07 Jan 2021 3:45 pm
Chapter 1, Population, Part – 2, hsc, geography, Maharashtra board, ebalbharathi solution,
A: Assertion; R: Reasoning
A: Increase in the dependency ratio will affect the economy.
R: Medical costs are high when there are more elderly in the population.
A: Assertion; R: Reasoning
A: In the population pyramid, a broad base indicates a high number of children in a country. R: Broad apex is an indicator of the high number of elderly in a country
1.Population growth and migration.
– When people move from one place to another place, or one city to another city or one country to another country it is called migration.
– The place where people go out is called the donor region.
– The place where people migrate is called the recipient region
– Due to migration there are changes in the total population in both the regions.
– From the donor region, people move outside so the donor area population will decrease. Generally, youngsters migrate in large numbers, so the donor region will have a less young age population, it will affect the fertility rate and there will be slow growth of the population.
– In the recipient region migrants will be added to the total population of that region. Thus, increasing the population of the region.
– In the recipient region more young age population will be added, so the fertility rate will increase, and there will be more population growth.
2.Population pyramid and sex ratio.
– The ratio between the number of males and females in the population is called sex ratio.
– Sex ratio is an indicator of the status of women in the country.
– In the population pyramid X-axis shows the percentage of the population in a particular age group and the Y-axis, which is at the center of the graph shows age groups.
– The length of the bar shows a number or percentage.
-The left side of the graph shows the male population whereas, the right side of the graph shows the female population.
– Thus, the population pyramid indicates the number of percentages of the male and female population in different age groups in the country.
e.g., If we want to know the percentage of males and females in the 15-59 age group, we can get it from the population pyramid.
– Therefore, we can study the age-wise sex ratio using the population pyramid.
3.Occupational structure of a population.
– In all countries working population is engaged in primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities for their livelihood.
– The percentage of people engaged in these activities is called occupational structure.
– In developing counties the percentage of people engaged in primary occupations is high compared to people engaged in secondary, tertiary, or quaternary activities.
– In developed countries, the percentage of people engaged in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities is more compared to people engaged in primary activities.
– Trade and infrastructure are advanced. So, more people are required in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities.
– More people engaged in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities more the country has been developed
– Thus, the occupation structure of the country is an indicator of the level of economic development of the country.
– The literacy rate shows the proportion of literate people in the country. The people who can read and write are called literate people.
– Every country has different norms to decide literacy. In India, those who can read, write, and do arithmetic calculations are called literate.
– Literacy in the country is essential to eradicate poverty and for social, economic, and political development.
– The literacy rate in the country depends upon the cost of education, the standard of living, the status of women in the society, availability of educational facilities and government policy, etc.
– In general, the literacy rate of males is more than female with few exceptions.
– The literacy rate is more than 90% in most of the developed countries of Europe, North America, Australia, etc.
– Lowest literacy rate is in Sub-Saharan Africa.
1.In developed countries, the percentage of the population engaged in agriculture is low.
– In developed countries, there is the development of industries, infrastructure, and trade.
– Therefore, more people are engaged in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities.
– These countries replace human labor with machinery. So agricultural activities can be carried out with minimum people and can make use of machinery.
– Therefore, the percentage of the population engaged in agriculture is low in developed countries.
2.Literacy rate of a country is an indicator of its socio-economic development.
– Socio-economic development of the country is measured by people’s standard of living, social status of females in society, educational facilities in the country, and government policies.
– Higher the literacy rate of women, the more women are educated and employed.
– If the literacy rate is high people are educated, employed, and well settled. Owing to which the standard of living becomes high.
– If government policies are favorable for education, educational institutes are more developed, more people become educated and employed. This leads to a higher standard of living.
– Thus, the literacy rate of countries is an indicator of its socio-economic development.
3.Demographic dividend increases when the proportion of the working population increases.
– The productivity of the country depends upon working and non-working population in the country.
– If more people are working and fewer people are non-working, then resources are invested in other areas, so there is a boost to the country’s economic development.
– Due to a boost in the economy per capita income increases.
– Thus, there is an economic benefit to the country which is dividend and it benefits all in the country.
4.Migration is not always permanent.
– When migrated person never returns to his original place it is called permanent migration.
– In most of the cases migration is seasonal, maybe to work as a labourer in the farm during a particular season or migration of tribal people in search of fodder. This is short term migration.
– In case of migration for jobs to city areas or to other countries, people work in migrated areas but visit their original places once or twice in a year. This is long term migration.
– Thus, in most of the cases migration may be short term or long term and not permanent.
