Chapter 4: History of Indian Arts SSC HISTORY MAHARASHTRA BOARD

03 Nov 2020 4:47 pm

Chapter 4: History of Indian Arts

Complete the sentence by choosing the correct option. 

1.The arts of painting and sculpting are _________

  •  visual arts 
  • performing arts 
  • folk arts 
  •  classical arts 

2.The __________ saw the rise of Mathura school. 

  • Kushana period 
  • Gupta period 
  • Rashtrakuta period 
  • Maurya period

Identify the wrong pair in the following, correct it and rewrite.

Kutub Minar – Mehrauli

Gol Gumbaz  – Vijapur

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Railway Terminus –  Delhi

Taj Mahal – Agra   

SOLUTION

Kutub Minar – Mehrauli

Gol Gumbaz – Bijapur

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Railway Terminus – Mumbai

Taj Mahal – Agra

The incorrect pair was Chattrapati Shivaji Terminus – Delhi.

The correct answer is Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus – Mumbai.

Explanation:

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Railway Terminus in Mumbai was constructed during the British rule in India. The Indo-Gothic style of architecture was used in its construction.

Explain the following concept. 

1.Art 

SOLUTION

Art is a beautiful creation which helps a person to express creativity, imagination, emotion, experience, knowledge, and wisdom. Drawing, painting, dancing, singing, sculpting, etc., are some of the examples of art.

There are two major types of arts. They are:

1. Visual Arts

2. Performing Arts.

Visual Arts: Visual art is also called Drik Kala in Sanskrit. The art of painting and sculpting fall under visual arts.

(a) Painting can be done on any surface such as rock, wall, canvas, papers and even on earthen pots. The paintings at Ajanta in Maharashtra is the best example for painting.

(b) There are various styles in painting such as Folk style, Classical style, Miniature paintings in manuscripts and western style of painting.

(c) Sculpting is the art of carving idols, images and other things in different mediums such as rocks, clay or metal.

(d) Like painting, there are various styles in sculpting such as folk style and classical style.

(e) Iconography is the art of sculpting which involves making of the images of gods and goddesses.

Performing Arts: Performing art is called Lalit or Aangik kala in Sanskrit. Folk Art and Classical Art fall under this category.

(a) Folk Art is performed by the collective participation of the people of a locality and is existent from prehistoric times.

(b) It is in various forms such as folk songs, instrumental music, folk dance, and folk theatre. The style is region based. Koli dance, Tarapara dance, keertan, etc. are some of the examples of folk art.

(c) Classical Art is the one who is learned and practiced with a set of consistent rules.

(d) There are generally two major forms of classical Art- Classical dance and Classical music.

(e) In India, each state has its own form of classical dance like Bharatnatyam of Tamil Nadu, Lavani of Maharashtra, Odissi of Odisha, Kathak and Mohiniaatam of Kerala. The book Natyashastra written by Bharatmuni is believed to be the earliest one to form the basis of these form of dances.

(f) Indian classical music exists in two forms, the Hindustani and the Carnatic.

2.Hemadpanti style 

SOLUTION

(a)Hemadpanti style of architecture is very famous in Maharashtra.

(b) This style involves incorporating blackstone and lime without using any mortar using the technique of tenon and mortise joints.

(c)This style belongs to the 12-13th century and is named after its founder Hemadpant.

(d)Many temples in Maharashtra are built in this style and hence called as Hemadpanti temples.

(e) The walls of this temples are built in a star shape and in a zigzag design.

(f) Some of the examples of this style of temples are Aundha Naganath temple in Hingoli district, Gondeshwar temple at Sinnar in Nasik, Ambreshwar temple at Ambarnath near Mumbai.

3.Maratha style of painting

SOLUTION

1.The Maratha style of painting developed during the latter half of the 17th-century C.E.

2. These paintings are found in murals and miniatures. These are coloured paintings.

3. It is a combination of the Rajasthan and European style of paintings.

4.This painting style is also used in manuscripts.

5. Some of the places where these paintings are found are the old wadas of Wai, Menavali, and Satara in Maharashtra.

Explain the following sentence with its reason. 

1.An expert with deep understanding of art history is required in the art market. 

SOLUTION

An expert with a deep understanding of art history is required in the art market because:

  1. Art history is a separate branch of knowledge with many fields.
  2. One can choose the art itself as his profession as there are many opportunities available.
  3. Be it visual or performing art, classical or folk art requires expertise and detailed knowledge to understand its aspects
  4. Expertise is required to find out the value of an art object or to make it economically viable.
  5. To pursue a career in the architectural industry, either industrial or interior design, photography, or animated graphics, textile, and clothing involve detailed planning and proper management of the art product.

2.It is necessary to preserve the tradition like Chitrakathi, which is on the verge of extinction.

SOLUTION

The practice of narrating stories from the epics like The Ramayana and The Mahabharatha with the help of wooden puppets and paintings called the Chitrakathi tradition.

The tradition of Chitrakathi belongs to the 12th century C.E. This is also called Pinguli tradition.

In this, pictures are drawn on paper and painted with colours made from natural substances.

The stories are narrated in a time span of half an hour to fifty minutes in general.

The people who belong to the Thakar tribal community live in a village called Pinguli which is located in the Konkan region.

These people still practice this Chitrakathi tradition. It is a source of employment for them.

Apart from that, it is much necessary to preserve this tradition which is antique so as to preserve our regional or local culture.

Answer the following question in 25-30 words. 

1.Write about folk traditions of sculptural art. 

SOLUTION

1. The art of carving on clay, rock or metal to form three dimensional figures is called sculpting and the figures so formed are called as sculptures.

