chapter 2 – The Electoral Process.

15 Dec 2020 10:10 am

Balbharati, solutions, for, Social, Science, History, and, Civics, 10th, Standard, SSC, Maharashtra, State, Board, chapter 2, The Electoral Process, [Latest edition],

Exercise | Q 1.1 | Page 80

Choose the correct option from the given options and complete the sentence. 

The Election Commissioner is appointed by the _______


Prime Minister 

 Speaker of Loksabha 

 Vice President



_________ was appointed as the first Chief Election Commissioner of independent India. 

Dr. Rajendra Prasad 

T.N. Sheshan 

Sukumar Sen 

Neela Satyanarayan


Sukumar Sen

Constituencies are created by _________ committee of the Election Commission. 







State whether the following statement are true or false. Give reason for your answer

The Elections Commission lays down the code of conduct during elections.



Reason: The Code of conduct is measure adopted by the Election Commission to ensure free and fair elections in India. It explains the rules that are to be followed by the Government, political parties and voters, before elections and during elections. Violation of the Code of Conduct can lead to termination of candidature or even imprisonment.

Under special circumstances the Election Commission holds re-elections in a particular constituency for a second time.



Under special circumstances the

Election Commission holds re-elections in a particular constituency for a second time. It is done in case of any dispute arising regarding the election for e.g. complaints criminal malpractices like booth capturing and in special circumstances of high NOTA votes.

The state government decides as to when and in how many stages the elections would be held in a particular State.



The Election Commission decides as to when and in how many stages the elections would be held in a particular State. It is the sole authority on conducting elections in Indian.

Write short note.

Journey from the ballot box to EVM machine


Since the first General Election in 1951-52, the election process has undergone various changes to improve voter experience. One such change includes introduction of Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) in 1990s. It was a step towards preservation of environment since the machine eliminated the use of paper, it was now easier to vote for disabled people and promised an early declaration of results. The most notable feature of the EVM, however, was the NOTA (None of the above) option which enabled the voters to not vote for any candidate if they were not satisfied with him/her.

Reorganising the constituencies


Reorganisation of the constituencies is the responsibility of the Delimitation committee of the Election Commission. The constituencies are reorganized from time to time on the basis of population density of an area, as tabulated in the decennial census reports. Uttar Pradesh is the most densely populated state of India, and hence has the largest no. of seats to Loksabha in the general election, each seat representing a constituency. At present there are 543 constituencies which are due for a reorganisation in 2021 on the basis of the next Census report.

Complete the following picture.


Role of Election Commission: Conduct free and fair elections in the country.

Role of the voters: Cast their votes and participate in the election process

Role of political parties & their candidates: Follow the Code of Conduct.

Answer in brief. 

Explain the functions of the Election Commission


The functions of the Election Commission are as follows:

1. Prepare voters list

It is responsible to preparing a list of eligible voters and updating existing voter’s list. It has the sole authority to issue voter identity cards.

2. Formulate the timetable and programme of elections.

It is responsible for conducting free and fair elections and decides when to conduct elections and how to conduct elections in every state.

3. Scrutinize candidate applications.

Every candidate, affiliated to a party or standing independent, has to fill an application with the election commission giving information about oneself. The commission then scrutinizes all the applications and allows the eligible candidates to contest.

4. Recognize political parties.

All political parties are required to be recognized by the Election commission. The commission has the right to derecognize a party as well. It is also responsible for allotting election symbols to the political parties.

5. Resolve disputes relating to elections.

The commission is responsible for resolution of any dispute arising regarding elections. It can accordingly declare any candidate disqualified and call for re-election in a constituency.

Write some additional information about post of the Election Commissioner.


The Election Commissioner is an important office in the Government of India.

1. He is appointed by the President and is responsible for the smooth conduct of the election process. The Election Commissioner are mostly retired IAS officers appointed on an extended term.

2. At first there was just one Election Commissioner, later in 1989 the Commission was enlarged with a Chief Election Commissioner and two Election commissioners.

3. Sukumar Sen was the first Chief Election Commissioner of India and Om Prakash Rawat is the current Chief Election Commissioner.

4. The term of the Election Commissioner is for 6 years, draws salary at par with those of the Judges the Supreme Court of India.

