16 Nov 2020 2:10 pm
Question 1:Complete the table.(Motor accident, landsliding, forest fire, theft, riot, war, epidemic, drought, locust attack, financial crisis, flood, famine)
|Rash driving, drink and drive, ignorance to safety rules||Loss of life, loss of pro|
|Following traffic rules, avoid driving if tipsy|
|Land sliding||New cracks or bulges in the ground, street or sidewalks, sunken road beds||Loss of property, loss of life, adverse impact on environment||Give help to clear debris, call an ambulance to send victims to hospitals|
|Forest fire||Lightning, human activities involving smoke and fire near forests areas||Impact on environment, loss of lives of animals||Call fire brigade, give first aid to animals which survived the burns|
|Theft||Sheer carelessness towards property and wealth||Tension and loss of property||Informing police, giving emotional support|
|Riot||Opinion differences, political in|
|Loss of life and pro|
|Give shelter to innocent victims, provide food and clothing and first-aid to the victims|
|War||Transgressing, opinion differences bet|
|Loss of life and pro|
perty, Impact on the country and its eco
|Give shelter to inno|
cent victims, provide food, clothing and first-aid to the victims
|Epidemic||Spreading of viruses from differ|
|Loss of life, health risks, impact on environment||Give proper medication to people, preparing anti|
dotes against epide
|Drought||No rainfall for long duration||Food and water crisis, loss of life||Donate food and water for victims, provide shelter and monetary help|
|Locust attack||Leaf distortion, chlorosis, yellow to brown spots, premature leaf drop||Crop destruction, scarcity in food||Spraying pesticides|
|Financial crisis||Bankrupt, loss in business or services in individual case||Impact on the country and its economy, impact on individual||Giving support to friends and family, asking support from other countries when crises happens in a country|
|Flood||Cloudburst, heavy rainfall||Health risks, loss of property, food and water crisis, loss of life||Donate food and clothing for flood victims, stay at some height if possible|
|Famine||Heavy rainfall, drought||Food and water crisis, displacement of people, loss of life||Donate food and water for victims, provide shelter and monetary help|
a. Disaster management Authority
b. Nature of disaster management
c. Mock drill
d. Disaster Management Act, 2005
a. Disaster Management Authority has the responsibility of making the policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management to ensure timely and effective response to disasters. This authority has been established at the level of government. Following flow chart indicates the function of control and coordination under the disaster management from national to village level. Disaster Management Act, 2005 has been passed in our country.
b. Disaster management is the strategy and course of action to be executed at the time of any such disaster to save as much life as possible. It can be divided into two parts:
Pre-disaster Management:Pre-disaster management phase is concerned with the complete preparation and planning in order to enable us to face any kind of situation.The first step includes identifying the pro-disaster areas.The second step includes collecting information about intensity of disaster and probable sites of disasters using predictive intensity maps and hazard maps.Next step is to get training for disaster management.Another important aspect of pre-disaster management is spreading awareness among the common people through various awareness programmes.
Post-disaster Management:Post-disaster management is concerned with the situation that arise after a disaster has occurred. It includes the following components:The primary concern is to provide help to victims preferably with the participation of local people.Establishment of help centres to provide all kind of possible help required by the people.Categorisation of help materials that are received from the help centres and distributing them efficiently to the people affected by the disaster.
c. Mock drills are a way of checking the preparedness of facing a disaster.
During mock drills, an apparent situation is created to check the reaction time and the type of response.
Mock drills are carried out in schools, offices, public places, etc.
for situations like fire accidents, terrorist attack, etc.
It received approval from the President of India on 9 January 2006.
This act has 11 chapters and 79 sections. The act extends to the whole of India.
This act called for the formation of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) with prime minister of India as its chairperson.
The Act under Section 8 encouraged the central government to constitute a National Executive Committee (NEC) to assist the National Authority.
All State Governments are mandated under Section 14 of the act to establish a State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA).
Section 42 of the act calls for establishing a National Institute of Disaster Management.
