastity respectively while being grateful, a nation must safeguard its liberty.
  4. In short, the quote emphasizes the importance of liberty when compared to gratefulness.

Discuss with your partner and make a list of steps that you feel are essential to unite the people of different castes, races, religions, and languages in India.

SOLUTION

Students do it Yourself.

Write your views/opinions in brief on the following topic.

1.We must always cast our votes.

SOLUTION

Voting is every citizen’s right in a democracy and it should be exercised religiously. Voting makes sure the right candidates get elected and run our government. We cannot blame the non-performance of a government if we do not turn out to vote. Not casting a vote is equivalent to not having faith in democracy.

2.Liberty, equality, and fraternity lead to an ideal nation.

SOLUTION

Liberty, equality, and fraternity are considered the trinity of democracy. Liberty gives impetus for progress, equality ensures equal opportunities, and contentment and fraternity provide a healthy atmosphere and solidarity in times of distress. These three essentials go hand in hand in an ideal nation.

3.Steps to be taken to eradicate inequality.

SOLUTION

The preliminary steps to eradicate inequality are imparting education and empowering individuals. The steps to eradicate economic inequality would include employment generation and redistribution of wealth. This can be achieved by a progressive collection of taxes. Social inequality needs to be addressed through social awareness. Strict laws should be formulated and implemented against those who indulge in discrimination.

4.Role of youth in creating social awareness.

SOLUTION

The youth are the future of a nation. Their contemporary views matter the most and should reach the masses at large. They are an energetic lot and have the ability to execute changes. They know what is in their best interest, and with technology by their side, the youth has all the avenues necessary to create social awareness.

Let’s use the Thesaurus.

Along with your partner, go to the library or search the internet for a standard Thesaurus to complete the following table. One is done for you.

Sr. No.WordTypeSynonymAntonym
1.observeverbnotice, discern, detect, markignore, overlook
2.abandoned   
3.grateful   
4.initiative   
5.peril   
6.separation   

SOLUTION

Sr. No.WordTypeSynonymAntonym
1.observeverbnotice, discern, detect, markignore, overlook
2.abandonedverbdiscarded, rejected, deserted, droppedadopted, maintained
3.gratefuladjectivethankful, indebted, obligedthankless, rude, ungrateful
4.initiativenounaction, drive, push, leadershipapathy, inactivity
5.perilnounhazard, jeopardy, pitfallcertainty, protection, security
6.separationnounpartition, departure, split, segregationconnection, union

Homograph: Homograph is a word spelled and pronounced like another word but with a different meaning.

For example: the word ‘fast’ has two meanings. The different meanings are –

fast- hold firmly
fast- to abstain from food
fast- opposite of slow.

1.Go through the text again and make a list of meanings of all the homographs that are found in the text. Also, make a list of such words that you know, heard, or read somewhere.

SOLUTION

The following homographs can be found in the extract:
form – Visible shape of a thing
form – a document with information
left – relating to side
left – Past tense of leave
deal – Commercial activity or trading
deal – Distributing cards in order
second – Numerically following the first
second – unit for measuring time
feet – The base of legs
feet – unit for measuring length
even – flat or smooth
even – emphasize with surprise
even – any number divisible by 2 without leaving a remainder
part – some but not the whole of anything
part – move away from each other
accent, bat, grave, leave, letter, record, just, park, the wound are some other homographs that we commonly hear.

2.Go through the statement taken from the text – ‘The social democracy means a way of life which recognises liberty, equality, and fraternity’.

The underlined part of the statement provides us some facts/information about social democracy.
The remaining part of the sentence which is not underlined can be converted into a wh-question.
What does social democracy mean?
Now go through the underlined part of the statement/sentence given below and change them into question by using the appropriate Wh-form.
The politically minded Indians preferred the expression the Indian nation’.

SOLUTION

Which expression was preferred by the politically-minded Indians?

3.Go through the statement taken from the text – ‘The social democracy means a way of life which recognises liberty, equality, and fraternity’.

The underlined part of the statement provides us some facts/information about social democracy. The remaining part of the sentence which is not underlined can be converted into a wh-question.
What does social democracy mean?
Now go through the underlined part of the statement/sentence given below and change them into question by using the appropriate Wh-form.
Fraternity means a sense of common brotherhood of all Indians.

SOLUTION

What does fraternity mean?

Make a list of various prepositions, write their definition, and make sentences of your own. Here are some prepositions that will definitely be brainstorming for you.