2. Rock sculptures are made by carving, clay sculptures are made by hands or moulds, and metal sculptures are made by using moulds.

3. Like any other art form, sculptural art can also be classified as Classical and folk sculptural art.

4. The folk sculptural art began with the carving tools out of stones.

5. It is believed that this form of art is prevalent since the Harappan times.

6. Some of the examples of this art are the Ganesha idols, masks of goddesses, idols made for festivals, memorial stones, decorated utensils, etc.

7. The folk sculptures are region specific.

8. One can witness the products of this art in Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, Rajasthan, etc.

2.Write about Gandhara School of art.

SOLUTION

The mixture of Greek and Persian art is known as the Gandhara Art.

It owed its origin and development to the Kushana period when king Kanishka ruled.

It came into existence during the 2nd century B.C.E. in Afghanistan.

The art of this school was Mahayana form of Buddhism.

The material used in Gandhara school of art were Grey sandstone, mud, lime, and terracotta.

Taxila and Jalalabad are some of the places where this Gandhara art have been found.

The Gandhara art is famous for its artistic beauty and accuracy.

This school of art declined and destroyed after White Huns invaded.

Complete the Following Table. – History and Political Science

Complete the following table.

Temple Architecture NaagaraNaagaraDraavidaHemadpanti
Characteristics    
Examples   

SOLUTION

Temple Architecture NaagaraNaagaraDraavidaHemadpanti
Characteristics Cruciform ground plan and curvilinear tower. High gopuram, porches or Mandapas, pillared halls, a tank which is called pushkaraniWalls are built with the help of the tenon and mortise joint technique without using mortar. The plan is star-shaped.
ExamplesKonark sun temple at khajuraho, Dilwara jain temple at Mt, AbuThe gopuram of Madurai Meenakshi temple at Madurai in Tamil Nadu, the Raja gopuram  of Sri Rangam.Gondeshwar temple at sinnar near Nashik, Ambreshwar temple at Ambarnath near Mumbai. 

Answer the following question in detail. 

1.Write in detail about folk styles of painting. 

SOLUTION

Folk styles of painting generally depict the life style, culture, tradition, etc., of a particular place or region.

From Madhubani to Kalamkari, the folk style of painting has been practiced in different parts of India.

These paintings are unique and are culturally different from each other.

These are generally made of soil, mud, leaves, and charcoal on a piece of cloth, canvas or even paper.

The colourful paint is made out of natural dyes.

Madhubani from Bihar, Phad from Rajasthan, Warli paintings by the Warli tribes from the western ghats, Gond paintings by the Gondi tribes in Madhya Pradesh, Kalamkari from the Andhra Pradesh, the famous Tanjore paintings from Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu are some of the classic examples of the folk style of painting.

Rock paintings generally have human and animal figures.

The transition from stone age to the advent of agriculture has been clearly portrayed and is known from the figures and colours that have been used.

Even the culture of decorating the house walls and courtyards by drawing various figures using paintings aided the development of folk paintings.

Islamic architecture in India by giving examples.

2.Explain the characteristics of the Islamic architecture in India by giving examples. 

SOLUTION

Islamic style of architecture began in the medieval period. This architecture was a mixture of Persian, Central Asian, Arabic and pre-Islamic Indian styles. The Muslim sultanates patronised this architecture.

Characteristics:

Islamic architecture is characterized by large and tall buildings.

The buildings were mostly symmetrical and had a courtyard.

Marbles were also used in construction.

There was usually a large space below a high dome.

The architecture involved skilled stone masonry work.

There was the use of columns and brackets and hypostyle halls.

Examples:

The Qutub Minar at Mehrauli in Delhi is the highest minaret in the world and is 73 meters in height. The construction was started by Qutubuddin Aibak, and it was completed by Iltutmish.

The Taj Mahal, the real beauty of the Islamic architecture was constructed by Shah Jahan, in memory of his wife, Mumtaj Mahal.

The Gol Gumbaz built at Bijapur in the 17th century is the burial site of Mohammed Adil Shah.

3.What kind of professional opportunities are available in the field of arts? 

SOLUTION

The field of arts also hosts innumerable professional opportunities.

1. Journalism: Journalism offers a wide scope of employment for art historians.

2. Art historians can also work in Heritage and Cultural Tourism industry. They can choose from wide options like Museum and Archives Management, Library science, Science and Information Technology, Archaeological Research, Indology, etc.

3. Applied arts also hosts a variety of jobs. Various branches like Industrial and interior designing, Graphic designing, Art Direction for Films and Television, Art design for stage backdrops, creating attractive content for books, etc.

4. Photography, the artistic creation of metals and earthen pots, creating articles out of wood or bamboo, etc. are some of the other opportunities created by the applied art industry.

5. To achieve success in all the fields, one needs to have a thorough understanding and expert knowledge of the art history. There are few institutions which offer professional courses like the National Institute of Design in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Answer the Following Question in Detail.

Observe the Illustration of Warli Painting Above and Write About:

(A) Depiction of Nature

(b) Drawings of human figures

(c) Depiction of occupations

(d) Houses 

SOLUTION

(a) Depiction of nature:

Nature has been depicted as beautiful and full of trees. There are different types of plants which shows that the people cared for the environment.

(b) Drawings of human figures:

Human figures have been made using geometric shapes such as triangles, circles, straight lines, etc., They have been shown mostly in groups.

(c) Depiction of Occupations:

The three main occupations that are depicted are agriculture, fishing, and pottery.

(d) Houses:

Houses are also shown using geometric shapes as humans. They also have intricate patterns.

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