Chapter 3 -Personality.

08 Jan 2021 6:07 pm

Balbharati, solutions, for, Psychology, 12th, Standard, HSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 3, Personality , 

Choose the correct option and complete the following statement:

A person who is shy and reserved is called an ______

introvert

extrovert

ambivert

Solution

introvert

The ink blot test was developed by psychologist ______.

Murray

Rorschach

Morgan

Solution

Rorschach

______ traits are the dominant characteristics of a person.

Cardinal

Secondary

Central

Solution

Cardinal


Match the following pairs.

Solution

State whether the following statement is true or false:

Personality is merely related to external appearance.

Solution

False

People with high neuroticism are emotionally reactive.

Solution

True

Children from families having a warm emotional atmosphere are well adjusted.

Solution

True

Explain the following Concept in 25 to 30 words:

Personality

Solution

The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which was used to refer to masks worn by actors during a stage performance, Thus, the meaning of personality was interpreted as ‘projected behaviour’ of an individual.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.” According to Norman Munn, “Personality is a unique combination of an individual’s physical structure, needs, interests, abilities, and aptitudes.”

Trait

Solution

A trait is a relatively enduring and consistent way of thinking, feeling, and acting. It is some distinctive characteristic of the person that leads him/her to behave in more or less consistent ways across situations and over a period of time. Allport categorised traits as :

Cardinal Traits (single, dominant trait)

Central Traits (core or basic traits)

Secondary Traits

Explain the following Concept in 25 to 30 words:

Sentence completion test

Solution

Sentence Completion Test (SCT) is a type of projective technique used to assess personality. The individual is given a series of incomplete sentences and is asked to complete them in his/her own words, for e.g., My mother ……, My greatest fear is ……. It is assumed that the endings provided by the person will reflect their motivation, urges, internal conflicts, etc.

Structured interview

Solution

A structured interview is a type of interview in which the total number of questions to be asked to an interviewee and the sequence of questions are pre-determined. In this method, no questions are added or deleted through the course of an interview

Unstructured interview

Solution

An unstructured interview is a type of interview in which the total number of questions to be asked to an interviewee and the sequence of questions are not pre-determined. Depending on the responses of an interviewee, some questions are added or deleted through the course of an interview.

Write short notes on the following:

Gordon Allport’s trait theory of personality

Solution

Gordon Allport’s theory of personality is based on the trait perspective.

Allport identified 18,000 separate terms that could be used to describe personality.

Based on these descriptions, he suggested three basic categories of traits as follows:

Cardinal trait: It is a single trait that dominates an individual’s entire personality. It dominates and shapes a person’s behaviour for his whole life. A person becomes known specifically for this trait. e.g. a trait of humanitarianism was the cardinal trait in Mother Teresa’s personality.

Central traits: These traits are general characteristics that form the basic foundation of an individual’s personality. Alternatively, around five to ten traits that best describe an individual’s personality are called central traits. These traits are the building blocks of our personality. e.g. traits like sensitivity, sociability, self-confidence, diligence, honesty.

Secondary traits: These traits appear only in specific situations and so, are narrow in their effect. Secondary traits play a very minor role in determining an individual’s personality as such traits are situational. e.g. getting anxious before an interview, being impatient while waiting in a queue

Effect of mass media on personality development

Solution

The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which was used to refer to masks worn by actors during a stage performance, Thus, the meaning of personality was interpreted as ‘projected behaviour’ of an individual.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.”

The psycho-social factors that have an effect on personality include heredity, family, peer group, culture, and mass media.

Mass media includes print media e.g., newspapers; audio-visual media e.g., T.V. and new media e.g., internet. Media is a source of information, education, entertainment, and even socialization. It has a considerable effect on our value system, behaviour patterns and personality. However, excessive dependence on media may lead to egocentrism, poor academic performance, difficulty in concentration, sleep disturbance, etc.

Answer the following question with given points in 100 to 150 words.

Explain the Big Five Factors Model of Personality.

Points :

Neuroticism

Extroversion

Openness to experience

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Solution

The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which was used to refer to masks worn by actors during a stage performance, Thus, the meaning of personality was interpreted as ‘projected behaviour’ of an individual.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to the environment.”