  • in, into, inside
  • on, onto, above, over
  • beside, besides
  • for, from, since
  • to, towards
  • down, below, under, beneath, underneath
  • between, among, amongst (And the list goes on _____)

SOLUTION

i. Rama stood first in the class.
ii. Jay somehow crawled into the elevator.
iii. Steve went inside the cave.
iv. The matchstick was lying on the shelf.
v. Sneha somehow climbed onto the roof.
vi. Shreyas placed the lamp above the table.
vii. The Jumbo-jet flew over the city.
viii. The teacher sat beside Arya to explain the solution to the problem.
ix. Besides selling bread, the bakery also sold cakes.
x. Shreyas played for his home team.
xi. Jiya earned her degree from a reputed college.
xii. Ravi knew Jay’s medical condition since a long time.
xiii. The driver wanted to drink water.
xiv. The horse went towards the lake.
xv. The house went down like a pack of cards.
xvi. Sanjay‟s name was right below Sanjana‟s name.
xvii. Thankfully there was nobody under the car shed.
xviii. The layer of rock usually lies beneath the layer of soil.
xix. Krishna always forgets his earphones underneath the blanket.
xx. The battle between the arch-rivals was a fierce one.
xxi. Rajas preferred to stay among his community members.
xxii. The elephant is the largest amongst all land animals.

1.How to prepare a speech.

Greeting and Salutation (Honourable/ Respected ______, It’s a matter of pride for me to share my views____ in front of an august gathering)Use rhetorical questions
Introductory paragraph highlighting – importance, need purpose, etc.Use famous quotes, poetic lines, etc.
Main body- about the topic in detail – its significance/importance of the issue/problemUse persuasive language
Suggesting some remedies, solutions 
Concluding paragraph – expressing thanks to organizers for giving an opportunity and to the audience for patient listening 

With the help of the steps given above write a speech on the following.

topic – Duties of an ideal citizen.

SOLUTION

Do it yourself.

2.How to prepare a speech.

Greeting and Salutation (Honourable/ Respected ______, It’s a matter of pride for me to share my views____ in front of an august gathering)Use rhetorical questions
Introductory paragraph highlighting – importance, need purpose etc.Use famous quotes, poetic lines etc.
Main body- about the topic in detail – its significance/importance of the issue/problemUse persuasive language
Suggesting some remedies, solutions 
Concluding paragraph – expressing thanks to organizers for giving an opportunity and to the audience for patient listening 

With the help of the steps given above write speech on the following.

topic – Equality: A blessing.

SOLUTION

Equality: A blessing

A very good evening to all the attendees! I, Ms. ______ would be speaking on the topic „Equality – A Blessing ‟.

We may have different religions, languages, and skin-colour, but we all belong to just one race – the human race; and as humans, we are all equal. What is equality? Equality is when men and women are paid equally? No! It is when the remuneration depends on the role and not the gender. Is it when equal employment opportunities are created? No! It is when opportunities match the merit. Equality and inequality are both man-made. Favouring someone because they belong to a certain caste or religion not only makes us biased but also affects the one who loses an opportunity because of our biases. Inequality in the name of equal opportunities is a curse for humanity. The sooner the society understands this, the better for humanity. Equality and fairness start from one person‟s mind and have a snowballing effect. Thank you.

3.How to prepare a speech.

Greeting and Salutation (Honourable/ Respected ______, It’s a matter of pride for me to share my views____ in front of an august gathering)Use rhetorical questions
Introductory paragraph highlighting – importance, need purpose, etc.Use famous quotes, poetic lines, etc.
Main body- about the topic in detail – its significance/importance of the issue/problemUse persuasive language
Suggesting some remedies, solutions 
Concluding paragraph – expressing thanks to organizers for giving an opportunity and to the audience for patient listening 

With the help of the steps given above write a speech on the following

topic – Merits of democracy.

SOLUTION

Do it Yourself.

4.How to prepare a speech.

Greeting and Salutation (Honourable/ Respected ______, It’s a matter of pride for me to share my views____ in front of an august gathering)Use rhetorical questions
Introductory paragraph highlighting – importance, need purpose, etc.Use famous quotes, poetic lines, etc.
Main body- about the topic in detail – its significance/importance of the issue/problemUse persuasive language
Suggesting some remedies, solutions 
Concluding paragraph – expressing thanks to organizers for giving an opportunity and to the audience for patient listening 

With the help of the steps given above write a speech on the following.

topic – Freedom of speech.

SOLUTION

DO it yourself

5.How to prepare a speech.

Greeting and Salutation (Honourable/ Respected ______, It’s a matter of pride for me to share my views____ in front of an august gathering)Use rhetorical questions
Introductory paragraph highlighting – importance, need purpose, etc.Use famous quotes, poetic lines, etc.
Main body- about the topic in detail – its significance/importance of the issue/problemUse persuasive language
Suggesting some remedies, solutions 
Concluding paragraph – expressing thanks to organizers for giving an opportunity and to the audience for patient listening 

With the help of the steps given above write a speech on the following.

topic – Advantages of education.

SOLUTION

Do it Yourself.

6.How to prepare a speech.

Greeting and Salutation (Honourable/ Respected ______, It’s a matter of pride for me to share my views____ in front of an august gathering)Use rhetorical questions
Introductory paragraph highlighting – importance, need purpose, etc.Use famous quotes, poetic lines, etc.
Main body- about the topic in detail – its significance/importance of the issue/problemUse persuasive language
Suggesting some remedies, solutions 
Concluding paragraph – expressing thanks to organizers for giving an opportunity and to the audience for patient listening 

With the help of the steps given above write a speech on the following.

topic – Unity in Diversity

solution

Do it Yourself.


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