Chapter 10 – Indian Weavers.

20 Dec 2020 7:53 am

Chapter 10, Indian Weavers, english, hsc, maharashtra board, latest edition, full solution,

1.Artisans are also called craftsmen. They are creators of diverse goods and use their hands to create unique, functional, and also decorative items using traditional techniques. Now complete the web given below:


  1. Goldsmith
  2. Tailor
  3. Watchmaker
  4. Sculptor
  5. Potter
  6. Carpenter
  7. Mason

Discuss with your partner the season/occasion when we need:

1.woollen clothes


Woollen clothes are needed in the cold weather and/or during the winter to keep ourselves warm.

2.casual clothes


Casual clothes are worn for informal occasions such as outings and parties.

3.Rich silk clothes


Rich silk clothes are worn, especially by Indian women, at religious ceremonies and social gatherings such as wedding functions and poojas.

4.colourful, comfortable clothes


Colourful, comfortable clothes can be worn especially while at home and during travel.

1.Let’s play a game. The teacher will ask the students some questions. Students will understand that there are some exceptions to the general rules. Let’s start.

  1. One who weaves is a weaver.
  2. One who plays a game is a _______.
  3. One who sings is a _______.
  4. One who dances is a _______.
  5. One who teaches is a _______.
  6. One who cooks is a _______.


  1. One who weaves is a weaver.
  2. One who plays a game is a gamer.
  3. One who sings is a singer.
  4. One who dances is a dancer.
  5. One who teaches is a teacher.
  6. One who cooks is a cook.

2.We have often seen the picture of Gandhiji spinning on his charkha. Discuss the reasons behind this. One has been given for you.

  1. To give rural people an opportunity to earn their livelihood.
  2. _________________________
  3. _________________________
  4. _________________________


  1. To give rural people an opportunity to earn their livelihood.
  2. To instil the sense of swadeshi among the masses
  3. To make India self-dependent in producing cloth for its people
  4. To promote the cottage industry in the country.

3.Name some tools used by the weavers.

  1. Loom
  2. ________
  3. ________


Some tools used by the weavers are:

  1. Loom
  2. Weaving Comb
  3. Shed stick

4.Name some types of yarns used by the weavers.

  1. Linen
  2. ________
  3. ________
  4. ________


  1. Linen
  2. Rayon
  3. Polyester
  4. Wool

1.Discuss with your partner about the following vocation:



It is the process of forming a fabric by interlacing yarn on a handloom or a power-loom. The interlaces are known as wefts and warps.

2.Discuss with your partner about the following vocation:



It is the process of stitching garments from a fabric on a manual or an automatic tailoring machine.

3.Discuss with your partner about the following vocation:



It is the process by which yarn is handled or looped to create a textile or fabric. It is used to make many types of garments such as hosiery and woollen garments.

4.Discuss with your partner about the following vocation:



It is the art of decorating cloth by sewing patterns on it with thread. Many ornamental patterns can be created on simple fabrics with this art to make tablecloths, drapery, ethnic wear, etc.

1.Discuss the various products made by the weavers in the poem.


The weavers make three different products in the three stanzas of the poem:

  1. In the first stanza, they make vibrant blue-colored robes of a new-born child with the colour resembling the blue wings of the wild halcyon.
  2. In the second stanza, they make the marriage-veils of a queen in purple and green, with the colours resembling the plumes of a peacock.
  3. In the third stanza, they make a funeral shroud for a dead man. The shroud is white, like a feather and like a cloud.
    These products symbolize childhood, youth and old age, respectively.

2.The words in the three stanzas of the poem mention different times of the day. Complete the table.

Time of the dayWords/phrasesWeaver’s work
Early morningBreak of dayWeavers weave robes for the new-born child
Late in the evening  
Cold night  


Time of the dayWords/phrasesWeaver’s work
Early morningBreak of dayWeavers weave robes for the new-born child
Late in the eveningFall of nightWeavers weave marriage-veils of a queen.
Cold nightMidnight chillWeavers weave a dead man’s funeral shroud.

3.The poem reveals three phases of life. Fill in the blanks with feelings and colours appropriate to the phases of life. One is done for you.

