Chapter 3 – Kingdom Plantae.

13 Nov 2020 7:16 am

Chapter 3: Kingdom Plantae


Balbharati, solutions, for, Biology, 11th, Standard, Maharashtra, State, Board, Chapter 3, Kingdom Plantae,

Exercise | Q 1. (A) | Page 27

Choose the correct option.

Which is the dominant phase in Pteridophytes?







The tallest living gymnosperm among the following is ______.

Sequoia sempervirens

Taxodium mucronatum

Zamia pygmaea

Ginkgo bilo


Sequoia sempervirens

In Bryophytes ______.

Sporophyte and gametophyte generation are independent

Sporophyte is partially dependent upon gametophyte

Gametophyte is dependent upon Sporophyte

Ginlgo biloba


sporophyte is partially dependent upon gametophyte.

A characteristic of Angiosperm is ______.

Colloteral vascular bundles

Radial vascular bundles

Seed formation

Double fertilization


Double fertilization

Angiosperms and Gymnosperms resemble in having ______.

a. Vessels in wood

b. Mode of nutrition

c. Siphonogamy

d. Nature of seed


vessels in wood and nature of seed.

Exercise | Q 2 | Page 27

How you place the pea, jowar and fern at its proper systematic position? Draw a flow chart.


Exercise | Q 3 | Page 27

Complete the following table.


Exercise | Q 4 | Page 27

Differentiate between Dicotyledonae and Monocotyledonae based on the following characters:

a. Type of roots

b. Venation in the leaves

c. Symmetry of flower


Exercise | Q 5. (A) | Page 27

Answer the following question.

We observe that land becomes barren soon after monsoon. But in the next monsoon it flourishes again with varieties we observed in season earlier. How you think it takes


1. After monsoon, plants like mosses (bryophytes), ferns (pteridophytes), small herbaceous plants, etc become dry, due to which land becomes barren.

2. However, spores of bryophytes, pteridophytes, and seeds of herbaceous plants, grass remain in a barren land.

3. During next monsoon, these spores and seeds germinate due to availability of water and other favourable conditions.

4. Bryophytes and pteridophytes require water for reproduction. Hence they flourish during the monsoon season.

5. Along with bryophytes and pteridophytes varieties of higher plants like grasses, some seasonal herbs or shrubs grow on barren land during monsoon due to favourable conditions.

Fern is a vascular plant. Yet it is not considered a Phanerogams. Why?


1. Fern belongs to sub-kingdom Cryptogamae.

2. Cryptogams produce spores but do not produce seeds.

3. Also, in cryptogams, the sex organs are concealed.

4. Phanerogams are seed-producing plants and their sex organs are visible.

Hence, fern is a vascular plant. Yet it is not considered a Phanerogams.

Chlamydomonas is microscopic whereas Sargassum is macroscopic; both are algae. Which characters of these plants includes them in one group?


1. Both Chlamydomonas and Sargassum belong to division Thallophyta.

2. Members of Thallophyta range from unicellular (e.g. Chlamydomonas) to multicellular (e.g. Sargassum).

3. Both are aquatic plants containing photosynthetic pigments.

4. In both Chlamydomonas and Sargassum plant body is not differentiated into root, stem, and leaves.

5. The stored food is mainly in the form of starch and its other forms.

6. The cell wall is made up of cellulose and other components. Due to these characters, both Chlamydomonas and Sargassum are included in one group i.e. Thallophyta.

Which of the following nuts will not be enclosed in fruits? What are the peculiar characteristics of these plants? Betel nut/ Areca nut, pine nut, walnut, almond, cashew nut, nutmeg


1. Pine nuts are edible seeds of pines which are not enclosed in a fruit. It belongs to class gymnospermae thus, seeds are not enclosed within the fruit.

2. Nuts like betel nut/ areca nut, walnut, almond, cashew nut, nutmeg will be enclosed in fruits. It is because these plants belong to class angiospermae in which seeds are enclosed within the fruit.

Radha observed a plant in rainy season on the compound wall of her school. The plant did not have true roots but rootlike structures were present. Vascular tissue was absent. To which group the plant may belong?


The plant observed by Radha belongs may belong to division Bryophyta, as it shows root like structures i.e. rhizoids and absence of vascular tissue.

Exercise | Q 8. (A) | Page 28

Draw a neat labelled diagram.



Draw a neat labelled diagram.



Draw a neat labelled diagram.



Draw a neat labelled diagram.



Draw a neat labelled diagram.

Haplontic and haplodiplontic life cycle


Exercise | Q 9. (A) | Page 28

Identify the plant group on the basis of the following feature:

Seed producing plants


Phanerogams (Angiospermae and Gymnospermae)

Spore producing plants


Cryptogams (Thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta)

Plant body undifferentiated into root, stem

and leaves


Thallophyta, Bryophyta

Plant needs water for fertilization


Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta

First vascular plants



Exercise | Q 10 | Page 28

Observe the following diagram.

Correct it and write the information in your words.

1. The given figure indicates the alternation of generation.

2. The life cycle of a plant includes two generations, sporophytic (diploid = 2n) and gametophytic (haploid = n)

3. Some special diploid cells of sporophyte divide by meiosis to produce haploid cells.

4. These haploid cells divide mitotically to produce gametophyte.

5. On maturation, gametophyte produces male and female gametes which fuse during fertilization and produce a diploid zygote.

6. The diploid zygote divides by mitosis and forms a diploid sporophyte.

7. Thus, sporophytic and gametophytic generations generally occur alternately in the life cycle of a plant.

8. Bryophytes and Pteridophytes show distinct alternation of generation.


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