Answer the following questions.
a. Explain the role of district disaster control unit after occurrence of any disaster.
b. Give the reasons for increase in human disasters after the World War-II.
c. Which are the objectives of disaster management?
d. Why is it essential to get the training of first aid?
e. Which different methods are used for transportation of patients? Why?
a. District control unit is formed either after the impact of disaster or getting intimation about it. It analyse about various aspects of disaster, keeps continuous contact with various agencies like army, air force, navy, telecommunication department, paramilitary forces, etc. for getting help. It is also responsible for coordinating with various voluntary organizations for their help in disaster management.
b. After World War-II, there has been a vast advancement in technology.
This has led to tremendous increase in human disasters.
For example, the advancement in nuclear energy field has led to setting up of various nuclear power plants.
The radiations via these power plants are affecting the environment as well as living beings.
Also, the set up of various oil factories near the seas are affecting aquatic life.
After the World War-II, the number in motor vehicles have increased exponentially.
Due to this, motor accidents have become very frequent these days.
Other reasons of increasing human disasters are oil spills, nuclear meltdown, terrorism, biological warfare, etc.
c. The objectives of disaster management are as follows:
Improving tolerancePreventing losses and dangersProviding relief to the affected people Preparing for actions to be taken at the time of disasterAssessing the damage caused Arrangement of rescue for the affected Rehabilitation and rebuilding the affected aread.
d. It is essential to get the training of first aid because of the following reasons:
It enables the person to use appropriate precautionary methods to save lives during emergency.
It enables the person to give primary help and medications to victims before actual medication.
It enables the person to prevent further damage to victims.
It enables the person to be relaxed and calm during critical situations.
It enables the person to give comfort and care to the victim.
e. In emergency condition, different methods are used for transportation of patients.
The methods to be adopted depends on the condition of the patient.
Following are the various condition to be adopted while transporting patients:
Cradle method: useful for children and under-weight victims.
Carrying piggy back: useful for carrying patients who are unconscious.
Carrying on two hands chair: useful for those patients who cannot use their hands but can hold their body upright.
Pulling or lifting method: useful for carrying an unconscious patient through a short distance.
Carrying on four-hand chair: useful when support is needed for the part below the waist.
On the basis of the structure of disaster management authority, form the same for your school.
It is an activity based question. Kindly do it yourself.
Write down the reasons, effects and remedial measures taken for any two disasters experienced by you.
Note: The disaster experienced can vary from person to person.
Two disasters experienced are:
(i) Motor accident:
Reason: rash driving and ignorance to safety rules
Effects: Injuries to oneself and family as well as damage to property.
Remedial measures: Giving emotional support to victims, calling ambulance and taking the victims to hospital
Reason: sheer carelessness towards property and wealth.
Effects: loss of life and property.
Remedial measures: Giving emotional support to victims, calling police to register the case
Which different aspects of disaster management would you check for your school? Why?
Following are the main aspects of disaster management:
Preparation: A plan is created to minimise the damage if a disaster occurs.
Redemption: It is the plan to minimise the damage to the society and country.
Preparedness: A plan is chalked out to get quick response from public and administration.
Impact of disaster: Intensity of disaster and disaster management are reviewed.
Response: This stage deals with providing immediate response after an incident has occurred.
Resurgence: It is an important link between emergency measures and national progress. It includes the steps which are required for the welfare and rehabilitation of the nation.
Restoration: It is an important link between measures after disaster and national development. It includes steps useful for progress ofnation and rehabilitation.Do a survey of your school and find out which aspects of disaster management are needed to be checked for your school.
Identify the type of disaster.a. Terrorismb. Soil erosionc. Hepatitisd. Forest firee. Faminef. Theft
a. Terrorism: Man-made
b. Soil erosion: Man-made as well as natural
c. Hepatitis: Natural
d. Forest fire: Man-made as well as natural
e. Famine: Natural as well as man-made
f. Theft: Man-made
Some symbols are given below. Explain those symbols. Which disasters may occur if those symbols are ignored?