 New-born/ ChildhoodYouth/ AdulthoodOld age/ death
FeelingHopes and expectations  


 New-born/ ChildhoodYouth/ AdulthoodOld age/ death
ColourBluePurple and GreenWhite
FeelingHopes and expectationsExcitement, JoyDejection, Lack of enthusiasm

4.Complete: The weavers weave in the chill moonlight _______.


The weavers weave in the chill moonlight, solemn and still, a shroud for a dead man.

5.Pick out two words used to describe the weavers in the last stanza. Also state their importance.


The two words that describe the weavers in the last stanza are ‘solemn’ and ‘still’. The words are used to describe the weavers who are weaving a funeral shroud for the dead man, in a sombre, silent, and compassionate state.

6.Express your views about the present condition of weavers.


The weavers in present times are not generally well-off. They face serious competition from the large textile mills that can produce garments at a faster and cheaper rate. Many of the weavers have altogether left the profession or are forced to work for meagre income in large factories that produce cloth on power-looms.

7.Describe in your own words the steps or measures that can be taken to solve the problems of the weavers.


The following steps can be taken to solve the problem of the weavers:

1. At government level, schemes should be introduced to protect the interests of weavers. They should be provided subsidies, just like farmers. For example, the government can provide them yarn at a discounted price or help them with easy loans to set up their own looms.

2. At individual level, we citizens can support the weavers by buying their products, even if they prove more expensive and less elegant than factory-made garments. We can keep a few weaver-made garments in our wardrobe to wear them at least on traditional occasions.

8.Express your own views and opinions from the weavers’ point of view and complete the following table.

StanzaActivity (done by weavers)Views/Opinion
First stanzaRobes for a new-born childThe weavers feel _____ because _____
Second stanza  
Third stanza  


StanzaActivity (done by weavers)Views/Opinion
First stanzaRobes for a new-born childThe weavers feel _____ because _____
Second stanzaMarriage-veils for a queenThe weavers feel happy and enthusiastic because they are weaving the marriage-veils of a queen, which is a merry occasion.
Third stanzaFuneral shroud of a dead manThe weavers feel sad and depressed because they are silently and seriously weaving the funeral shroud upon the death of a man, which is a sad occasion.

1.Pick out the rhyming words from the poem.


  1. day – gay
  2. wild – child
  3. night – bright
  4. green – queen
  5. still – chill
  6. shroud – cloud

2.Give antonyms and synonyms of the following and make sentences of your own.



newoldIt’s an old practice to observe fasting on religious festivals.novelCybercriminals always come up with novel ways to scam people
brightdullThe classroom appeared quite dull as four out of the two lights in the room were not working.colourfulMini wanted to wear a colourful costume for the dance competition.
deadaliveThe animal had been shot down but it was surprisingly still alive.deceasedThe family of the deceased was being consoled by the other relatives.
stillmobileThis truck is also a mobile hospital.stationaryAccording to laws of Physics, a stationary object carries potential energy.
wildtameThe tame animals in zoos have a longer lifespan than those in the jungles.feralDuring early stages of evolution, humans used to live in feral state, without any awareness of culture
fallriseThe rise of sun is a spectacle to watch from my balcony.declineThe covid-19 lockdown has led to a decline in employment in many countries of the world.
childadultIn India, anyone who is 18 years old or above is considered as an adult.infantA child aged 2 years or less is classified as an infant.

3.Make a word register for clothes/attire/dress.


Garment, outfit, grooming, sartorial, casuals, formals, traditional, ethnic, spun, satin, embroidered, denim, corduroy, twill, crepe.

1.Complete the following table.

Figure of SpeechLine


Figure of SpeechLine
Simile“Blue as the wing of a halcyon wild,”
ImageryLike the plumes of a peacock, purple and green,
Metaphor“Weavers, weaving at break of day,”
Alliteration“Why do you weave a garment so gay?……”

2.The rhyme scheme in the first stanza is ‘aabb’. Find rhyme schemes in the second and third stanzas.


StanzaRhyme Scheme

1.The poet has asked a question at the beginning of every stanza. Explain the effect it creates on the reader.