According to Norman Munn, “Personality is a unique combination of individual’s physical structure, needs, interests, abilities, and aptitudes The Five-Factor Model of or Big Five Personality theory, based on the trait perspective proposed by Robert McCrae and Paul Costa. The five broad t.rait, factors are – (i) Neuroticism (ii) Extroversion (iii) Openness to Experience (iv) Agreeableness (v) Conscientiousness

Neuroticism- It refers to a tendency to experience negative emotions such as anger, anxiety, or depression more intensely and for longer periods than normally experienced by others. Those who score high on neuroticism tend to be irritable, fearful, emotionally unstable, and interpret ordinary situations as threatening and hopeless. People who score low in neuroticism are less emotionally reactive and hence tend to be calmer, emotionally stable, and experience more positive feelings

Extroversion – Extroversion is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. People high on this trait are assertive, talkative, sociable, enthusiastic, etc. Individuals showing low extroversion tend to be shy, reserved, lack the activity levels of extroverts. They are low-key and disengaged from the social world.

Openness to Experience – People who are open to experience are intellectually curious imaginative, appreciative of art, sensitive to beauty. They sometimes tend to think and act in nonconforming, adventurous ways. Individuals who score low on openness to experience tend to be conventional, resistant to change, and prefer familiarity and routine. They may lack creativity and aesthetic sense.

Agreeableness – It refers to the ability of a person to get along with others and show concern for social harmony. People high on this trait tend to be friendly, cooperative, generous, and believe that people are basically decent and trustworthy. Persons low on agreeableness tend to be uncooperative, suspicious, even hostile, and jealous.

Conscientiousness – It concerns the way in which people control, regulate, and direct their impulses. People high in conscientiousness are hardworking, disciplined, responsible, dependable, etc, while those low on conscientiousness tend to be careless, unorganised, spontaneous, undisciplined, etc.

Explain the factors influencing personality.

Family 

School

Peer group

Culture

Solution

Family: Family structure and socio-economic status, emotional, academic, and cultural environment, interactions between family members, child-rearing practices, etc. have a significant effect on an individual’s personality. e.g. in the family having a warm emotional atmosphere, love, and respect shown by parents towards children has positive effects on the child’s personality. Conversely, overprotection, rejection, negligence, etc. have adverse effects on a child’s personality.

School: The elements related to school like the teaching-learning process, academic activities, and co-curricular facilities, teachers’ rapport with students, school discipline and policies, etc. have a significant impact on student’s personalities. e.g. creative, well-qualified, experienced, and well-mannered teachers act as role models for students. They provide opportunities for the optimum development of students which in turn helps students in healthier development of their personality.

Peer group: Peers surround us in our everyday lives from early childhood until old age. The peer group may influence personality in a positive as well as negative manner. e.g. good habits such as studying regularly, respecting everyone, etc. may be developed by being in a good company of friends. Conversely, unhealthy habits such as bunking lectures, developing addictions, etc. may be developed by being in a bad company.

Culture: Every culture has its own set of values, beliefs, norms, etc. which influence an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviour patterns. e.g. leadership qualities, listening skills, entrepreneurial skills, tendencies to co-operate, etc. may vary across cultures and so, people from different cultural backgrounds may have different personalities

Answer the following question with given points in 100 to 150 words.

Explain the various methods of personality measurement.

Behavioural analysis

Self-report technique

Projective method

Solution

Behavioural analysis: The behavioural analysis method helps in assessing the personality of an individual with the help of techniques such as interview and observation. In other words, researchers try to get information about an individual’s personality with the help of a structured or unstructured interview or by observing his behaviour.

Self-report technique: In the self-report technique, a person provides information on his own personality by responding to questions or sentences in a particular inventory. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 16 Personality Factors (PF) by Cattell, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), High School Personality Inventory (HSPQ) are some of the examples of self-report inventory.

Projective method: Projective methods are intended to uncover feelings, desires, and conflicts that are hidden at the unconscious level. Here, individuals respond freely to relatively unstructured or ambiguous materials. While responding, they project their own personalities onto the unstructured stimulus. It often reveals their personal conflicts, motivations, coping styles, and other characteristics. e.g. Rorschach’s inkblot test, Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT), Sentence-completion test.


VISITORS COUNT

363384
Users Today : 59
Total Users : 363383
Views Today : 217
Total views : 1254279

Browse Categories

Archives