These symbols come under globally harmonised system (GHS) adopted by UN for labelling and classification of chemicals.
(i) This symbol is used for hazardous products which causes less severe health effects. This symbol indicates that the product has acute toxicity, can cause skin and eye irritation, can be hazardous to ozone layer, can affect respiratory organs as well as has narcotic effects. If this symbol is ignored, then health issues as mentioned above can arise as well as can impact the environment.
(ii) These are used for products which have deathly effects on exposure to small amount of it. This symbol indicates that the product has acute oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity. It would prove fatal if the product with this symbol is swallowed or inhaled.
(iii) This symbol is used to represent that the product is hazardous to aquatic life. If these products are spilled in oceans or seas, then it can have fatal and long lasting effects on aquatic organisms.
(iv) This symbol indicates that the product can cause serious health effects. The product with this symbol can cause respiratory sensitivity, skin toxicity, germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, aspiration hazard, specific target organ toxicity after single exposure or repeated exposure.
(v) This symbol is used to indicate that the product is capable of corroding metals and cause irritation to eyes and skin. The product with this symbol can also cause severe burns to skin as well as damage the eye.
(vi) This symbol represents that the product is good oxidising liquids or solids. The product having this symbol can cause fire or explosions or can even intensify fire.
(vii) This symbol represents flammable gases, aerosols, liquids and solids; pyrophoric liquids, gases and solids, self-reactive substance or mixtures, organic peroxides. The product having this symbol can cause fire on heating.
(viii) This symbol represents that the product is an unstable explosive or it is a self-reactive substance or mixtures. This symbol is also placed on labels of organic peroxides. The product having this symbol can cause explosions on heating.
(ix) This symbol is used to represent the hazard of gases under pressure such as dissolved gas, liquefied gas, compresses gas or refrigerated liquefied gas. The product having this symbol may explode on heating as well as may cause cryogenic burns and injuries.
Explain why it is said like that?A] Mock drill is usefulB] Effective disaster management makes us well prepared for the future.
A. It is very correct to say that mock drills are very important and useful.
These drills should be conducted at every workplace, schools, public places etc.
These drills ensure a way of checking the preparedness of facing a disaster.
Through mock drills, we can evaluate the response or reaction time to a disasterwe can identify our own abilitiescoordination between various departments of disaster control can be improvedwe can check the competency of the planned actionswe can identify the possible errors and risks
B. We know that disasters are sudden and unplanned and thus can’t be avoided in most cases.
But if effective disaster management is employed and exercised, then we would certainly achieve the abilities to face the adverse effects of disasters.
Hence, through effective disaster management, we actually make ourselves prepared for future.
Through effective disaster management, we can supply essential commodities to the people after or before disasterwe can arrange rescue for the affectedwe can rehabilitate and rebuild the affected area in short span of timewe can minimise losses of life and propertywe can build tools to assess the damaged cause.
(a) Pre-disaster management: Avoid drinking cold water and eating ice-creams.
Post-disaster management:Visit a doctorTake proper medication and restAvoid going to public places.
(b) Pre-disaster management: Discussing the problem with eldersTrying to settle the dispute verbally.
Post-disaster management:Identifying any serious injuries occurred to oneself or the counterpart. Getting proper medication for the sameApologizing to each other.
(c) Pre-disaster management: Keep an emergency kit. This kit should consist of portable lights, medicines etc.Keep extra dry food and portable waterMove to higher floors if possibleSwitch off all the electrical appliances.
Post-disaster management:Avoid going to water flooded areas as there are chances of harmful insects being present there Check for the casualties aroundHelp the victims in need.
(d) Pre-disaster management: Keep an emergency kit. This kit should consist of portable lights, medicines etc.Keep extra dry food and portable waterMove to locations which are less prone to cyclonesSwitch off all the electrical appliances.
Post-disaster management:Clearing the debris left behind the cycloneHelp the victims in need check for the ruptures or cracks on the wall of house.