The questions at the beginning of each stanza are used by the poet to stir a sense of inquiry and wonderment in the reader’s mind. It gets the reader curious to know about the nature of the garment woven by the weaver and the reason behind weaving that garment at that particular time. The lines used to raise those questions also serve the purpose of adding the effect of alliteration as a figure of speech.

2.Write an appreciation of the poem ‘Indian Weavers’ by Sarojini Naidu. 

  1. About the poem/poet and the title
  2. The theme
  3. Poetic style
  4. The language/poetic devices used in the poem
  5. Special features
  6. Message, values, morals in the poem
  7. Your opinion about the poem


Appreciation of the poem ‘Indian Weavers’

‘Indian Weavers’ is a poem by the renowned poet, Sarojini Naidu.

The poem has been taken from the poet’s first volume poetry ‘The Golden Threshold’, published in 1905. It consists of three stanzas, or quatrains, with two rhyming couplets each. This poem is a metaphor for the three stages of human life – birth, youth and death. The poet depicts Indian weavers, who weave tirelessly at different times, while simultaneously describing the three stages of human life, from birth to death, just as the weavers weave from dawn tonight. The poet chooses three different time settings – the weavers weave the new-born baby’s garments in the early morning, the queen’s marriage-veils in the evening and the dead man’s shroud at midnight.

The central theme of the poem is the parallelism that the poet beautifully draws between the three parts of the weaver’s workday and the three stages of human life. The poem has been written in iambic tetrameter and its three stanzas follow the rhyme scheme of ‘aabb’, ‘ccdd’ and ‘eeff’ respectively.

The style used in the poem is simple and lucid, with each stanza beginning with a question to evoke the reader’s interest.

The poetic devices Alliteration, Consonance, Inversion, Metaphor, Repetition and smile have been employed to enhance the text’s poetic appeal. The use of Simile in ‘blue as the wing of a halcyon wild’, Metaphor in ‘break of day’ to compare it to ‘childhood’, Alliteration in repetitive consonant sounds of ‘we’ throughout the stanzas or ‘p’ in ‘purple peacock’, and repetition of the words ‘weavers’, weaving’ and ‘weave’ across the poem are the examples of these poetic devices. The poet has used vivid imagery in correlating the parts of the day to the stages of life. Almost every line of the poem contains imagery, which paints a picture in the readers’ minds about the ‘weavers weaving’, ‘blue-colored robe on a new-born baby’, ‘a queen wearing purple and green coloured marriage-veil’ and a ‘dead body covered with a white shroud’. The major use of symbolism in the poem is that the ‘threads’ of a person’s life are woven by ‘destiny’ or ‘Fates’, which is represented by the ‘weavers’ in this poem. It is the Fates who decide the time of birth, the length of youth and the time of death of a person. Thus, the contextual meaning of the poem may be the weavers weaving garments and a shroud for various occasions, but symbolically the poem represents the cycle of life and death with the threads of each stage being woven by the Fates.

The message being conveyed by the poem is that of the perpetual motion of life, where each stage, characterised by its unique emotions, lasts for a while before the next one comes along to take its place. I find this poem a good read as it is short poem which is packed with imagery.

I like the poem for the colour-scheme that the poet has chosen for the garments woven by the weaver according to the life-stage of the intended wearer.

3.Compose four lines on ‘Importance of clothes.’


‘Importance of Clothes’

Clothe and cloth, are they the same both?

No! No! Says the wise silk-moth,

The shirt that you wear is the clothe, and the yarn that I make, you

humans use to spin cloth.

And thence stitch up the clothe!

4.Write an appeal to use handloom products in our daily life.


Dear fellow citizens of the country, Let us adopt the clothes made by our country’s weavers. These are environment-friendly as they are usually woven on handlooms, which do not cause pollution. There is a certain rustic charm about a hand-woven fabric that makes the user or wearer feel proud of our country’s self-sufficiency in making clothes for its citizens. You have to wear such clothes only once to experience their beauty and comfort. I assume that all of you must have used handloom-made bed sheets or curtains of cotton in your houses at some time. Please recall how simple and elegant they look and enhance the aesthetic appeal of your home. Friends, please remember that preferring handloom products over western fabric is not just about making an ethnic statement but it also serves the social purpose of supporting the livelihoods of thousands of native weavers in our country, who are not doing financially well anymore. The governments can implement welfare schemes for them, but the ball ultimately falls in the courts of buyers like us. So let’s all unite for a cause and go Swadeshi!