5. The Commissioner can only be removed from office with two-thirds majority in Loksabha and Rajsabha on the grounds of misconduct or incapacity.

Explain the meaning of Code of Conduct


Some important points on the Code of Conduct are:

1. Code of Conduct is a measure adopted by the Election Commission of India to ensure free and fair elections. It is use to control incidences of malpractices during the elections.

2. It is a set of guidelines for the Government, political parties and candidates to be followed before and during the elections.

3. It concerns rules and regulations with respect to speeches, election manifestos, processions and general conduct.

4. Its objective is to check misuse of power during the elections and curb malpractices e.g. hate speeches, liquor distribution, use of muscle force etc. Violation of the code of conduct can lead to cancellation of candidature.

5. Due to the strict observance of the code in the last few elections, the people have become more confident and aware of their rights and duties as voters during the election process.

Organise a mock poll in the school to understand the process of voting .


Our school witness election every academic year. This year, as the election process was a part of the study, we decided to strictly observe the election processes. The details of the observation are given below:

1. Formation of school squads (which can be related to Formation of Constituencies):

• There were 4 squads namely blue, red, green and pink. It resembled the constituencies in national and state-level elections.

2. Filling of Nominations:

• The nomination of candidates is an important part of the election process.

• The regulations require that the candidate or the person who suggests his name files the nomination papers with the principal (Returning Officer in general election)

• Criteria were set for the qualification of those who become candidates.

3. Scrutiny of Nominations:

• The principal (Returning Officer) scrutinizes the nomination papers very carefully.

• If the eligibility of the student candidate is dissatisfied, he/she is officially stopped from contesting in the election.

• The candidates could withdraw their nomination papers till the prescribed period.

• The security deposit from candidates done in the general elections was not possible in the case of a school election. This step was omitted here.

4. Election Campaign:

Techniques of the election campaign and the tools employed by the squads and the independent candidates are many:

• Election Manifesto

• Electioneering (Activities and Techniques to Persuade Voters)

• Canvassing

• Meet the candidate event

• Class-to-class campaigning

In general elections, the candidates are assigned the tasks like:

• to address public meetings

• street corner meetings

• door-to-door canvassing

• new slogans are coined to attract the masses

• advertisements are released to the press (the popular daily and weekly newspapers)

• Radio and the Television are used to broadcast the speeches and panel-discussions of leaders of various parties

• electronic media plays the most effective role in creating people’s awareness of programs of the political parties

• Attend many interviews to newspapers and television agencies.

• Wide coverage is being given to all these events at regular intervals

5. Polling Personnel and the Polling:

• The election campaign was stopped 48 hours before the time when the poll concludes on the polling day.

• The vice-principal (Presiding Officer) manages the whole of the polling process and guarantee that all persons working under him adhere to the electoral norms and practices.

• The voter records his vote by placing the seal-mark against the name of the candidate he wants to vote. (in general election it is by pressing the button of the voting machine).

6. Counting of Votes and Declaration of Results:

• After the polling has ended the ballot boxes or the voting machines are sealed and carried under custody to the counting stations (concerned classrooms).

• Then the process of counting the votes began.

• The representatives of all the squads were present at the counting point.

• The candidate who obtains the highest number of votes is declared elected.

7. Submission of Account Relating to Election Expenses:

• The school budget law fixes the maximum limit of the expenses to be incurred by various proceedings on their election.

• In general election in India, the limit of election expenses for an Assembly election in most States was raised from Rs. 1.50 lakh to Rs. 6 lakh.

• It was enhanced from Rs. 4.50 lakh to Rs. 15 lakh for a Parliamentary contest.

• The candidates are required to file an account of the election expenses.

• It is a dishonest practice for a candidate to expend more money than the prescribed amount on his election.

• These steps were not present or required in the school election.

8. Election Disputes:

• The concerned teachers and the administrative head formed the election dispute cell in school.

• The Indian Constitution originally provided for the appointment of Election Tribunals for deciding disputes happening in connection with elections.

• The Nineteenth Amendment Act (1966) eliminated this provision and insisted that the election disputes would be decided by the High Courts.

Thus the scrutiny and recording of school election gave us a better understanding of the National election in India.


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