1.Donor region and Recipient region.
|Donor Region||Recipient region|
|(i) Donor region is the region from where people migrate to other areas.||(i) Recipient region is the region, where migration takes place or region where people go.|
|(ii) In donor region due to a reduction in local population there is less utilisation of public facilities like transport, water supply, education, recreation, etc.||(ii) In the recipient region due to an increase in population there is more pressure on public facilities like transport, water supply, education, recreation, etc.|
|(iii) The expenditure on the public facilities is not utilised fully||(iii) The public facilities are not sufficient for the increasing population.|
|(iv) From the donor region mostly young men migrate to other areas in search of jobs, business, or education.||(iv) More young men are added to the population for job opportunities or business or education.|
|(v)There are changes in age and sex ratio, there are more women, children, and the old age population than young age people.||(v) There are changes in age and sex ratio. There are more males than females and more young age population.|
|(vi) There is more non-working or dependent population, it has an adverse effect on the economy of that area.||(vi) There is more working-age population, with innovative ideas, concepts, etc., which helps technological and economic development of the region.|
2.Expansive pyramid and Constrictive pyramid.
|Expansive pyramid||Constrictive pyramid|
|(i) Expansive pyramid is very broad at the base and becomes narrow at the apex.||(i) Constrictive pyramid is narrow at the base and broader at the apex.|
|(ii) It shows that there is a higher percentage of young people but a lower percentage of old age people in the country.||(ii) It shows that there is a high percentage of old age people and a lower percentage of young age people in the country.|
|(iii) It indicates a high birth rate making the base broad and high death rate making the apex narrow.||(iii) It indicates a low birth rate making the base narrow and low death rate making the apex broad.|
1.Outline the importance of population pyramids in the study of populations.
– To study the population of any country people use the population pyramid.
– With the help of the population pyramid, the age-wise and gender-wise population of the country can be studied.
– Age structure and sex ratio are important aspects of the population of the country.
– In the population pyramid, the percentage of the population in age groups is shown on the X-axis. Whereas markings of age groups are shown on the Y-axis.
– The right side of the pyramid shows the female population and the left side shows the male population.
– As the age groups are on Y-axis, the base of the pyramid indicates the young age population, and apex of the pyramid indicates the old age population, and the middle portion of the pyramid indicated the adult population
– The population pyramid makes us understand age-wise and sex-wise population as per the following:
Broader the base, more young age population.
Narrower the baseless young age population.
Broader the apex, more old age population.
Narrower the apex, less old age population.
The Left and right side of the pyramid shows the male and female population in the country.
– When the old age population is more, it leads to a more non-working population and there is increased expenditure on medical and health facilities.
– When the younger age population is more, it also leads to a more non-working and dependent population. This causes a burden on the economy.
– When the adult age population is more, then the working population is more. This helps in the development of the country.
– There are three types of population pyramids that depict the birth rate and death rate.
Expansive pyramid- It has a broad base and narrow apex. It shows a high birth rate and a high death rate.
Constrictive pyramid- It has a narrow base and broad apex. It shows a low birth rate and low death rate,
Stationary pyramid- Here all age groups have the same percentage. It shows a very low birth rate and a very low death rate, which means the slow growth of the population in the country.
2.Explain the rural and urban population structure.
– The area where more people are engaged in primary activities is called a rural area and the people living in rural areas are called rural populations.
– The area where more people are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities is called urban areas and people living in the urban areas are called urban populations.
– There is a difference in density of population, age structure, sex ratio occupation structure standard of living, the lifestyle of people, sources of income, literacy rate, etc.
– There is a major difference in the level of economic development in rural and urban areas.
– There is more use of modern technology in urban areas compared to rural areas. Therefore, development in all fields is very fast.
– Due to more development of industries and infrastructure in urban areas there is an increase in the transportation and trade as compared to rural areas.
– The criteria to differentiate rural and urban population varies from one country to another country.
3. Examine the impact of migration on the population structure of a country.
– In migration people move from one place to another place for different reasons.
– The place from where people migrate outside is called the donor region.
– The place where people migrate to is called the recipient region,
– Due to the migration of people there are changes in age structure and sex ratio in both the regions.
– In the donor region due to the migration of young male population there is a disturbance in the age structure.
– More females remain in the donor area. So, the donor area has a high sex ratio. In India, there is a high sex ratio in rural areas due to the migration of people from rural to urban areas.
– In the donor region, there are changes in age structure as well.
– More old age people and children remain in the donor region which is a non-working/ non-productive population.
– There is a shortage of working population.
– In the recipient region male population increases due to the migration of males into the region.
– As a result, the sex ratio in the recipient region goes down. In many big cities of India sex ratio is less than 85% or 90%.
– In the recipient region the percentage of the working population increases.
– There is a more working population than the non-working population, which helps in the economic development of the region.