5.Visit a handloom factory near your locality and write a report of it.


Kiran Handlooms – The Pride of Badlapur

Rahul Tripathi, Student Reporter

Mumbai, 20th May, 2020

The college had organized a visit to Kiran Handlooms in Badlapur on Thursday, 14th May. Students from Std. XI and XII were taken on a tour of the factory to witness the creation of hand-woven fabrics and to understand the importance of the weavers in today’s mechanized world.

Kiran Handlooms was established in the year 1977. Owned by the Hirachand, this unit is spread over a sprawling 5 acres. It has two manufacturing units and a well-maintained storehouse. The older unit housed about 50 traditional handloom kaarigars who were busy creating beautiful weaves on the weaving table. The students also got the chance to witness the processes of thread dyeing and warping. The processes of sizing, attaching the warp, weft winding, and weaving were also explained to the students by the manager of the loom. The adjacent unit had a state-of-the-art facility, where all of these activities were automated on systems, so as to reduce the workload on the workers. The students were able to purchase the end products, which were readily available for sale at a small retail counter adjacent to the store house. The visit served its purpose of making the students aware of the essential role played by weavers in the country’s production of high-quality fabrics.

6.A handicraft exhibition is being organized in your college. You are given the task to compere the inaugural function. Write the script for compering.



A very good morning to everyone present here at this function today. On behalf M.G.J.I College, I welcome you all to ‘Hastashilp Mela’. This exhibition was envisioned by our founder chairman Mr. Guru Dutta in the late-eighties and has been our much-awaited annual event ever since. Today marks the beginning of this wonder-filled 4-day exhibition of handicrafts from all over the country. Like each year, this event is brimming with the Swadeshi spirit. Let us seek the divine blessings by the symbolic lighting of the lamp.

Lighting of the lamp

I now invite on stage our distinguished guest for today, Mr. Kedar Ghosh (Chairman of the Education Council of Delhi) to light the lamp as we seek the blessings God.

Thank you, Mr. Ghosh.

About the event

India is known for its ethnicity. We pride ourselves in being one of the most culturally rich countries in the world. India is also immensely fortunate to possess some highly skilled artisans across the length and breadth of the nation. They are the ones who have established the legacy of Indian handicrafts and popularised it around the globe. Many rural people still earn their livelihood from their creative pieces of art. It is with this vision to encourage these true sons of the soil that our founder chairman, Mr. Guru Dutta had conceptualized this event all those years ago. Today we, the students of M.G.J.I College, proudly take this opportunity to nurture his evergreen dream! 

I would like to request the students of Std. XII to kick off this beautiful shilpmela with a dance native to the state of Maharashtra.

Wow! That was indeed a splendid performance!

Before I take your leave, I would like to thank all of you for your presence today and hope that you all will enjoy the exhibition as much as we enjoyed putting it together!

1.Go to your college library and collect and read the poems written by Sarojini Naidu.


The students can read the following poems by Sarojini Naidu:

  • A Love Song from the North
  • A Rajput Love Song
  • Alabaster
  • An Indian Love Song
  • Autumn Song

2.Find various career opportunities in Small-scale Industries like Handloom, Art and Craft, Block Printing, etc.


The students can gather information on the following career opportunities, among others, in Small Scale Industries:

  1. Repair and maintenance of household goods
  2. Pottery making
  3. Household detergents making plants
  4. Agricultural food processing units 
  5. Specialised furniture making
  6. Garment manufacturing

3.Find out information about the Mahavastra of Maharashtra – Paithani.


The students can add following information to their own findings: A Paithani is essentially a gold and silk sari of Maharashtrian origin. It is named after the Paithan town in the city of Aurangabad, Maharashtra, where the saree was first handmade. In the present day, Yeola town in Nashik is the largest manufacturer of Paithani. Made from a very fine silk, this type of saree is considered one of the most expensive sarees in India. Paithani is characterised by borders of a square design, and a pallu with peacock, plain as well as spotted designs. Also, a kaleidoscopic effect is achieved by using one colour for weaving lengthwise and another for weaving width wise.



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